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Microtubules in Medical News

Research in the Origin of Microtubules

Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center reveal a surprising new origin for cellular "highways .They report that the Golgi apparatus -- a stack of pancake-shaped compartments that sorts and ships proteins out to their cellular destinations -- is the source of a particular subset of thes...

Motor proteins may be vehicles for drug delivery

...eight train at the molecular level," said William Hancock, associate professor of bioengineering, Penn State. "And it runs on cylindrical tracks -- or microtubules -- made of many protein subunits meshed together into a long polymer that is one ten thousandth the diameter of hair." Hancock and his colleagues a...

Molecule tracking reveals mechanism of chromosome separation in dividing cells

...ooks like a tiny wool-spinner with thin strands of microtubules or spindle fibers sticking out. The lengthening and shortening of microtubules is thought to help push and pull apart chromosome ...in attachment. They emit a "wait" signal until the microtubules properly attach." Careful control over microtubule...

Tau protein expression predicts breast cancer survival -- though not as expected

...clitaxel. Other studies suggested that high levels of Tau partially protect microtubules from paclitaxel binding and that low levels of the protein leave microtubules more accessible and vulnerable to the drug. "If you treat patients who h...

Appealing the death sentence for brain cells

...likened to a derailed train, says Prof. Gozes. The nerve cell skeleton the microtubules are like the rails, and a protein called "tau" functions like the ties bet...rating. AL-108, which could be ready in as early as 5 years, targets the microtubules and protects against amyloid plaques a characteristic of Alzheimer's disea...

Mitosis gets harder thanks to new gene discovery

...own that the protein is essential for building the microtubules that allow the two halves of the cell to slide apa... DNA are pulled apart in two halves by an array of microtubules centred on the centrosomes, said Dr Chalmers. Without the RASSF7 protein, the microtubules do not develop properly and cell division is halte...

Key factor in brain development revealed, offers insight into disorder

...e orientation of the cells mitotic spindles -- the microtubules that draw the two sets of chromosomes into positio...xed position and, like a molecular hook, pulls the microtubules that emanate from the middle of the cell toward it. Just like a pulley, dynein draws the microtubules through it and that, in turn, rotates the spindle,...

Alzheimer's molecule is a smart speed bump on the nerve-cell transport highway

...uired for moving other proteins from the nerve-cell synapse back to the cell body, which is also required to maintain healthy neurons. In neurons, microtubules are abundantly decorated with tau. Dynein and kinesin encounter the tau molecules on their travels along the microtubules. The Penn group found that d...

Protein-dependent 'switch' regulates intracellular trafficking in epithelial cells

...tudy, Dr. Kreitzer's team focused on four different cell membrane proteins. They knew these proteins were destined to be packed up and transported via microtubules to key spots on the surface of the epithelial cell. "We knew kinesins played a role in all that -- but did it matter which kinesin"" Dr. Kreitzer s...

Extracellular protein sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy

...axel (Taxol), interfere with the dynamic growth of microtubules by directly binding to them and making them more s...ane resistance is associated with a loss of stable microtubules and that microtubule stability can be influenced b...d. To explore the connection between regulation of microtubules and taxane resistance, Dr. James D. Brenton from t...
Microtubules in Medical Technology

Kosan Initiates Phase 2 Trial of Epothilone KOS-1584 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

...-1584 is a member of a class of cytotoxic macrolides (epothilones) capable of causing mitotic arrest by polymerization of cellular microtubules. Since microtubules are essential for mitosis, motility, secretion and proliferation, the observed antitumor effects of epothilones have been attributed to their ability ...

ZIOPHARM Presents Unique Mechanism Data for Indibulin at AACR

...es not bind to neuronal specific tubulin and does not disrupt normal axonal microtubules in vitro, likely accounting for the difference with regard to neurotoxicity...ulin, like the taxanes and vinca alkaloids, interferes with the function of microtubules by binding to their building blocks, tubulin. However, the specific tubulin...

EntreMed Presents Multi-Mechanism Antitumor Data for ENMD-1420 in Preclinical Models

... Microtubules are necessary for cell division (mitosis), cell structure, transport, signaling and motility. Given their primary role in cell division, microtubules have been an important target for anticancer drugs -- often referred to as tubulin inhibitors or microtubule targeting agents. These compounds bind to...

Myriad Genetics Presents Azixa's Mode of Action at AACR

... to inhibit tumor growth. It is believed that Azixa selectively disrupts tumor vasculature by inhibiting the formation of microtubules. Tumors rely on microtubules to maintain the cytoskeletal structure of their new vasculature, whereas mature vascular endothelium of healthy tissue uses actin filaments to provide...
Microtubules in Medical Products

TAXUS Express2 Monorail Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System

Features:...ive Drug The unique properties of paclitaxel may contribute to the efficacy of the TAXUS Stent. Paclitaxel's multi-functional effects, stabilize microtubules and inhibit activities that contribute to restenosis. Paclitaxel is highly lipophilic, which may contribute to more uniform drug distribution. A...
Company:Boston Scientific Corporation

TAXUS Express2 Over-the-wire Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System

Features:...ve Drug The unique properties of paclitaxel may contribute to the efficacy of the TAXUS Stent. Paclitaxel's multi-functional effects, stabilize microtubules and inhibit activities that contribute to restenosis. Paclitaxel is highly lipophilic, which may contribute to more uniform drug distribution. A...
Company:Boston Scientific Corporation
Microtubules in Medical Dictionary

Vesicle

...ficked to the synapse using ... The mechanism of GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in response to insulin is not understood. ... Vesicle binding to microtubules was not mediated through direct binding ... The Alzheimer Research Forum, a dynamic online scientific knowledge base, reports on the latest Alzhei...

Cilia

...The primary purpose of cilia in mammalian cells is to move fluid, mucous, or ... Cilia and flagella move because of the interactions of a set of microtubules inside. ... This book is concerned with the progression from molecules to multicellular organisms. ... Cilia and Centrioles 27 Introduction Cili...
Microtubules in Biological News

The downside of microtubule stability

... Stalled microtubules might be responsible for some cases of the neurolo...ology ( www.jcb.org ). A mutant protein makes the microtubules too stable to perform their jobs, the researchers ...d how defective dynamin 2 hampers cells. Normal microtubules are continually extending and shrinking. But...

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

...rescent version of tubulin, the protein from which microtubules are built. Using advanced imaging techniques, they...tion between the cellulose synthase complexes and microtubules begins. The scientists were able to watch individu...ll, but is inside the cell wall and found that the microtubules not only guide where the complexes go as they buil...

Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division

...r ejection forces are thought to arise out of the interaction between protein motors on the arms of chromosomes that push against cells' microtubules. microtubules are long, thin tubes that form a central component of the cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle. They serve as intracellular structural supports and as...

Scientists deconstruct cell division

...quires the assembly of a 'skeleton' from tube-like microtubules and the construction of a poorly defined scaffold ...le matrix. Nudel binds to lamin-B and brings it to microtubules where both Nudel and dynein then help the lamin-B ...n-B-containing spindle matrix, in turn, works with microtubules to orchestrate spindle assembly and cell division....

Cell 'anchors' required to prevent muscular dystrophy

...the site where they are made to their specific destination. Ankyrin B helps microtubules align so dystrophin molecules can travel to the membrane and then ankyrin G...e, Bennett explained. "I'm excited because ankyrin-B's ability to anchor microtubules could have broad implications in many cell types," Bennett said. ...

Mayo Clinic: Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases

...D., professor of neurology at Mayo Clinic. Molecules, vesicles and organelles within a cell are constantly carried via a network of crisscrossing microtubules that act like the tracks of an elaborate railroad system. Because, for the most part, neurons do not regenerate or divide as do other cells in the bod...

Dartmouth researchers find new protein function

...the study. "Rather than moving on its own, it hitches a ride on the ends of microtubules which results in a dynamic cross-linking between the arms of chromosomes an... motors either walked along their microtubule tracks or functioned to break microtubules apart," says Jon Kull, the senior author on the paper, associate professor ...

Penn scientists discover cells reorganize shape to fit the situation

...icrotubules, actin filaments, the cell membrane, and two protein complexes. microtubules are hollow protein pipes that arrange themselves in bundles down the long a...ney Terenna, found was that if normal yeast cells are forced to bend, their microtubules can no longer reach the old tip of the cell and so form new growth tips. Co...

Scientists identify a molecule that coordinates the movement of cells

... edge," Fuchs explains. "We found that ACF7 guides microtubules along a roadway of actin cables and leads them tow...ell's periphery. Among the cargo transported along microtubules are factors that disassemble focal adhesions. Henc...Professor at Rockefeller, found that without ACF7, microtubules were no longer guided toward the focal adhesions i...

MIT IDs proteins key to brain function

...rol the growth of filopodia by regulating actin filaments interactions with microtubules in the cell (which form part of the cell skeleton). One theory is that the microtubules might be delivering materials or sending signals to the filopodia through t...
Microtubules in Biological Technology

Taxol bristle ball: a wrench in the works for cancer

...s of chemotherapy," Zubarev said. "In addition, we'd like to improve the effectiveness of the drug, perhaps by increasing its ability to stay bound to microtubules within the cell." Zubarev's new delivery system centers on a tiny ball of gold that's barely wider than a strand of DNA. Finding a chemical process...

A Screen of shRNAs Targeting Tumor Suppressor Genes to Identify Factors Involved in Paclitaxel Sensitivity

...ne potential treatment for lung carcinoma is paclitaxel. This anti-cancer agent (produced by Bristol-Meyers Oncology) functions by stabilization of microtubules so they cannot depolymerize. It effectively shifts the equilibrium in cells towards microtubule assembly, disrupting the normal operation of the mic...

Assessing Gene Function with siRNA Libraries

... well-studied spindle assembly checkpoint, which monitors the correct, functional interactions between spindle microtubules and kinetochores in preparation for metaphase and subsequent anaphase onset. A second kinase siRNA that also...
Microtubules in Biological Products

Mouse Anti-MAP1 Light Chain Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone E12 from GeneTex

Description:... Mouse monoclonal [E12] to MAP1 Light Chain MAP1A and MAP1B are microtubule-associated proteins which mediate the physical interactions between microtubules and components of the cytoskeleton. MAP1A and MAP1B each consist of a heavy chain subunit and multiple light chain subunits. The protein encoded by th...
Company:GeneTex
Microtubules in Biological Definition

Actin

... subunits (a microfilament), is called F-actin. The microfilaments are the thickest of the cytoskeleton, with only 7 nm in diameter . Much like the microtubules , actin filaments are polar, with the plus (+) end elongating approximately 10 times faster than the minus (-) end. The process of actin polymerizati...

Anaphase

...these fibres are sometimes referred to as spindle microtubules . Other spindle fibres do not contact the chromoso...ubules) or with the cell cortex; these are astral microtubules . Anaphase begins abruptly with the highly-regul...ted anaphase B begins. This involves the overlap microtubules elongating and sliding relative to each other to d...

Centriole

...t animal cells , and cells of fungi and algae though not frequently in plants . The walls of each centriole are composed of nine triplets of microtubules , each arranged at a right angle such that when looking down the tube, one end of the triplet pair points slightly outwards and the other end points s...

Centrosome

...g point of a centriole , an organelle , is the portion of a cell where microtubules are manufactured. Its structure, since it acts as a nexus for cell activi...site poles of the cell. Between them is formed the spindle , a bundle of microtubules that will function later as the foundation for cell division. Interesting...

Chromosome

...oint where the two chromatids touch, and where the microtubules attach. (3) Short arm. (4) Long arm. A chromo... a chromosome, linked at the centromere . Long microtubules are attached at the centromere and two opposite ends of the cell. During mitosis, the microtubules pull the chromatids apart, so that each daughter c...

Colchicine

...3,10-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo[ a ]heptalen-7-yl)acetamide] . It inhibits the cytoskeleton by binding to tubulin , one of the main constituents of microtubules . Apart from inhibiting mitosis , a process heavily dependent on cytoskeletal changes, it also inhibits neutrophil motility and activity, leading t...

Cytoplasm

...ances indispensable to life. Vital metabolic reactions take place here, for example anaerobic glycolysis and proteic synthesis . See also : microtubules , vesicle ...

Cytoskeleton

...tin Filaments 1.2 Intermediate Filaments 1.3 microtubules 2 The prokaryotic cytoskeleton 2.1 ... structural support to the nuclear envelope. microtubules Main article: microtubules They are hollow cylinders of about 25 nm., for...

Cytosol

...es, but is highly organized on the molecular level. The cytosol also contains the cytoskeleton . This is made of fibrous proteins ( microfilaments , microtubules , and intermediate filaments ) and (in many organisms) maintains the shape of the cell, anchors organelles, and controls internal movement of structu...

Dynein

... Dyneins can be divided into two groups: cytoplasmic dynein and axonemal dynein. The axonemal dynein acts to activate a sliding within flagellar microtubules , whereas the cytoplasmic dynein is implicated in moving toward the negative end of a microtubule. See also: Kinesin External links ...
Microtubules in Biological Dictionary

Microtubules

Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. They have a diameter of 25 nm and length varying from 200 nanometers to 25 micrometers. Microtubules serve as structural components within cells and are involved in... These straight, hollow cylinders, composed of tubulin protei...

Tubulin

...amily of globular proteins. ... tubulin The constituent protein of microtubules of cells which provide a skeleton for maintaining cell shape and is ... extent of polymerisation into microtubules, tubulin requires GTP. ... microtubules are polymers of tubulin , a dimer of two 55-kDa subunits, designated ......

Telophase

...e II, ... Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase . Interphase ... During telophase , vesicles from the Golgi apparatus move along microtubules to ... ...

Spindle Fibers

...wn out, the spindle is given another twirl, the ... These clusters of microtubules are called spindle fibers . ... The overlapping spindle fibers move...fibers or spindles, the cell cannot divide and will eventually die. ... microtubules that makeup spindle fibers are formed by long ... In this way the...

Prometaphase

...e of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase, in eukaryotic somatic cells. The nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears. microtubules emerging from the centrosomes at the poles (ends) of the spindle reach the chromosomes,... ... stages are prophase, prometaphase , metaphase, ...

Mitotic spindle

... of proteins that segregates ... to which mitotic spindle protein functions and regulation are integrated with ... ... Subito localized to microtubules at the center of the mitotic spindle , probably ... with a function in mitotic spindle assembly, possibly involving the ... ... of a comple...

Kinetochore

...e of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase, in eukaryotic somatic cells. The nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears. microtubules emerging from the centrosomes at the poles (ends) of the spindle reach the chromosomes,... Keywords - chromatin component, assembles the kinetoc...

Dynein

... energy contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement. Dynein transports various cellular cargo by "walking" along cytoskeletal microtubules towards the... Dynein , light chain, Tctex-type 3, also known as DYNLT3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DYNLT3 gene. One can...

Dendrites

...maries, research information, and more. ... Don't Grow Dendrites : 20 Instructional Strategies ... Dendrites contain numerous orderly arrays of microtubules and fewer neurofilaments (see below) ... View a light-microscopic slide of a dendrite with spines ... Although the brain's axons and dendrites ...

Cytoskeleton

...d daily ... Virtual Biology : Cytoskeleton . Are microtubules the 'nerves' of ... The eukaryotic cytoskelet...his page. Actin Filaments. Intermediate Filaments. microtubules ... The cytoskeleton is made up of three kinds o...e microfilament cytoskeleton , the dynamics of microtubules can be ... ...
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