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diffraction in Medical News

Unique skeletal muscle design contributes to spine stability

...as a unique packing design consisting of short fibers arranged within rods, and that these fibers are stiffer than any other in the body. Using laser diffraction methods that they developed to measure muscle internal properties during back surgery, they demonstrated that the multifidus' unique design serves a c...

Cell phones using lens-free imaging promise to improve health monitoring

... captures an image of the microparticles in the solution using a sensor array. Because red blood cells and other microparticles have a distinct diffraction pattern, or shadow image, they can be identified and counted virtually instantaneously by LUCAS using a custom-developed "decision algorithm" that com...

A glass apart

...ass network had been undertaken. Using ISIS to study the relationship between these atoms and the host silicate glass via techniques unique to neutron diffraction has enabled us to move forward with the programme. The key outcome of our experiments has been a full understanding, at the level of atomic arrangemen...

Varian, Inc. Acquires Oxford Diffraction, Ltd.

...mpounds in solutions. "The acquisition of Oxford diffraction is key to Varian's goal of broadening its range of... Rogerson, President and CEO, Varian, Inc. "Oxford diffraction has experienced rapid growth since its formation i...ay crystallography, particularly in Europe. Oxford diffraction products will now be distributed on a global basis...

IUPUI scientists report first 3-D view of anti-cancer agent

... X-ray crystallography is a widely used analytical technique in which X-rays are directed through crystals and results are deduced from the pattern of diffraction of the X-rays. Although bleomycin has been studied for 40 years and much is known about the mechanism of action of bleomycin, without an accurate 3...

Measurement technique probes surface structure of gold nanocrystals

...oms in the nanocrystal, resulting in a complicated diffraction pattern made of speckles similar to what is seen ...am is reflected by a surface. When deciphered, the diffraction pattern describes the structural arrangement and b...nomaterials, Zuo said. Nano-area coherent electron diffraction makes it possible for us to probe the surfaces of ...

University of Pittsburgh researchers crack code of 3-D structure in key metabolic protein

...h intensity parallel X-rays to the protein crystals in order to collect the diffraction data necessary to determine the proteins atomic configuration. These experi...nes. Highly advanced computational techniques were then used to analyze the diffraction data and to uncover, through complex mathematical approaches, the atomic ma...

Scientists solve structure of gene regulator that plays key role in cancer

... crystals containing the protein of interest. The three-dimensional structure of the crystallized protein is deduced by analyzing the pattern of x-ray diffraction caused by the arrangement of atoms in the protein crystal. Marmorstein and his colleagues spent years attempting to crystallize p300/CBP a process...

SAFC Pharma Expands Its Pharmorphix Solid State Chemistry Services

...lity. The development includes office reorganization and will facilitate installation later this year of additional state-of-the-art spectroscopic and diffraction equipment. SAFC Pharma Vice President of Manufacturing and European Operations, Michael Harris commented, "As new drugs and the regulatory climate c...

Researchers solve first structure of a key to intact DNA inheritance

...unted on a tiny loop in an X-ray diffractor and X-rays are beamed through it. Bending around the lattice of atoms in the crystal, the X-rays produce a diffraction pattern, which can be seen as a dot pattern on a monitor. A state-of-the-art X-ray diffractor shoots a different angle of the crystallized protein ...
diffraction in Medical Technology

New Insight Into the Controls on a Go-To Enzyme

...ructure, researchers first crystallize a protein to be studied. Then, they direct X-rays through the crystal and deduce the protein structure from the diffraction pattern of those X-rays. To overcome the crystallization bottleneck, a lengthy and unpredictable variable in X-ray crystallography, the investigators ...

St. Jude Study Gives New Insights Into How Cells Accessorize Their Proteins

...aphy. In this widely used technique, X-rays are directed through the crystal of a protein to be analyzed and its structure deduced from the pattern of diffraction of the X-rays. Comparison of the two structures revealed that, when NEDD8 attaches to cullin-RING, it dramatically modifies the conformation of the ...

New Australian Technology: Detecting Breast Cancer With Hair

...e structure of their hair which is detected using a technique called X-ray diffraction. This change is seen as a ring superimposed on the normal X-ray diffraction pattern of hair. [See images on http://www.australiabio2008.com/FermiscanNMR.php ]. The research has been published in the prestigious scientific jou...
diffraction in Medical Products

Advia 1200 Chemistry System

Features:... Segmented tray for easy cuvette replacement. This advanced, high precision optical system combines with a unique incubation fluid and a concavity diffraction grating to assure superior precision and accuracy in clinical chemistry instrumentation. Reagent Storage Area Refrigerated storage for 41...
Company:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics

Ultra Q - SLT-upgradeable, Nd: YAG Photodisruptor

Features:...h: 4 ns Burst mode: 1, 2 and 3 pulses per shot, selectable at 20 s separation Air breakdown: <2.8mJ* Mode structure: Fundamental, diffraction limited Spot size: 8 m Cone angle: 16 degrees Posterior offset: 100 m - 350 m, continuously variable Repetition rate: 2.3 ...
Company:Ellex (formerly Laserex)

Ultra Q, Nd: YAG Photodisruptor

Features:... Pulse width: 4 ns Burst mode: 1, 2 and 3 pulses per shot, selectable at 20 s separation Air breakdown: <2.8mJ Mode structure: Fundamental, diffraction limited Spot size: 8 m Cone angle: 16 degrees Posterior offset: 100 m - 350 m, continuously variable Repetition rate: 2.3 Hz, single pulse...
Company:Ellex (formerly Laserex)

Ultra Q Nd: YAG Photodisruptor

Features:...eparation Air breakdown: <2.8mJ* Mode structure: Fundamental, diffraction limited Spot size: 8 m Cone angle: 16 degrees Posterio...eparation Air breakdown: <2.8mJ* Mode structure: Fundamental, diffraction limited Spot size: 8 m Cone angle: 16 degrees Posterio...
Company:Ellex (formerly Laserex)

Advia 2400

Features:...cations - provide cost-effective workstation consolidation. Advanced, high-precision optical system combines our unique incubation fluid and concavity diffraction grating to assure superior performance - exceeding laboratory standards for precision and accuracy in clinical chemistry instrumentation. Automatic ra...
Company:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics

Advia 1650

Features:...orkstation consolidation. Advanced, high-precision optical system combines an elongated cuvette path length, our unique incubation fluid and concavity diffraction grating to assure superior performance - exceeding laboratory standards for precision and accuracy in clinical chemistry instrumentation. Automatic ra...
Company:Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics
diffraction in Biological News

Jet-propelled imaging for an ultrafast light source

...atter off the atoms and reveal once these complex diffraction patterns have been converted into a 3-D image by c...e are the smallest protein nanocrystals from which diffraction patterns have ever been obtained, and the first fr... that infer the orientation of the sample from the diffraction pattern itself, even when as few as four percent o...

Scripps scientists find structure of a protein that makes cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy

...n crystals with x-ray radiation. The atoms in the protein crystals cause the x-rays to diffract, and the scientists collect and analyze the pattern of diffraction to solve the atomic-level structure of the proteins. "The biggest challenge was to get enough protein to purify and make crystals from it," says St...

Synthesizing the most natural of all skin creams

... of just 10% each of lipid molecules and dead skin cells (corneocytes), so the exact composition of the mixture is important. For the lipids, X-ray diffraction measurements at the Dutch/Flemish DUBBLE beamline at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) allowed the Leiden researchers to find the pro...

Tension in the nanoworld

...tip of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), yielding nanoscale resolved images at visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies. The s-SNOM thus breaks the diffraction barrier throughout the electromagnetic spectrum and with its 20 nm resolving power matches the needs of modern nanoscience and technology. Now, the...

Researchers first to 'see' reactive oxygen species in vital enzyme

... intermediates in the flavoprotein, choline oxidase. The researchers accomplished their work by combining two popular synchrotron techniques x-ray diffraction and optical absorption spectroscopy into one setup. By shining beams of powerful x-rays and visible light on the same region of the crystallized flav...

Eight ASU faculty elected as AAAS Fellows

...nt of Physics. He was cited by the AAAS for "distinguished contributions to diffraction physics, especially atomic-resolution electron microscopy, electron diffraction studies of the chemical bond and diffractive (lens-less) x-ray imaging." Sp...

New insight into the controls on a go-to enzyme

...ructure, researchers first crystallize a protein to be studied. Then, they direct X-rays through the crystal and deduce the protein structure from the diffraction pattern of those X-rays. To overcome the crystallization bottleneck, a lengthy and unpredictable variable in X-ray crystallography, the investigators ...

Research about plant viruses could lead to new ways to improve crop yields

...nation of imaging techniques cryo-electron microscopy at Vanderbilt, X-ray diffraction at Argonne and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) at Brookhav...lleagues figured out how to make good samples and analyzed them using X-ray diffraction and traditional electron microscopy, there were a number of ambiguities in ...

Structures of important plant viruses determined

...lexiviridae, using a combination of complementary imaging techniques x-ray diffraction at DOE's Argonne National Laboratory, cryo-electron microscopy at Vanderbil... even after we were able to do that, and analyze the structures using x-ray diffraction and traditional electron microscopy, there were a lot of ambiguities in the...

Argonne scientists peer into heart of compound that may detect chemical, biological weapons

...akas, Joon I Jang, and John B. Ketterson were able to determine the structure and analyze its remarkable properties. ChemMatCARS specializes in x-ray diffraction from ultra-small crystals and is operated by the Center for Advanced Radiation Sources of The University of Chicago. ...
diffraction in Biological Technology

Breaking barriers with nanoscale lasers

...0 nanometers. The limit is sometimes called the diffraction limit, a property associated with any wave, such a...eory says you can't make a laser smaller than this diffraction limit or smaller than 250 nanometers for a semico...a laser to sizes smaller than that required by the diffraction limit," Ning explains. "Eventually, we were able t...

NYU physicists find way to explore microscopic systems through holographic video

...milar to a laser pointer. When an object is placed into path of the microscope's beam, the object scatters some of the beam's light into a complex diffraction pattern. The scattered light overlaps with the original beam to create an interference pattern reminiscent of overlapping ripples in a pool of water. ...

Nano measurement in the third dimension

...mean structure spacing on extensive lattice standards even in the range of 10 picometers - have been achieved and confirmed in comparison with optical diffraction measurements. The new measuring instrument is available for dimensional precision measurements with nm resolution on 3D micro and nano structures ...

First step to converting solar energy using 'artificial leaf'

...ht antennae. They did this using a combination of solid state NMR and X-ray diffraction (see attachment). X-ray diffraction enabled them to determine the overall structure and NMR allowed them to pen...

Bilayer graphene gets a bandgap

...n principle we could have used a tunable laser to measure the optical transmission, but the 1.4 beamline is very bright and can be focused down to the diffraction limit an important consideration when the graphene-flake target is so small," Wang says. "Also, compared to a laser, the beamline provides a wider ra...

Catching the lightwave: Nano-mechanical sensors 'wired' by photonics

...is the novel way Tang's group "wired" the sensors with light. Their technique is not limited by the bandwidth constraints of electrical methods or the diffraction limits of light sources. "We don't need a laser to operate these devices," said Wolfram Pernice , a co-author of the paper. "Very cheap LEDs will...

New imaging technique reveals the atomic structure of nanocrystals

... the University of Illinois overcomes the limit of diffraction and can reveal the atomic structure of a single na... positions of atoms requires clues provided by the diffraction pattern. But quantum dots are so small, the clues provided by diffraction alone are not enough. By combining two sources o...

Plasmonic whispering gallery microcavity paves the way to future nanolasers

...across the surfaces of metals. Such a plasmon wave has very small wavelength compared with the light, enabling the scaling down optical devices beyond diffraction limit of the light. Cavities are the confined spaces in lasers where light amplification takes place and this new micro-sized metallic cavity for plas...

NIST 'stress tests' probe nanoscale strains in materials

...cultparticularly since two different and widely used methods of stress measurement have been returning disparate results. One, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), deduces underlying stress by observing the patterns of electrons scattered back from the crystal planes. The other, confocal Raman microscopy ...

Denser, more powerful computer chips possible with plasmonic lenses that 'fly'

..., which dramatically increases the cost of manufacturing. Also, light has a diffraction limit restricting how small it can be focused. Currently, the minimum featu..." The UC Berkeley researchers chose a different approach to overcome the diffraction limit of light. They took advantage of a well-known property of metals: the...
diffraction in Biological Products

dotLab System, Single Pump from Axela Biosensors

Description:... well-understood technologies: grating-based light diffraction and immobilized capture surfaces. This combination... series of parallel lines that produces a specific diffraction pattern when illuminated with a laser. The sensor...bind to the assay spots, resulting in an increased diffraction signal. The dotLab System uses the intensity of t...
Company:Axela Biosensors

dotLab System, Dual Pump from Axela Biosensors

Description:... well-understood technologies: grating-based light diffraction and immobilized capture surfaces. This combination... series of parallel lines that produces a specific diffraction pattern when illuminated with a laser. The sensor...bind to the assay spots, resulting in an increased diffraction signal. The dotLab System uses the intensity of t...
Company:Axela Biosensors
diffraction in Biological Definition

Biochemistry

...ince then, biochemistry has advanced, especially since the mid- 20th century , with the development of new techniques such as chromatography , X-ray diffraction , NMR , radioisotopic labelling , electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques allowed for the discovery and detaile...

DNA

...e, London , Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin were examining X-ray diffraction patterns of DNA fibers. Discovery that DNA is helical A key insp...g had deduced this structure from X-ray patterns. Even in the initial crude diffraction data from DNA, it was evident that the structure involved helices. But this...

Insulin

...Chemistry in 1958. In 1967, after decades of work, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the spatial conformation of the molecule, by means of X-ray diffraction studies. She also was awarded a Nobel Prize. 1. Preproinsulin ( L eader, B chain, C chain, A chain); proinsulin consists of BCA, witho...

James D. Watson

...ading to Copenhagen for postdoctoral work. In 1952 , he started at Cavendish Laboratory , where he met Francis Crick . Building on the X-ray diffraction research of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins , they together deduced the double helix structure of DNA, which they published in the journal ...

Microscope

... lens magnifies by bending light (see refraction ). Optical microscopes are restricted in their ability to resolve features by a phenomenon called diffraction which, based on the numerical aperture (NA or A N ) of the optical system and the wavelengths of light used ( λ ), sets a definite...

Photon

...dispersion relation with respect to momentum.) This is the formal reason why light is slower in media (such as glass) than in vacuum. (The reason for diffraction can be deduced from this by Huygens' principle .) Another way of phrasing it is to say that the photon, by being blended with the matter excitation ...

Optical spectrum

...y , where spectroscopy is essential for analysing the properties of distant objects. Typically, astronomical spectroscopy utilises high-dispersion diffraction gratings to observe spectra at very high spectral resolutions. The first exoplanets to be discovered were found by analysing the doppler shift o...

X-ray crystallography

...tallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of...urces/Books Inorganic Structures X-ray diffraction finds frequent use in materials science because ...ose which are not yield some useful information in diffraction experiments. The pattern of...
diffraction in Biological Dictionary

X-ray diffraction

X - ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystallographic structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films. These... X - ray crystallography is a method of determining the arra...

Quaternary structure

... forces ... Controlling Structure . Quaternary Structure . Complex ... Quaternary Structure ... Quaternary structure and amyloid. X-ray diffraction of Scrapie Prion. Interactive prion models ... Certainly, the quaternary structure has a modulating ... TUTORIAL ON PEPTIDE AND PROTEIN STRU...
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