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hippocampus in Medical News

Scientists Track Impact of DNA Damage in the Developing Brain

...rmal gene expression and neuronal function. Some neurons were eventually replaced by scar tissue in a process known as gliosis. Overall changes in the hippocampus mimicked those found in the brains of adults with the seizure disorder known as temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study, the loss of Xrcc1 also resulted...

Famous Names Get Single Neurons Fired Up

...ernational team of researchers has found that single neurons in the brain's hippocampus activate when people recognize a photo or name, even if the image or name i...ned to an electronic voice saying "Oprah." A single neuron activated in the hippocampus during the Oprah experiment, while a different neuron fired when the subjec...

Brain Imaging (MRI/PET) and Measurements of Proteins in Spinal Fluid May Improve Alzheimer's Prediction and Diagnosis

...n results from MRI volume measurements of the left hippocampus - a brain region closely linked to memory and Alzh...cy, but the model including only memory tests plus hippocampus was the most robust predictor set. "Our r...ple prediction model, including the combination of hippocampus volume measured by MRI with memory tests, may be a...

Memory test and PET scans detect early signs of Alzheimer's

...ucose metabolism were the two markers that clearly stood out over the others." The researchers pointed out that other measurements - in particular, hippocampus volume and the cerebrospinal fluid markers - also showed promise in predicting disease progression. However, when considering all the measurements tog...

AlphaRx and Gaia BioPharma Report Positive Efficacy Results in a Pre-Clinical Trial of GAI-122 Injectable Nano-emulsion for Post-operative Delirium

...ation, cerebral ischemia or lesions in the basal forebrain, the area of origin of the acetylcholine neuron system projecting into the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In clinical tests, an oral form of GAI-122 has been shown to be effective in psychological deficits such as a decline in memory retentio...

Measuring brain atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment

...t these early changes especially shrinking of the hippocampus may offer a robust biological marker for change."...nd dementia. Patients with smaller volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala showed more rapid clinical decline on...se tests. "These values objectively measure the hippocampus and amydala, and early data confirm previous findi...

Study Links Cancerous Tumors With Depression

...n in the hippocampus, the portion of the brain that regulates emotion. Rats with tumors had increased levels of cytokines in their blood and in the hippocampus when compared with healthy rats. Previous research has linked high levels of cytokines, which are produced by the immune system, to depression. The...

How to build a bigger brain

.... Specifically, meditators showed significantly larger volumes of the hippocampus and areas within the orbito-frontal cortex, the thalamus and the inferior t...in meditators compared with controls, including larger volumes of the right hippocampus and increased gray matter in the right orbito-frontal cortex, the right tha...

UT Southwestern researchers reveal how the brain processes important information

...ne, director of the National Clozapine Coordinating Center at the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and his research team isolated slices of the hippocampus region of the animals' brains and then electrically stimulated the cells. To simulate what happens in the brain in response to a memory-worthy event, ...

Study finds how brain remembers single events

...It is well known that a brain structure called the hippocampus is critical to memory and learning, but many quest...tudy, Guzowski set out to learn how neurons in the hippocampus react to single events particularly in the CA3 re...isease," Guzowski says. "If you understand how the hippocampus works, it is much easier to understand and potenti...
hippocampus in Medical Technology

Unlikely Treatment Identified by BrainCells Neurogenesis Platform Improved Clinical Outcomes in Patients Suffering From Depression

...nstitute of Mental Health and the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Neurogenesis is the process by which pre-existing stem cells in the hippocampus of the adult brain produce new brain cells, including neurons. "Our study results provide the first prospective clinical validation of neuroge...

Four Alzheimer's Clinical Trials Address a Variety of Treatment Targets - Amyloid, Tau, Synapse Formation

...CBF decline that was seen in control subjects. The effect was greatest in brain regions that had the most severe tau aggregation pathology, namely the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex, which are regions affected early and most severely in Alzheimer's. "This is the first instance of a disease-modifying Alz...

Brain Stem Cells Can Be Awakened, Say Schepens Scientists

... brain tissue -- the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). The hippocampus... of the areas known to generate new neurons in the hippocampus with other parts of the brain, the team discovered that astrocytes in the hippocampus were sending one signal to the stem cells and that...

How Big Is Your Brain? Its Size May Protect You from Memory Loss

...60th Annual Meeting in Chicago, April 12 - April 19, 2008. "This larger hippocampus may protect these people from the effects of Alzheimer's disease-related br...h Alzheimer's disease before death. Researchers found the volume of the hippocampus part of the brain was 20 percent greater in the cognitively intact group co...

KineMed Presents Preclinical Data for Investigational Agent Demonstrating Neurogenesis and Confirming Improvements in Behavioral Model

...According to presenter Scott Turner, Ph.D., Vice President, Research at KineMed, "The KineMed team set out to demonstrate regenerative capacity in the hippocampus because all known anti-depressants stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis, and an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis correlates with improved learning a...

Researchers Report First Successful Treatment of Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

...re able to show in Brain Research that they could improve cognition (spatial learning and memory) while increasing blood vessel density in the damaged hippocampus of the rats. The potential application to chronic human TBI is important because there is currently no treatment. Chronic TBI affects over 5 million ...
hippocampus in Medical Definition

Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition

...l, 1992), one working with pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and another working with Purkinje cells in the c... neurons, such as the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus or the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Activatio...n their experiments with projection neurons in the hippocampus and cerebellum, both groups noticed that a train o...

Episodic memory

...ial temporal lobe , a structure that includes the hippocampus . Without the medial temporal lobe, one is able to...er the events during which they happened. See the hippocampus and memory . The prefrontal cortex (and in par...bout how long episodic memories are stored in the hippocampus . Some researchers believe that episodic memories ...
hippocampus in Medical Dictionary

Cortisol

...l glands. ... Once cortisol is secreted, it causes a breakdown of muscle protein, leading to ... Launch immediate counter-calm hormones before hippocampus is hammered by cortisol . ... These hormones escort the cortisol remnants back to Kidneyland for a one-way ... Information about Cushing's Synd...
hippocampus in Biological News

Hormone levels contribute to stress resilience

...shed by Elsevier in the August 15th issue of Biological Psychiatry . Underwater navigation is a task that relies on an area of the brain called the hippocampus that is very sensitive to the negative effects of stress. "Animal studies have shown that DHEA buffers against stress, in part, by modulating recepto...

Scientists track impact of DNA damage in the developing brain

...rmal gene expression and neuronal function. Some neurons were eventually replaced by scar tissue in a process known as gliosis. Overall changes in the hippocampus mimicked those found in the brains of adults with the seizure disorder known as temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study, the loss of Xrcc1 also resulted...

Building memories with actin

...orting actin cytoskeleton. However, researchers didn't know what controlled these changes. Rex et al. tackled the question by dosing slices of rat hippocampus with adenosine, a naturally occurring signal that squelches LTP. Adenosine prevents phosphorylation and inactivation of cofilin, an inhibitor of actin...

UT San Antonio researcher wins $917,000 from NIH to study memory

... San Antonio Every 16 hours, give or take, the brain's hippocampus makes six to nine thousand new neurons in the dentate gyrus, the portion of the brain which is believed to play a significant role in the preservation...

Protein linked to mental retardation controls synapse maturation, plasticity, CSHL team finds

...c side of the gap, when the function of the oligophrenin protein was disturbed under carefully controlled conditions. Using samples taken from the rat hippocampus -- a well-studied brain region known to be important in learning and memory -- the team confirmed that the signaling protein is not essential for the ...

Caltech scientists reveal how neuronal activity is timed in brain's memory-making circuits

...scillations actually sweep along the length of the hippocampus as traveling waves. "It was assumed that activity in the hippocampus is synchronized throughout," says Evgueniy Lubenov..., we see traveling waves that propagate across the hippocampus in a consistent direction, along its long axis." ...

Scientists announce top 10 new species, issue SOS

... Photos and other information on the top 10 and the SOS report are online at species.asu.edu . Among this year's top 10 picks is a tiny seahorse hippocampus satomiae with a standard length of 0.54 inches (13.8 millimeters) and an approximate height of 0.45 inches (11.5 millimeters). This pygmy species was...

Scientists announce top 10 new species; issue SOS

... Photos and other information on the top 10 and the SOS report are online at species.asu.edu . Among this year's top 10 picks is a tiny seahorse hippocampus satomiae with a standard length of 0.54 inches (13.8 millimeters) and an approximate height of 0.45 inches (11.5 millimeters). This pygmy species was...

Flow of potassium into cells implicated in schizophrenia

...ared to levels 2.5 times higher-than-normal in the hippocampus (memory hub) of people who had schizophrenia espe...ophrenia. Inefficiently processed memory in the hippocampus and working memory in the prefrontal cortex, as re.... Showed significantly decreased volume in the hippocampus a heritable trait in anatomical MRI scans. ...

Researchers discover that gene switches on during development of epilepsy

...ns of the brain that are involved in seizures, the hippocampus and the thalamus. They measured these changes at d...over excited and respond abnormally." While the hippocampus is usually targeted in studies of epilepsy, the ne...led the thalamus. The thalamus is connected to the hippocampus and is involved in the spread of seizures througho...
hippocampus in Biological Technology

Oprah, Luke Skywalker and Maradona -- new study investigates how our brains respond to them

...eicester team in collaboration with UCLA and Caltech used presentations of pictures, spoken and written names to show that single neurons in the human hippocampus and surrounding areas respond selectively to representations of the same individual using different sensory prompts. For example a neuron responded to...

Inaugural Kavli Prize ceremony and symposia: Sept. 8-11 (Oslo, Norway)

...Essence of Man" Tim Bliss (UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UK). Topic: "The future of the past: new approaches to exploring the role of the hippocampus in memory" Fred Gage (Salk Institute, USA). Topic: "Regulation and function of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain" Eric Gouaux (Oregon Heal...

Anavex advances drug candidate for treatment of Alzheimer's disease

... lipid peroxidation, the biochemical process that mediates damage to nerve cell membranes. ANAVEX 1-41 also reduced the loss of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and blocked the amyloid-beta-induced expression of caspase-3. ANAVEX 1-41 has been previously shown to reverse learning deficits in mice that were i...

Amarin Announces Publication of Pre-Clinical Memory Data in Journal of Neurochemistry

...tled, "Modulation of amyloid-beta-induced and age-associated changes in rat hippocampus by eicosapentaenoic acid." The preclinical study was conducted by Professo...rrobin DF and Lynch MA (2002) Neuroprotective effect of eicosapentanoate in hippocampus of rats exposed to Gamma irradiation. J. Biol. Chem., 277, 20804-20811. Di...

Biotech firm has strokes, Alzheimer's in its sights

...Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. Most of Quincy's research is focused in the hippocampus of the brain, where short-term memory is formed and ingrained, but Underwood believes the brain is one place where location doesn't matter - hence the...

The Bio-Rad Silver Stain, Rev E

... WE et al., Effect of desmethylimipramine and reserpine on the concentration of specific proteins in the parietal cortex and the hippocampus of rats as analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, J Pharmacol Exp Ther 229, 622628 (1984) 31. Jacobowitz DM and Heydorn...

Protect RNA and Improve Target Cell Identification

...tographs show a 10 m section from mouse hippocampus (4X magnification) that was stained wit...l IIe LCM System (Arcturus). LCM sample hippocampus granular cell layer and dentate gyrus. ... 20 ng of total RNA isolated from mouse hippocampus and cerebellum after staining with Acri...

Isolate High Quality Total RNA from LCM Samples Suitable for Microarray and qRT-PCR Analysis

...elation between expression results from both mouse hippocampus and cerebellar RNA. Using qRT-PCR, the ... to be differentially expressed between hippocampus and cerebellum (Figure 2C). ... Analysis of RNA from LCM Samples from Mouse hippocampus and Cerebellum. After staining with Cr...

Human Universal cDNA Library Array I

... Brain: Cerebellum Mammary Gland Thyroid Gland Brain: hippocampus Pituitary Gland Tonsil Brain: Substantia Nigra ...

Antibodies for Studying NMDA Receptor Protein Expression and Synapse-Specific Immunolabeling

...es. For added convenience, Stratagene offers these antibodies with specific positive controls. Anti-NMDAR2A and Anti-NMDAR2B include a vial of rat hippocampus homogenate; Anti-NMDAR2C includes a vial of rat cerebellum homogenate. Synapsin Antibody figure ...
hippocampus in Biological Products

Rabbit Anti-Mouse Junctophilin-3 (Mid) Monoclonal Antibody,, Clone ZMD.474 from Invitrogen

Description:...cificity: Specific for the internall region of the junctophilin-3 protein. Reactivity: Mouse (positive controls: mouse brain homogenates frozen mouse hippocampus and heart tissues). Applications: Western blotting Immunohistochemistry(froz) ImmunofluorescenceStorage: Store at -20C for long-term storage. Avoid r...
Company:Invitrogen
hippocampus in Biological Definition

Brain

... processing in mammals occurs in the cerebral cortex but relies on mid-brain and limbic functions as well, especially those of the thalamus and hippocampus . Among vertebrates, sensory processing involves progressively rostral regions of the brain among newer species. Hormones, sensory information, auto...

Limbic system

...ffects the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system . It consists of several subcortical structures located around the thalamus : hippocampus : involved in the formation of long-term memory amygdala : involved in aggression and fear cingulate gyrus (the circular shape of the cingu...

Long-term potentiation

... The phenomenon was discovered in the mammalian hippocampus by Terje Lmo in 1966 and is commonly regarded a... LTP was first discovered in the rabbit hippocampus . In humans the hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe . LTP ...

Memory

...y working brain. The physiology of memory Brain areas such as the hippocampus , the amygdala or the mammillary bodies and are thought to be involved in certain kinds of memory. For example, the hippocampus is believed to be involved in spatial learning and declarative learning. I...

Olfaction

...ry and has strong connections to emotional memory . This is possibly due to the olfactory system's close anatomical ties to the limbic system and hippocampus , areas of the brain that have long been known to be involved in emotion and place memory, respectively. To detect pheromones many vertebrates hav...
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