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Chromosomes in Medical News

Herceptin helps women with multiple chromosomes containing HER2 gene, study finds

SAN ANTONIO − The targeted therapy Herceptin helps women with HER2+ type of breast cancer independent of whether patients have extra copies of chromosome 17, home to the HER2 gene which produces the HER2 protein that fuels cancer growth. Prior to this report, there were conflicting opinions ...

Immune cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis have prematurely aged chromosomes

Telomeres, structures that cap the ends of cells' chromosomes, grow shorter with each round of cell division unless a specialized enzyme replenishes them. Maintaining telomeres is thought to be important for healthy aging and cancer prevention. By this measure, T cells, or white blood cells, fr...

Research shines spotlight on a key player in the dance of chromosomes

Cell division is essential to life, but the mechanism by which emerging daughter cells organize and divvy up their genetic endowments is little understood. In a new study, researchers at the University of Illinois and Columbia University report on how a key motor protein orchestrates chromosome mo...

Grant Supports Study of Abnormal Ring-Shaped Chromosomes

- Misshapen Structures Linked to Epilepsy, Mental Retardation - PHILADELPHIA, Oct. 9 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- When chromosomes, which are normally bar-shaped, instead bend into a ring before birth, they may disrupt normal development and cause a multitude of problems. Genetics experts at T...

Using Multiphoton Microscopy to See Chromosomes in Action

Feverish fruit fly larvae, warmed in a toasty lab chamber, are giving Cornell researchers a way to watch chromosomes in action and actually see how genes are expressed in living tissue.// Using multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, a technique pioneered at Cornell by physicist Watt W. Webb, res...

Missing Chromosomes Revealed Brain Tumor Therapy Effect – Research Find

Study results have uncovered that missing portions of 2 chromosomes located at 1p and 19q predicted the prognosis of Brain tumor therapy//. The senior author Walter J. Curran Jr., M.D., professor and chair of radiation oncology at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University in Phil...
Chromosomes in Medical Technology

Researchers Develop New Procedure to Screen All 46 Human Chromosomes to Identify Abnormalities in Embryos

New technology developed by researchers at Reproductive Medicine Associates of New Jersey awarded General Program Prize Paper at American Society for Reproductive Medicine Annual Meeting WASHINGTON and MORRISTOWN, N.J., Oct. 18 /PRNewswire/ -- Researchers at Reproductive Medici...

deCODE-led Megastudy Finds New Genetic Clues to Causes of Schizophrenia

..., Russia, Finland and Spain. Bringing together the results of different consortia established he association between the the total of seven markers on chromosomes 6, 11, and 18 with increased risk of schizophrenia. Acknowledgments deCODE and all of the authors would like to thank the participants w...

Newly Published Article Details How PGS Techniques Directly Effect Successful Pregnancy Outcomes

...chromosomally abnormal. When done correctly, PGS screens the most important chromosomes in terms of preimplantation aneuploidy (22, 16, 21 and 15), improving impla...ding opening the zona pellucida, removing the cell, cell fixation, how many chromosomes should be analyzed, and error rate criteria. As previous studies have shown...

In Rare Disorder, a Familiar Protein Disrupts Gene Function

...eins with the long-established function of keeping chromosomes together also plays an important role in regulatin...east four proteins that form a ring that encircles chromosomes during cell division. Cohesin's long-established r... is to control chromatids -- the long strands that chromosomes form when they copy their DNA. However, said...

Creighton Medical Laboratories First to Offer New Cancer Test

...inside cells as chromosomes; a karyotype is a representation of all of the chromosomes in a cell. Normal human cells have two copies of each chromosome. Cancer ...rom tumor cells is applied to the arrays and scanned into a computer. The chromosomes are reconstructed by the computer to provide a genome-wide view of the canc...

Quest Diagnostics ClariSure(TM) Postnatal Molecular Test Receives Clinical Laboratory Approval from New York State

...sts are required to generate the same amount of information produced from one microarray-based test. Chromosome abnormalities, such as extra copies of chromosomes and other copy number changes, have been implicated in some types of mental retardation, developmental disorder and congenital anomalies, as well as i...
Chromosomes in Medical Products

Vysis UroVysion Bladder Cancer Kit

Description:...ion Bladder Cancer Kit (UroVysion Kit) is designed to detect aneuploidy for chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and loss of the 9p21 locus via fluorescence in situ hybridization...four-probe mixture of DNA probe sequences homologous to specific regions on chromosomes 3, 7, 9, and 17. The UroVysion probe mixture consists of Chromosome Enumera...
Company:Abbott Diagnostics
Chromosomes in Medical Definition

Pathology

...c programs to protect their vital proteins and organelles from heat shock or hypoxia , and may activate DNA repair pathways to fix damage to chromosomes from radiation or chemicals. Hyperplasia is a long-term adaptive response of cell division and multiplication , which can increase the ability o...
Chromosomes in Medical Dictionary

Chromosomes

Homologous Chromosomes . M-Phase In Detail. Mitosis In Plant Cells. Embryonic Stem Cells ... Beginning with prophase, the chromosomes appear as doublets. ... The National Fragile X Foundation unites the fragile X community to enrich lives through educational and emotional support, promote pu...

Turner syndrome

...r syndrome encompasses several conditions, of which monosomy X is most common. It is a chromosomal disorder in which all or part of one of the sex chromosomes is absent . Typical females have 2... The Turner Syndrome Society of the United States creates awareness, promotes research, and provides sup...

Trisomy

...omosome instead of ... Trisomy 18 syndrome is a disorder of human chromosomes which occurs in ... Trisomy 18 is due to the presence of an extra #18 ch...ghtforward Guide: What is Trisomy ? ... When trisomy occurs, one of the chromosomes has an extra pair, resulting in 47 ... Trisomy 18 is a relatively co...

Trisomy 13

...my 13 and trisomy D, is a chromosomal abnormality, a syndrome in which a patient has an additional chromosome 13 due to a non-disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis. Some are caused by Robertsonian translocations. The extra... Individuals with trisomy 13 often have heart defects, brain or...

Translocation

... translocation is found in a child, the parents' chromosomes are ... Translocation Chromosome Disorders ... translocation is found in a child, the parents' chromosomes are ... Subsequent translocation across the... translocation is found in a child, the parents' chromosomes are ... What is translocation ? Meaning of ...

Rhabdomyosarcoma

...risk of rhabdomyosarcoma is increased in children with the genetic disorder ... Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells usually have a rearrangement of chromosomes 2 ... CHOP is dedicated to helping you learn more about Rhabdomyosarcoma . ... What are the signs and symptoms of rhabdomyosarcoma ? ... What i...
Chromosomes in Biological News

Female human embryos adjust the balance of X chromosomes before implantation

Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Dutch researchers have found the first evidence that a process of inactivating the X chromosome during embryo development and implantation, which was known to occur in mice but unknown in humans, does, in fact, take place in human female embryos prior to implantation in...

Slicing chromosomes leads to new insights into cell division

ANN ARBOR, Mich.By using ultrafast laser pulses to slice off pieces of chromosomes and observe how the chromosomes behave, biomedical engineers at the University of Michigan have gained pivotal insights into mitosis, the process of cell division. Their findings could help scientists better unde...

Evolutionary origin of bacterial chromosomes revealed

Blacksburg, Va. Researchers have unveiled the evolutionary origin of the different chromosomal architectures found in three species of Agrobacterium. A comprehensive comparison of the Agrobacterium sequence information with the genome sequences of other bacteria suggests a general model for how s...

How chromosomes meet in the dark -- Switch that turns on X chromosome matchmaking

A research group lead by scientists at the University of Warwick has discovered the trigger that pulls together X chromosomes in female cells at a crucial stage of embryo development. Their discovery could also provide new insights into how other similar chromosomes spontaneously recognize each ot...

Keeping chromosomes from cuddling up

If chromosomes snuggle up too closely at the wrong times, the results can be genetic disaster. Now researchers have found the molecular machines in fruit flies that yank chromosomes, the DNA-carrying structures, apart when necessary. The machines, proteins called condensin II, separate chr...

Exploding chromosomes fuel research about evolution of genetic storage

Human cells somehow squeeze two meters of double-stranded DNA into the space of a typical chromosome, a package 10,000 times smaller than the volume of genetic material it contains. "It is like compacting your entire wardrobe into a shoebox," said Riccardo Levi-Setti, Professor Emeritus in Phys...

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Chromosomes in Biological Technology

Electroporation of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes

Maren Bell and Robert Mortimer, Human Genome Center, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 Introduction Transformation of yeast with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) has traditionally...

It's Not Just the Sun: deCODE Discovers Sequence Variants Affecting Susceptibility to Skin Cancer

...out BCC. The first two phases included participants from Iceland, The Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. The SNPs on chromosomes 12, 9p21 and 7q32, as well as those on chromosome 5, were then tested and confirmed in participants from the United States and Spain. In all, th...

Gender-Selection Technique Embraced for Hopeful Parents

...ender. The technique employs a centrifugation process, known as "sperm sorting," which allows embryologists to choose sperm with X- or Y- bearing chromosomes that provide three in four odds of determining the correct gender. The selected sperm is then used to create the embryo through in vitro fertilizati...

China Medical Technologies Receives SFDA Approval for Its Bladder Cancer FISH Probe

...kit that uses DNA probes for early detection and monitoring the course of bladder cancer. It is designed to detect and identify whether aneuploidy for chromosomes 3, 7, 17 and loss of the p16 locus are present in the human bladder cells. A number of hospitals in China have applied the Probe for diagnosing patien...

Chromosome breakpoints contribute to genetic variation

...rch , is the first to show that different parts of chromosomes can have very different evolutionary histories, sa... breakpoint regions and the more stable regions of chromosomes are evolving in distinctly different ways," he sai...sperm cells form in animals, maternal and paternal chromosomes first pair up and then recombine. The...

New cow genome sequence released

...-purpose software to assemble 35 million DNA sequence fragments into the 30 chromosomes that make up the Bos taurus genome. The algorithms use paired-end sequenc...sembly places some 150 million nucleotides (6%) more DNA sequence data onto chromosomes than the other draft assembly currently available, BosTau4.0 from the Baylo...
Chromosomes in Biological Products

* Quick & Easy Conditional Knock Out Kit - FRT from Gene Bridges GmbH

Description:...ures between 37C (optimal growth temperature for E.coli ) and 40C (mouse body temperature). This kit can also be used to work on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The generation of targeting constructs is achieved utilizing the high Red/ET efficiency plus the convenient removal of the Red/ET Recombineeri...
Company:Gene Bridges GmbH

* Quick & Easy Conditional Knock Out Kit - loxP from Gene Bridges GmbH

Description:...mmalian cells. The included 706-Cre expression plasmid allows Cre recombination in E.coli . This kit can also be used to work on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The generation of targeting constructs is achieved utilizing the high Red/ET efficiency plus the convenient removal of the Red/ET Recombineeri...
Company:Gene Bridges GmbH
Chromosomes in Biological Definition

Allele

...ersion might result in red petals, while another might result in white petals. Some organisms are diploid - that is, they have paired homologous chromosomes in their somatic cells , and thus contain two copies of each gene. An organism in which both copies of the gene are identical - that is, have the sam...

Allele frequency

...s within the population. To take an example, if the frequency of an allele is 20% in a given population, then among population members, one in five chromosomes will carry that allele. Four out of five will be occupied by other variants the gene, of which there may be one or many. Note that for diploid gene...

Anaphase

...0;σις = stage) is the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes separate. Each chromatid moves to opposite poles of the cell (opposite e...erred to as spindle microtubules . Other spindle fibres do not contact the chromosomes but either connect directly with spindle fibres from the opposing pole (ove...

Arabidopsis

...l organisms to understand human biology, Arabidopsis thaliana is used to study agronomic crops. The genome of Arabidopsis , consisting of five chromosomes , has been sequenced. There are 30644 known genes in the Arabidopsis genome. Arabidopsis has been used extensively in the study of the genetic...

Autosome

...mans, there are 22 pairs of autosomes. The X and Y chromosomes are not autosomal. Non-autosomal chromosomes are usually referred to as sex chromosomes or, less frequently, as gonosomes. Uses An...

Barr body

...is always deactivated. The inactivation state of chromosomes is passed on to daughter cells during mitosis. Since random chromosomes are selected for inactivation early in embryonic d...fferent regions of the adult body having different chromosomes inactivated. This can be significant if different ...
Chromosomes in Biological Dictionary

Chromosomes

A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. A chromosome is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also... In addition to the normal karyotype, wild populations of many ...

Sex chromosomes

A sex -determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. Most sexual organisms have two sexes. In many cases, sex determination is genetic: males and females have different alleles or even different... The XY sex -dete...

Homologous chromosomes

Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes in a biological cell that pair (synapse) during meiosis. The pair are non-identical chromosomes that both contain information for the same biological features and contain the same genes at the same loci but possibly each have different alleles at...

Circular chromosomes

A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain... Bacteria) typically have a single circular chromosome , but man...

Y chromosome

...ly those of ... Y CHROMOSOME -SPECIFIC MARKERS ... Between X and Y chromosomes , exchange is ... (the nonrecombining portion or NRY) the Y chromosome ...osome Genetic Data, and ... The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans and most other mammals. ... In humans, the Y chromosome span...

X chromosome

... contains considerably more genes than the Y, which has its ... The sex chromosomes raise an interesting dilemma: females (XX) carry twice as ... The inactiva...ica online encyclopedia article on X chromosome (genetics), ...the sex chromosomes , designated XX in females and XY in males. The loci of the blood group ....
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