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Vertebrates in Medical News

Ancient fossils shed light on anatomical changes accompanying evolution of first land vertebrates

Durham, NC -- Cartoon depictions of the first animals to emerge from the ocean and walk on land often show a simple fish with feet, venturing from water to land. But according to Jennifer Clack, a paleontologist at the University of Cambridge who has studied the fossils of these extinct creatures ...

Limb Regeneration Exists Innately In All Vertebrates – Says Researc

Most of the animals have lost the ability to replace their missing limbs unlike salamander's leg, which has the ability of replacing the missing //leg with a brand new one that sprouts out in no time. Now research teams of Salk Institute for Biological Studies are successful in regenerating a ...

New book summarizes current knowledge on the biology of the vertebrate skeleton

... HARBOR, N.Y. (May 5, 2009) The cells, tissues, and organs that compose the skeletal system provide a supportive yet flexible framework that allows vertebrates to withstand earth's gravity yet remain mobile. Current knowledge about the vertebrate skeleton, especially recent research on skeletal development f...

Big-hearted fish reveals genetics of cardiovascular condition

...alled Heart-of-glass (HEG)-CCM pathway. The HEG-CCM pathway "is essential to regulate endothelial cell-cell interaction, both during the time that vertebrates make the cardiovascular system and later in life," says Kahn. "Its loss later in life confers this previously unexplained disease, cerebral cavernous ...

Evolution and epilepsy

... conserved in the potassium and sodium channels of vertebrates over 350 million years of evolution, from fish to ...ing sea urchins and primitive organisms related to vertebrates called lancelets, sea squirts, and lampreys. The p...served for about 400 million years in all types of vertebrates underlines its importance, as does the fact that e...

Signaling between protein, growth factor is critical for coordinated cell migration

...tes from the zebrafish head to the tail tip, periodically depositing sensory organs. The lateral line sensory system helps zebrafish and other aquatic vertebrates sense water movement. Aman and Piotrowski discovered that both Wnt and Fgf pathway genes are activated. But for proper migration, a cellular divis...

Genome sequence of lancelet shows how genes quadrupled during vertebrate evolution

...led a lancelet provides the best evidence yet that vertebrates evolved over the past 550 million years through a ...ferent functions was important in the formation of vertebrates as we know them." "The most exciting thing that...he lancelet; urochordates like the sea squirt; and vertebrates like us. Cephalocordates and urochordates are inve...

Dr. Mei receives 2008 Mathilde Solowey Lecture Award in Neurosciences

...ynapses where signals are passed from one to the other. His study published this month in Nature Neuroscience provides some of the first proof that in vertebrates such as man, retrograde communication from a target cell such as a muscle cell back to the neuron is critical to neuron health and development. His ...

Short RNA strand helps exposed skin cells protect body from bacteria, dehydration and even cancer

...in type's outer layers. What's more, this expression pattern is identical to that found in humans, zebrafish, chickens and the like -- in other words, vertebrates that evolved more than 400 million years apart. "If it has been expressed in this very specific tissue for a long time and across several species,...

2-way cell talk provides clues about neuromuscular disease

...l fails to produce the protein beta-catenin, its neuron doesnt develop or function properly. Their finding provides some of the first proof that in vertebrates such as man, this retrograde communication from the target cell back to the neuron is essential, says Dr. Lin Mei, corresponding author on research ...
Vertebrates in Medical Technology

West Nile Virus Screening and Diagnostics Technology Emerges In Step with North American Outbreak

...e US. WNVis a positive single-stranded RNA flavivirus of about 11 kb. It primarily infects birds and mosquitoes, with humans, horses, and other vertebrates serving as incidental hosts. The virus was first isolated from a febrile patient in the West Nile region of Uganda in 1937. It remained a little-und...
Vertebrates in Medical Definition

Ramón Carrillo

...der the microscope , as well as on their evolutionary origin ( phylogeny ), and the comparative anatomy of the brain across the several classes of vertebrates . In the same period Ramón Carrillo contributed novel techniques for neurological diagnosis: he refined iodine-contrasted ventriculography, called i...
Vertebrates in Medical Dictionary

Trypanosomiasis

... Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma. More than 66 million women, men, and children in 36 countries of... Human Afr...

Thrombocyte

...yte : A platelet. Crucial to normal blood clotting. ... thrombocyte ( ) n. See platelet . A nucleated, spindle-shaped cell of nonmammalian vertebrates that promotes blood clotting ... is a thrombocyte not a natural ... platelet n. A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the...

Teeth

... Teeth are small whitish structures found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, and chew food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or defense. The roots of... Tee...

Sternum

...rtilage, forming the anterior section of the rib cage with them, and thus helps to... sternum n. , pl. -nums or -na . A long flat bone in most vertebrates that is situated along the ventral midline of the thorax and articulates with This exhibit features the skeletal system with terms which descr...

Rickettsia

...ever. ... Print this Page ... Species in the genus Rickettsia are obligate intracellular symbionts of plants, ... Most Rickettsia -containing vertebrates are secondary ... Rickettsia spp. ... Rickettsia Bellii (2) Rickettsia bellii OSU 85-389. Rickettsia bellii RML369-C. Rickettsia Canaden...

Pus

... Pus is a whitish-yellow, yellow or yellow-brown exudate produced by vertebrates during inflammatory pyogenic bacterial infections. An accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space is known as an abscess, while a visible co...

Lymphocyte

...uman lymphocyte . ... The three major types of lymphocyte are T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells ... B lymphocytes from early vertebrates have potent phagocytic and microbicidal abilities" ... B Cell Development and Generation of Lymphocyte Diversity ... ... are the main con...

Lymph system

... The lymphatic system in vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called lymph . It also includes the lymphoid tissue through which the lymph travels. Lymphoid ...

Liver disorders

... The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals; it has a wide range of functions, a few of which are detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals neces...

Jaw

...es appear more likely to develop jaw disease than patients who do not ... jaw n. Either of two bony or cartilaginous structures that in most vertebrates form the framework of the mouth and hold the teeth List of 55 disease causes of Recessed jaw , patient stories, diagnostic guides. ... Acrofaci...
Vertebrates in Biological News

Scientists find 245 million-year-old burrows of land vertebrates in Antarctica

For the first time paleontologists have found fossilized burrows of tetrapods any land vertebrates with four legs or leglike appendages in Antarctica dating from the Early Triassic epoch, about 245 million years ago. The fossils were created when fine sand from an overflowing river poured i...

The evolutionary foundation of genomic imprinting in lower vertebrates

A Chinese scientist group working in College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, has shown that, as mammalian Igf2 CpG island, goldfish Igf2 CpG island has a parental differentially methylated region (DMR). These results indicate that the evolutionary foundation of genomic imprinting exists in l...

Dartmouth researchers find the root of the evolutionary emergence of vertebrates

HANOVER, N.H. Dartmouth College researchers and colleagues from the University of Bristol in the U.K. have traced the beginnings of complex life, i.e. vertebrates, to microRNA. The researchers argue that the evolution of microRNAs, which regulate gene expression, are behind the origin of early ve...

Climate-caused biodiversity booms and busts in ancient plants and mammals

...e mammal and plant evolution as savanna habitats began to emerge. Until this research, the consensus among paleontologists who study North American vertebrates was that climate played only a background role in supporting the evolution of mammals during the Paleocene and Eocene (65 million to 35 million years ...

Biologists rediscover endangered frog population

... of the San Jacinto Mountain region, the frog was collected at five sites. The San Diego Natural History Museum's team is searching for all species of vertebrates animals with a backbone in a study of biological change in the region. The biologists were in the Tahquitz Valley area the week of June 21 when Drew...

Red List overlooks island species

...the Red List criteria, Martn Esquivel discovered that "almost all relate to vertebrates (above all birds) and plants, and they are all based on continental species...ecies. As invertebrates usually have a smaller distribution area than large vertebrates and birds "the same baseline criteria cannot be used for birds and snails, ...

Super-sleepers could help super-sizers!

...rough a period of torpor to conserve energy when resources are scarce. But when it comes to switching to energy-saving mode, the champion by far among vertebrates is the burrowing frog ( Cyclorana alboguttata ), which can survive for several years buried in the mud in the absence of any food or water. How do the...

7th annual [BC]2 Basel Computational Biology Conference 'Molecular Evolution' June 18-19, 2009

...his group also discovered the homeobox, a DNA segment characteristic for homeotic genes which is present in arthropods and their ancestors and also in vertebrates including man. Derek Smith, Professor of Infectious Disease Informatics, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK, will present on "The a...

Gene evolution process discovered

...some significant gaps in this knowledge. Dr Wood says: "We were curious to look at REST and see what its functions are because it's present in all vertebrates and it is also thought it may have a role to play in certain brain functions, such as levels of intelligence. It was a massive undertaking just to col...

Cantabrian cornice has experienced seven cooling and warming phases over past 41,000 years

...arry out a paleontological survey in the cave of El Mirn. Since then they have focused on analysing the fossil remains of the bones and teeth of small vertebrates that lived in the Cantabrian region over the past 41,000 years, at the end of the Quaternary. The richness, great diversity and good conservation stat...
Vertebrates in Biological Technology

DNA duplication: A mechanism for 'survival of the fittest'

...very old genome duplications in early ancestors of vertebrates and fish. At that time, he showed that these dupli...tions were probably crucial for the development of vertebrates and thus of human beings as well. So, genome dupli...ism that has ensured that the role of our planet's vertebrates and flowering plants has become much greater over ...

Microsurgery on the brain of the fruit fly leads to new insights into irreparable nerve injuries

... study of certain neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's disease). Until recently, scientists could only use model organisms belonging to the vertebrates (e.g., the mouse) to study injuries to the nervous system and the possibility of regenerating damaged axons. However, the fruit fly model is more user...

Glowing zebrafish help researchers track role of sugars in the cell

...which tissues the sugar showed up. "We're hoping to extend the technique to other sugars, too," Baskin said, noting that of the nine sugars used by vertebrates to build carbohydrates, Bertozzi's lab has found artificial surrogates for four of them. "We also want to try getting (artificial sugar) to work in di...

Your Data: Use of pSilencer 1.0-U6 siRNA Expression Vector in the Analysis of Synaptotagmin Location and Function

...Syts) are a family of proteins involved in Ca 2+ -triggered exocytosis (Chapman, 2002; Sdhof, 2002) of which vertebrates express at least 15 isoforms (Sdhof & Rizo, 1996; Rickman et al., 2004). Insulin exocytosis from pancreatic ...
Vertebrates in Biological Products

Corticosterone EIA Kit from IDS Ltd

Description:...f corticosterone in mouse or rat serum or plasma. Corticosterone is the major, if not sole, corticosteroid in rats and mice, and in most non-mammalian vertebrates such as amphibia, birds and reptiles. Most mammals produce both corticosterone and cortisol, in varying proportions. It is therefore critical to look ...
Company:IDS Ltd

Pro-OpioMelanoCortin (POMC) ELISA Kit from IDS Ltd

Description:...-Lipotrophin (-LPH), -endorphin, Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (a-MSH) and more. It is also a very well-conserved molecule, being found in most vertebrates studied, including those "living fossils", the lungfish. The IDS POMC ELISA measures "ACTH precursors" (i.e. measures both POMC and pro-ACTH equally) ...
Company:IDS Ltd

miRCURY LNA Northern Blotting Detection probes from Exiqon

Description:..., the exposure time is reduced to just a few hours. Pre-designed miRCURY LNA Detection probes are available for all known miRNAs in invertebrates, vertebrates and plants, as annotated in the miRNA Registry at The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Custom miRCURY detection probes are available for your own miRN...
Company:Exiqon

miRCURY LNA in situ Detection probes from Exiqon

Description:...malin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Pre-designed miRCURY LNA in situ detection probes are available for all known miRNAs in invertebrates, vertebrates and plants, as registered and annotated in the miRNA Registry at The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Custom miRCURY detection probes are available fo...
Company:Exiqon
Vertebrates in Biological Definition

Animal

... The former are radially symmetric and exclusively marine, such as sea stars , sea urchins , and sea cucumbers . The latter are dominated by the vertebrates , animals with backbones. These include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals . In addition to these, the deuterostomes also incl...

Axon

...atic nerve , which run from the base of the spine to the big toe of each foot. These single-cell fibers may extend a metre or even longer. In vertebrates generally, the axons of many neurons are sheathed in myelin , which is formed by either of two types of glial cells : Schwann cells ensheathing ...

Blood

...) for respiratory pigment (bright green, blue, or orange). In many invertebrates, these oxygen-carrying proteins are freely soluble in the blood; in vertebrates they are contained in specialized red blood cells , allowing for a higher concentration of respiratory pigments without increasing viscosity or dam...

Brain

...squid , and similar mollusks ), and craniates ( vertebrates and their cousins). The brains of arthropods and...e brain is protected by the bones of the skull . vertebrates are characterized by increasing complexity in th...known as allocortex (Martin, 1996). More complex vertebrates like mammals have developed six-layered neocortex...

Cell growth

... cell size control are currently being investigated. The size of post-mitotic neurons depends on the size of the cell body, axon and dendrites. In vertebrates , neuron size is often a reflection of the number of synaptic contacts onto the neuron or from a neuron onto other cells. For example, the size of mo...

Cladistics

...reptile. Similarly, the traditional Invertebrates are paraphyletic because vertebrates are excluded, although the latter evolved from an Invertebrate. A group w...sary for classifying earlier sections of the tree - for instance, the early vertebrates that would someday evolve into the family Hominidae can not be placed in an...

Cryptozoology

...ies have been made since Cuvier's statement (though less than 50 in number). It's been argued that the chances of uncovering large, previously unknown vertebrates are very slender when compared to uncovering unknown invertebrates. It is the commitment to spectacular animals (mostly vertebrates) that makes crypto...

Digestion

...ccurs at the multicellular , cellular , and sub-cellular levels. Digestion usually involves mechanical manipulation and chemical action. In most vertebrates , digestion is a multi-stage process in the digestive system , following ingestion of the raw materials, most often other organisms. The process o...

Embryo

... cotyledons . Once the embryo begins to germinate — grow out from the seed — it is called a seedling . Animals : The embryo of vertebrates is defined as the stages between the first division of the zygote (a fertilized ovum ) until it becomes a foetus . An embryo is called a ...

Epidermis

...Epidermis could refer to: In plants , the outermost layer of cells covering the leaves and young parts of a plant is the epidermis . In vertebrates , epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin . In invertebrates , the outermost layer of cells of the organism. Etymology : 17th Centur...
Vertebrates in Biological Dictionary

Vertebrates

Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata, chordates with backbones or spinal columns. The grouping sometimes includes the hagfish, which have no vertebrae, but are genetically quite closely related to lampreys,... ... article is about four-limbed vertebrates . For the structur...

Virology

...ymposium and Advances in Vaccines ... This journal publishes the results of basic research in all branches of virology , including the viruses of vertebrates and invertebrates, plants, bacteria, and ... virology n. The study of viruses and viral diseases. ... A Short Course on Virology / Vectorology...

Tongue

...as much of the upper surface of the tongue is covered in papillae and taste... tongue n. The fleshy, movable, muscular organ, attached in most vertebrates to the floor of the mouth, that is the principal organ of taste, an aid Tongue piercing Tongue piercing Location Tongue Jewelry Straight b...

Tibia

... The tibia , shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates and connects the knee with the ankle bones. Tibia is a massively multiplayer online roleplaying game (MMORPG) created by CipSoft GmbH. It is one...

Thorax

... Full Text Translator Toolbar Word Games ... Thorax - Definition of Thorax at Dictionary.com a free online dictionary with ... A part in other vertebrates that corresponds to the human thorax . ... Major Muscles of thorax . Diaphragm. Intercostal muscles. Intercostales Externai ... on the back of...

Thrombocytes

...y a key role in blood clotting. In mammals, thrombocytes are anucleated cell fragments called platelets. Nucleated thrombocytes of nonmammalian vertebrates differ from the mammalian thrombocytes not only in having a nucleus and thus resembling B lymphocytes, but also these nucleated thrombocytes do...

Somite

... A somite is a division of the body of an animal. In vertebrates this is mainly discernible in the embryo stage, in arthropods it is a characteristic of a hypothetical ancestor. Definition of somite from the...

Sequencing

...rway on the honey bee (Apis mellifera) ... The Sanger Institute undertakes a number of large scale sequencing projects that range from complex vertebrates through nematodes and invertebrates to bacteria. ... Danio rerio Sequencing Project: ... C57BL/6J Mouse Sequencing : 5 times coverage of the ...

Red blood cells

...es of red blood cells . 3 Mammalian erythrocytes. 4 Human erythrocytes ... red blood cell n. ( Abbr. RBC ) A cell in the blood of vertebrates that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues An anemic person has fewer or smaller than normal red blood cells . ... E...

Poikilothermic

...p Encyclopedia, computing dictionary. ectotherms, animals — the other vertebrates and the invertebrates — that secure ... Ectotherms are "cold-blooded" or... animals do not use their metabolisms to heat or ... poikilothermic vertebrates and invertebrates ... aquatic animals are poikilothermic (cold-blood...
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