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axons in Medical News

Crucial Finding Advances Spinal Cord Injury Research

... Scientists guide axons to re-form nerve connections in rats M...research, U.S. scientists report that regenerating axons can be guided to their correct targets where they ...d injury. Previous research showed that severed axons -- long, slender projections of a nerve cell that ...

Ceregene Presents Additional Clinical Data from Phase 2 Trial of CERE-120 for Parkinson's Disease

...stiffness, tremors and slowed movements and gait, are caused by a loss of dopamine-containing nerve cells in the substantia nigra, which project their axons to the putamen. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in controlling movement and coordination, so Parkinson's patients exhibit a progressive inabil...

Gray matter under attack in multiple sclerosis

...estroyed by attacks from certain immune cells so-called T-lymphocytes. The axons that make up nerve fibers are sheathed in myelin. This protective layer con...ise of the neurons thus exposed. "It is the irreversible destruction of axons in particular that causes the lasting disability of patients," explains Pro...

Team Regrows Neurons Controlling Movement in Rats

...a particular type of neuron -- corticospinal motor axons -- that had so far proven resistant to regeneration efforts. Corticospinal motor axons are key to controlling fine and gross motor skills...es to the muscles. In spinal cord injuries, the axons of the corticospinal tract are severed so that the...

Cat Food-Linked Illness Yields Clues to MS

...d -- but the nerves are still functioning -- might benefit from treatment aimed at rebuilding the fatty substance. Loss of the myelin covering on axons can lead to loss of feeling, movement, cognition and other nerve-related functions in humans. The nerve condition the cats developed, while simil...

Lab-grown nerves promote nerve regeneration after injury

...eed improved methods to coax nerve fibers known as axons to regrow across major nerve injuries to reconnect...viously, Smith and colleagues have "stretch-grown" axons by placing neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia (c...he spinal cord) on nutrient-filled plastic plates. axons sprouted from the neurons on each plate and connec...

New Parkinson's Treatment Shows Promise in Animals

... deficiencies, stimulating the neural wires called axons that converge in the subthalmic nucleas region of ...in that region of the brain itself. Because the axons lie closer to the surface of the brain, it's possi...ve techniques, researchers said. "Because these axons are coming from areas closer to the brain's surfac...

Study gives more proof that intelligence is largely inherited

... Genes appear to influence intelligence by determining how well nerve axons are encased in myelin the fatty sheath of "insulation" that coats our axons and allows for fast signaling bursts in our brains. The thicker the myelin,...

Experts examine causes, treatment and prevention of glaucoma

... Although scientists know progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons is the primary cause of glaucoma, researchers have yet to identify a way to stop or prevent the degeneration. The challenge to find a solution brou...

New insights into growth factor's role in brain development

...y found that proBDNF is most highly expressed in the hippocampus during the postnatal period of the mouse at about days 3 to 21, when large numbers of axons and synapses are being formed. They also found that p75 receptors, a class of receptors that encode a "death domain" in which neurons are killed or pr...
axons in Medical Technology

Myelin Removal Beads: Premium Efficiency for Neural Cell Separations and Antibody Stainings

...Miltenyi Biotec announces the worldwide and exclusive release of Myelin Removal Beads. Myelin is a specialized membrane which ensheathes and insulates axons in the peripheral and central nervous system. During preparation of single-cell suspensions, myelin membrane fragments represent the major contaminant...

Alseres Pharmaceuticals Enters Agreement to Amend Cethrin(R) License to Lower Milestone Payments and Royalty Rates

...lies. About Cethrin(R) -- Phase II Drug for Acute Spinal Cord Injury Cethrin is a recombinant protein drug intended to facilitate the re-growth of axons during the critical period immediately after a major injury to the spinal cord. Following a spinal cord injury about two-thirds of patients undergo de...

Alseres Pharmaceuticals' Announces Expansion of the Cethrin(R) Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Phase I/IIA Clinical Trial

... expected to begin patient enrollment in early 2008." About Cethrin(R) Cethrin is a recombinant protein drug intended to facilitate the re-growth of axons during the critical period immediately after a major injury to the spinal cord. Following an SCI, about two-thirds of patients undergo decompression/s...

Boston Life Sciences, Inc. Announces Presentation of Cethrin Phase I/IIa 6-Month Results at 75th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons

... acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). About Cethrin Cethrin is a recombinant protein drug intended to facilitate the re-growth of axons during the critical period immediately after a major injury to the spinal cord. Following an SCI, about two-thirds of patients undergo decompression/s...

Acorda Therapeutics Presents Data from its Phase 3 Study of Fampridine-SR in Multiple Sclerosis at the American Academy of Neurology Meeting

...ction A nerve cell has one extension, called an axon, which it uses to communicate via electrical signals to other nerve cells. All but the smallest axons have a special covering of a fatty substance called myelin that acts as insulation to preserve and speed these nerve signals, much like the insulating...

Acorda Therapeutics Presents Fampridine-SR Data at ACTRIMS Meeting

...ction A nerve cell has one extension, called an axon, which it uses to communicate via electrical signals to other nerve cells. All but the smallest axons have a special covering of a fatty substance called myelin that acts as insulation to preserve and speed these nerve signals, much like the insulating...
axons in Medical Definition

Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition

... in vitro endocannabinoid mediated effect. DSI is classically produced in a brain slice experiment (i.e. a 300-400 µm slice of brain, with intact axons and synapses) where a single neuron is "depolarized" (the normal −70 mV potential across the neuronal membrane is reduced, usually to −30 to 0 mV) for...
axons in Medical Dictionary

Vesicles

...nd encyclopedia. ... Vesicles bulge out and break off from the endoplasmic reticulum and the ... Vesicles are anterogradely transported in the axons at a fast rate as 'empty' ... The results show that vesicles are axonally transported as preformed organelles, ... Unlabeled acceptor vesicles ...

Nerve

... A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of peripheral axons . A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons. Nerves are found only in ...

Myelin

... Myelin is the protective sheath around axons in the nervous system, and is often ... The myeli...y insulating phospholipid layer that surrounds the axons ... It uses material from the article Myelin at ...al Institute of Neurological Disorders and ... axons showed manifold abnormalities, sometimes even with...

Ganglion

... A dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken embryo (around stage of day 7) after ... Note the axons growing out of the ganglion ... A ganglion cyst is a swelling that often appears on or around joints and tendons in the hand or foot. ...
axons in Biological News

A second career for a growth factor receptor: keeping nerve axons on target

LA JOLLA, CA Neurons constituting the optic nerve wire up to the brain in a highly dynamic way. Cell bodies in the developing retina sprout processes, called axons, which extend toward visual centers in the brain, lured by attractive cues and making U-turns when they take the wrong path. How they...

Telling axons where to go - and grow

In a recent study, Dr. Ingolf Bach and colleagues from the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester and the University of Hamburg (Germany) describe a novel role for the ubiquitin/proteosome protein degradation pathway in the regulation of local actin dynamics in neurons. The author...

MS study offers theory for why repair of brain's wiring fails

...ystem's T cells and B cells attack oligodendrocytes, ultimately damaging the myelin sheath to the point that the electrical signals transmitted by the axons beneath it are disrupted. Remarkably, the brain generally is able to recruit fresh, immature oligodendrocytes to the myelin sheath to repair the da...

Neural stem cell differentiation factor discovered

...strocytes or oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes have supportive functions in the environment of neurons, while oligodendrocytes form the myelin layer around axons in order to accelerate neuronal signal transmission. But how does a neural stem cell know" which way it is supposed to develop? On the molecular level...

UC Davis researchers visualize formation of a new synapse

...row toward the dendrites of neighboring neurons. As they do so, finger-like structures called filopodia extend and retract rapidly from the tip of the axons and eventually make a stable contact with the dendrite. We can then see neuroligin accumulate at these new contact sites very rapidly, possibly stabil...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

...that consist of a main cell body and dendrites and axons that project out from the cell core and transmit s...tomy," said Rempe. "They put out enormous arms of axons and dendrites and they have to keep supplying nutr...itochondria which the cell must also push down the axons and dendrites to provide these parts of the cell w...

Huntington's disease deciphered

...onnections may require it to make the cellular trunk, called an axon, between the cell body and the synaptic terminal to be very long. Some cells have axons that reach half the body's length -- for a tall person, a meter or more. But even in the brain, axonal projections are very long compared to other cel...

Protein linked to mental retardation controls synapse maturation, plasticity, CSHL team finds

...l knob-like features, called dendritic spines, that protrude from a neuron's branch-like dendrites, typically receive signals across synapses from the axons of other neurons. Those spines were found to be abnormally short and misshapen when expression of the OPHN1 gene was acutely reduced. A signali...

Protein identified as critical to insulating the body's wiring could also become treatment target

... insulation, called myelin, composed mostly of lipids and some proteins. axons that transmit quick messages such as telling legs to walk need a lot of i...pt retraction from a hot stovetop need less. "In any given nerve, some axons are wrapped heavily by myelin," Dr. Mei says. "It's based on nerve function...

Identification of a key molecular pathway required for brain neural circuit formation

...o correctly form neuronal circuits, the developing axons (a long extension of a neuron) require attractive ... for the ability of Shh to guide axons. Connecting axons with an appropriate set of targets is very complex...us to understand the molecular mechanisms by which axons reach their target. It paves the way to new therap...
axons in Biological Technology

Ceregene Receives Additional Grant From Michael J. Fox Foundation to Expand Long-Term Testing of CERE-120 Patients

...stiffness, tremors and slowed movements and gait, are caused by a loss of dopamine-containing nerve cells in the substantia nigra, which project their axons to the putamen. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in controlling movement and coordination, so Parkinson's patients exhibit a progressive inabil...

Revealing the regulating mechanism behind signal transduction in the brain

...et to divulge all its secrets. For example, we do not yet fully understand how we are able to learn and remember things. We do know that dendrites and axons − the offshoots of brain cells − play a crucial role by making contact with each other in so-called synapses, through which signals are tr...

Microsurgery on the brain of the fruit fly leads to new insights into irreparable nerve injuries

...diseases, until now it has not been possible to study the repair of damaged axons with fruit flies. Indeed, the fruit fly's brain is difficult to access due ...w technique explicitly to develop a fruit fly model for the regeneration of axons after injury. With the aid of micro-dissection, the researchers inflicted i...

Mouse Brain or Impressionist Painting?

... Jean Livet of Harvard University took top honors for a "Brainbow" image of axons in a mouse's brain stem. The cascading canvas of color, captured through a ...e brain works. Livet's picture is a montage of images showing large caliber axons of the auditory pathway and their characteristic calyx-like ends. "This wi...

Microfluidic chambers advance the science of growing neurons

...red neurons in closed-channel devices made of untreated, native PDMS remained viable for two days at best. The cultured neurons also developed more axons and dendrites, the neural tendrils that communicate with other cells, than those grown at low densities with conventional techniques, Gillette said. ...

Science in motion

...though there are progenitor cells in the human brain, it is very difficult for the brain to replace large cells such as motor neurons. With their long axons and the sheer distance they have to travel, it is unrealistic to expect that scientists will be able to get human motor neurons to reproduce and reatt...

Biolistic Transfection of Organotypic Brain Slices

...ses to fill all of the small processes of both the dendrites and axons of the neurons by 36 hours (Figure 4). Expression lasts for at l...ns in these slices. Using this method of visualization, even the axons of transfected neurons were visualized for millimeters across th...
axons in Biological Products

Mouse Anti-Rhodopsin Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone RET-P1 from GeneTex

Description:...the photoreceptor cells in the retina. Immunogen: Membrane preparation from adult rat retina. Specificity: This antibody specifically labels the axons andsynaptic pedicles of the rods....
Company:GeneTex

ImageXpress 5000A from Molecular Devices

Description:... because the entire system from the custom-designed optical components to the efficient software user interface is designed and built for screening. axons optical, mechanical and electronics engineers have created a fully-automated inverted epifluorescence microscope with the features you need: efficie...
Company:Molecular Devices
axons in Biological Definition

Axon

...ulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. axons are in effect the primary transmission lines of th... as bundles they help make up nerves . Individual axons are microscopic in diameter--typically about one ...but may extend to macroscopic lengths. The longest axons in the human body, for example, are those of the ...

Brain

...sed of neurons and can be found on the surface of cerebral cortex, as well as in clusters called nuclei deep within the brain. White matter refers to axons and their surrounding myelin insulation, which gives this tissue its white color. White matter is found in bundles of fibers known as tracts which ...

Cell growth

...size of motoneurons usually reflects the size of the motor unit that is controlled by the motoneuron. Invertebrates often have giant neurons and axons that provide special functions such as rapid action potential propagation. Mammals also use this trick for increasing the speed of signals in the ne...

Electrophysiology

...ctroplated with soft gold and platinum black, from chloroplatinic acid. Electrodes of this type are used to measure electrical pulses in unmyelinated axons down to 100 nm. There are four main types of cellular electrophysiological recordings: 1. Intracellular recording. This technique entails impaling...

Neuron

...ng action potentials The narrow cross-section of axons and dendrites lessens the metabolic expense of carrying action potentials, although thicker axons convey the impulses more rapidly, generally speaki...potentials to travel faster than in unmyelinated axons of the same diameter. Formed by glial cells in t...

Neurospora crassa

...d bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota . The genus name, meaning "nerve spore" refers to the characteristic striations on the spores that resemble axons . N. crassa is notable for its use as a model organism in science because it is easy to grow and has a haploid life cycle that makes geneti...

Olfaction

...ame shape and chemical characteristics but have different vibrations. The axons from all the thousands of cells expressing the same odor receptor converge ... The antennae have the sensory neurons in the sensilla and they have their axons terminating in the antennal lobes. These antennal lobes have two kinds of ...

Synapse

... Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites , converting electrical signals into chemical ones. Synapses are specialized junctions through which cells of the nervous s...
axons in Biological Dictionary

Ventral root

...om. Free Trial, Credit Card Required. ... ventral root carries motor axons arising from the gray matter of the ventral spinal cord. ... Ventral r... and lateral gray horns and vary ... The root cells contribute their axons to the ventral roots of the spinal nerves ... Ventral root -cut...

Schwann cells

... The development of Schwann cells , the my ... axons and myelinating Schwann cells attain the one-t...development, some Schwann cells associate with axons in a one-to-one ... Other Schwann cells do not...g Schwann cells are involved in maintenance of axons and are ... PNS: Schwann cell - Neurolemma - N...

Rod cells

...t does rod cell mean? ... rod cell . Also found in: Dictionary/thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia, Hutchinson ... Rod bipolar cells send axons to the inner plexiform layer where they terminate ... Two amacrine cells are key in the rod pathway circuitry through the ... ... a cone, a sin...

Pacinian corpuscles

...Wikipedia. 0.01 sec. ... Pacinian Corpuscle . Pacinian corpuscles are found in subcutaneous tissue ... Pacinian corpuscles 1° afferent axons are most sensitive to vibrating stimuli (e. ... A Pacinian corpuscle is an onion-shaped structure of nonneural ... The Pacinian corpuscles ,...

Optic nerve

..... The optic nerve originates from the confluence of ganglion cell axons as they ... Optic nerve axons congregate into bundles as they pass through thelamina cribrosa. ... Op...

Olfactory nerve

...ory nerve (CN I or 1) ) Bipolar cells in the nasal mucosa give rise to axons that enter the cranial cavity through foramina in the cribriform plate of t...nial nerve I: Olfactory nerve . The olfactory nerve is composed of axons from the olfactory receptors in the ... This is a pure sensory nerve fi...

Olfactory bulb

...tput from the olfactory bulb is carried by the axons of the "principal ... The olfactory bulb in...ttraction and chemorepulsion of olfactory bulb axons by different secreted ... The olfactory bulb...ble control for the ... As the primary olfactory axons re-grew into the bulb , the P2...

Nerves

... A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of peripheral axons . A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons. Nerves are found only in th...

Myelin

...th glial cell: Schwann... myelin also myeline ( ) n. A white fatty material, composed chiefly of lipids and lipoproteins, that encloses certain axons and nerve fibers myelin sheath n. The insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and facilitates the tran...

Motor neuron

...neurons located in the central nervous system (or CNS) that project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. Motor ... A...tor neuron axon extends all the way from the brain down to the ... The axons of these lower motor neurons then exit the spinal cord via the Ventra...
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