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Organelles in Medical News

'Artificial Golgi' may provide new insight into key cell structure

...olleagues point out that Golgi bodies are one of the most poorly understood organelles (specialized structures inside cells) in the human body. Scientists already know, however, that the organelles play a key role in producing heparin, a substance that helps prevent clotti...

Capsules encapsulated

...odegradable and nontoxic", says Brigitte Staedler, a senior researcher in the group, "they would also be suitable for use as resorbable synthetic cell organelles and for the transport of drugs." In addition, the scientists are planning to encapsulate liposomes filled with different enzymes together and to equip...

Zebrafish Journal Publishes Skin Pigmentation Studies That Shed Light on the Evolution of Race

... ornamental traits of the guppy, the link between pigment and fish behavior, and pigment dilution mutants in fish models connected to lysosome-related organelles and vesicular traffic genes. Zebrafish is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published quarterly in print and online. This is the only pe...

Transgenomic Obtains Exclusive License to Mitochondrial DNA Damage Detection Technology

...ng increased oxidative damage within mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles that produce the energy required for cells to function normally. As the "p... About Mitochondrial DNA Tests from Transgenomic Mitochondria are organelles that produce the energy required for cells to function normally. There are...

Researchers identify toehold for HIV's assault on brain

...covered that Tat works through the ryanodine receptor to sicken neurons in two ways. Scientists have known that Tat makes vulnerable the mitochondria, organelles within neurons and other cells that are commonly considered the "power packs" or energy sources for cells. The team discovered that Tat destroys the a...

NYP/Weill Cornell gene therapy clinical trial yields promising results for Batten disease

... the disease, causing a deficiency in the enzyme TTP-1, which is responsible for ridding cells of the central nervous system of waste materials. Small organelles within the cell, called lysosomes, become clogged with toxic material within the neurons of the brain. "It's like the garbage man of the cell is n...

Unexpected role: EGFR protects cancer cells from starving

...se cells died of autophagy - a self-cannibalization response in which a cell under stress or lacking nutrients devours part of its cytoplasm and other organelles to survive. When this response goes on long enough, the cell essentially eats itself until it dies. In cancer research, autophagy is thought to be a s...

Mitochondria play role in pathogenesis of AD and estrogen-induced neuroprotection

...tation Award. He also received an AAA travel award. Mitochondria, small organelles within the cells, use a process called Oxidative Phosphorylation to generat...hese include: an increase of mitochondrial efficiency, enhancing the organelles ability to generate energy-laden ATP molecules needed by the brain; incr...

Scripps scientists find calcium channel blockers help normalize lysosomal storage disease cells

...osomal storage diseases result from deficient enzyme activity that leads to an accumulation of molecules that the enzymes break down in the lysosomes, organelles or subcellular compartments that normally break down macromolecules utilizing hundreds of degradatory enzymes. In many lysosomal storage diseases, mut...

Pathway to cell death redefined in landmark study

...amage caused by the calpain family of cysteine proteases and by neutralizing other cysteine proteases released from injured cellular structures called organelles as they are being digested by the lysosome. As part of their study, Drs. Silverman, Luke and colleagues labeled enzymes within the lysosomes of SRP-6-...
Organelles in Medical Technology

Pressure BioSciences, Inc. Announces $850,000 NIH SBIR Phase II Award for the Development of a New PCT-dependent System for Improved Biomarker Discovery, Diagnostics, and Drug Discovery

...tion of novel, automated, and reproducible methods for the extraction of clinically important protein biomarkers, subcellular molecular complexes, and organelles (such as mitochondria) from cells and tissues using the Company's patented pressure cycling technology ("PCT"). The Grant is for a total of $850,000, ...

Antipodean Pharmaceuticals Announces Completion of Phase 2 Study of Lead Compound MitoQ(R)

...l apoptosis. MitoQ(R) is based on a novel technology, targeted lipophilic cations that transport and concentrate antioxidants into the mitochondria -- organelles inside cells that provide energy for life processes -- where they accumulate up to a thousand fold. About Antipodean Antipodean is a clinical-stag...

Protein Found to Shield Pancreatic Cancer Cells from Self-Destruction

...sis, the cells die via damage to their nucleus and DNA, with other cellular organelles preserved. Autophagy kills by degrading those other organelles while sparing the nucleus. Mehta's lab reported in a Cancer Research pape...
Organelles in Medical Definition

Pathology

...ing to the cell types and nature of the injury. In the short term, cells may activate specific genetic programs to protect their vital proteins and organelles from heat shock or hypoxia , and may activate DNA repair pathways to fix damage to chromosomes from radiation or chemicals. Hyperplasia is...
Organelles in Medical Dictionary

Cilia

...h", from the Latin for "eyelash") (and not spelt " ... Cilia and and flagella are covered by ... Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are specialized organelles found at the periphery ... Although the functions of cilia and flagella have evolved considerably, all of ... ... used, we show actin in cilia ...

Cell

...ellularOutfitter.com. Exclusive warehouse pricing on 1000's of accessories for all major brands. Chapter 1 takes you on a guided tour of the major organelles in the cell , including the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes and mitochondria. Find a variety of cell phones including ...

Bacteria

... and archaea. Some of these organisms are known to perform tasks that are useful for the... Organisms in the Domain Bacteria lack membrane-bound organelles such as the ... All members of Domain bacteria are prokaryotes. ... New pages this week at the web's leading website for sudent microbiology p...
Organelles in Biological News

Spontaneous assembly

...activities and also reproducible for succeeding generations of cells. Eukaryotic cells feature distinct subcellular structures, such as membrane-bound organelles and protein transport systems, whose complex organization is readily apparent. However, there is also complex spatial organization to be found within ...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

...hat mitochondria play as a calcium buffer. One of the mitochondria's functions is to help control the concentration of calcium in the cell, which the organelles can rapidly absorb and store. This capacity is important, particularly in instances when calcium levels in the cell spike during a stroke, a conditio...

Advance in understanding cellulose synthesis

...ment called the actin cytoskeleton that helps move organelles and maintains the cell's shape. They found that it... active cellulose synthase complexes disappear and organelles accumulate just under the plasma membrane. These organelles contain cellulose synthase and are tethered to the...

New data on the breakdown of the KRas protein

...how the KRas protein is actively transported from the cell membrane, where most of its known activity takes place, to the lysosomes. The lysosomes are organelles responsible for breaking down proteins; this breakdown pathway was unknown in the case of KRas. Thanks to videomicroscopy techniques using a confocal ...

Self-digestion as a means of survival

...cess - known as autophagy - takes place in special organelles called autophagosomes. It is a strategy that simpl...ble for getting rid of misfolded proteins, damaged organelles or disease-causing bacteria. If this process m...how autophagosomes know exactly which proteins and organelles they should degrade. "Although autophagy has be...

Artificial cells, simple model for complex structure

...t fills the cell and is crowded with very large molecules. It surrounds the organelles -- tiny organs like mitochondria and the nucleus. Unlike organelles, the cy... is interesting as a major player in cell function. Creating a cell with organelles would be a monumental task, but creating one that exhibits molecular crowdi...

Weizmann Institute scientists show extra copies of a gene carry extra risk

...to discover LIS1's tie to lissencephaly, in 1993. Their latest study shows that it works by helping to determine polarity in the cell how the various organelles are arranged inside the cell as well as where it connects to neighboring cells. Neurons alter their polarity several times during development, especia...

Fluorescent proteins illuminating biomedical research

...usha employed the FTs to demonstrate for the first time how a protein called LAMP-2A, which scavenges cellular debris, is transported to intracellular organelles called lysosomes, where the debris is digested. Understanding this process, which maintains the health of cells and organs, may lead to treatments to...

Mayo Clinic: Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases

..., M.D., professor of neurology at Mayo Clinic. Molecules, vesicles and organelles within a cell are constantly carried via a network of crisscrossing microtu...," says Dr. Farrer. "The insides of neurons are very dynamic. Molecules and organelles are constantly being moved to where they are needed, so it makes sense that...

Novel technique for fluorescence tomography of tumors in living animals

...limited, since beyond a penetration depth of a few hundred micrometers the photons are massively scattered due to interactions with cell membranes and organelles which results in blurred images. In the latest issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Prof. Ntziachristos and his team...
Organelles in Biological Technology

Sub-Micron Gold Particles Are Superior to Larger Particles for Efficient Biolistic Transformation of Organelles and Some Cells

Barbara Randolph-Anderson 1 , John E. Boynton 1 , John Dawson 2 , Erik Dunder 2 , Robert Eskes 3 , Nicholas W. Gillham 1 , Anita Johnson 1 , Philip S. Perlman 3 , Jan Suttie 2 , and William C. Heiser 4 . 1 Developmental, Cell and Molecular Biology Gro...

Cells Exhibition Opens at Maryland Science Center

...alth. Visitors to the exhibition become "cell explorers" in The World Inside a Cell section, where they interact with human-sized cell organelles in an interactive environment enhanced with floating layers of translucent membranes, pulsing light, music and sounds of water. Cell explorers virtual...

Glossary for The BioPharm Guide to Fermentation and Cell Culture

...that produce antibodies. lysosomes Cell organelles containing enzymes, responsible for degrading ...ed eye. microtubules Cellular organelles common in microorganisms: thin tubes tha...ular movement. mitochondria Animal-cell organelles that reproduce using their own DNA. They...

Optimization of Biolistic Transformation Using the Helium-Driven PDS-1000/He System

...n, et al., 1988 a, b), animal (Williams, et al., 1991), and microbial species (Shark, et al., 1991), as well as into subcellular organelles (Johnston, et al., 1988; Daniell, et al., 1991). Achieving high rates of DNA expression in each of these cases often requires th...

Isolation of Microorganisms

...s can be used for cloning and isolating microorganisms (such as bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi) as well as eukaryotic organelles and cell nuclei. The risk of contamination during the identification of non-cultivatable microorganisms from mixed cultures b...
Organelles in Biological Products

Essential Data: Centrifugation from Promega

Description:....C. Ford and J.T. Steensgaard (1994) Compiles core data required by researchers carrying out any centrifugal separation, whether working with cells, organelles or macromolecules....
Company:Promega

Endoplasmic Reticulum Isolation Kit from Sigma-Aldrich

Description:...nd Benefits: Specially formulated extraction reagents for research scale applications - save time and minimize waste Produces functional intact organelles - resulting ER are suitable for metabolic assays and disease state analysis Compatible with products for structure confirmation - easily confirm ...
Company:Sigma-Aldrich

PDS-1000 He System from Bio-Rad

Description:...ssure helium gas to accelerate micron-size nucleic acid-coated gold or tungsten microparticles to velocities necessary to transfect cells, tissues, or organelles without dependence or interaction with the cell surface. The system includes helium pressure regulator, solenoid, spacer rods, microcarrier launch ass...
Company:Bio-Rad
Organelles in Biological Definition

Biology

...cell biology in describing the function of organ systems. Structure of life Schematic of typical animal cell depicting the various organelles and structures Main articles: Molecular biology , Cell biology , Genetics , Developmental biology Molecular biology is the study of bi...

Bacterium

...elatively simple cell structure lacking a cell nucleus , cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts . Their cell structure is further ...ght to be very old organisms, appearing about 3.7 billion years ago. Two organelles , mitochondria and chloroplasts , are generally believed to have been de...

Biological membrane

...ane around peroxisomes shields the rest of the cell from peroxides , and the plasma membrane separates a cell from its surrounding medium. Most organelles are defined by such membranes. Probably the most important feature of a biomembrane is that it is a selectively permeable structure. This means th...

Blood

...l blood is approximately 7.40. The corpuscles are: Red blood cells or erythrocytes (96%). In mammals, these corpuscles lack a nucleus and organelles , so are not cells strictly speaking. They contain the blood's hemoglobin and distribute oxygen. The red blood cells (together with endothelial vess...

Botany

...ith other life forms in biology, plant life can be studied at a variety of levels, from the molecular , genetic and biochemical level through to organelles , cells , tissues , organs and the biodiversity of whole plants. At the top end of this scale, plants can be studied in populations, communities...

Cell biology

...ing ways: Cell fractionation Flow cytometry Release of cellular organelles by disruption of cells. Separation of different organelles by centrifugation . Proteins extracted from membranes by detergents ...

Chloroplast

... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynt...loroplasts are similar to mitochondria but are found only in plants. Both organelles are surrounded by a double membrane with an intermembrane space; both have ...

Genetic code

...election . Origin of the genetic code Numerous variations of the standard genetic code are found in mitochondria , which are energy-producing organelles . Ciliate protozoa also have some variation in the genetic code: UAG and often UAA code for Glutamine (a variant also found in some green algae ...

Cytoplasm

...emi-fluid matter contained within the cell 's plasma membrane , in which organelles are suspended. In contrast to the protoplasm , the cytoplasm does not inc...ll's interior is liquid. The insoluble constituents of the cytoplasm are organelles (such as the mitochondria , the chloroplast , lysosomes , peroxysomes ...

Cytoskeleton

...ton is a cellular " scaffolding " or " skeleton " contained, as all other organelles , within the cytoplasm . It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell sha...cellular transport (asociated with dyneins and kinesins they transport organelles like mitochondria or vesicles .) the axoneme of cilia and flagel...
Organelles in Biological Dictionary

Organelles

Within the cytoplasm, the major organelles and cellular structures include: (1) ... There are many types of organelles , particularly in eukaryotic cells. ... Also, they lack many other internal organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. ... Vacuoles and vesicles are similar in...

Vacuoles

...ies, essays, summaries, research information, and more. ... Vacuoles are organelles of plant, fungal, and ... contractile vacuole n. A membrane-bound or...nt in animals. The vacuoles tend to be so large that they push all other organelles against the ... Bargain prices on Vacuoles , store variety for Vacu...

Thylakoid

...( in metabolism (biology): ATP formation during photosynthesis; ...generates ATP by a mechanism that is similar in principle, if not in detail. The organelles responsible are different from mitochondria, but they also form... A Thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanoba...

RNA editing

...is a site for dissemination of information on all the various types of RNA editing ... Ralph Bock's site on C to U RNA editing in plant organelles ... The types of RNA editing vary from. uridine (U) or cytidine (C) insertions and deletions ... tion in quite dramatic ways, a phenomenon kno...

Ribosomes

...RNA. The ribosomes in... All living cells contain ribosomes , tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 40 percent p... ... structure and function of eukaryotic ribosomes . ... Ribosomes are organelles that consist of RNA ... both cases, the ribosomes usually form aggregate...

Prokaryotes

... do not have a nucleus in which DNA is housed and which lack many of the organelles found in more The Biology Project > Cell Biology > PEV > Prok... the basis of nuclear ... Prokaryotes also lack any of the intracellular organelles and structures that ... Information about Prokaryotes in the free onl...

Plastid

...p from a common type, the proplastid. [ source: GOC:jl, ISBN:0198547684] ... GO:0009536 : plastid [14459 gene products] ... Plastids are the organelles of plants and algae that house photosynthesis and ... Plastids contain a small genome, but most of their proteins are encoded in the ... ...

Plasma membrane

...The plasma membrane of a living cell consists of two layers of phospholipids. ... The plasma membrane and the membranes of the various organelles each have unique ... 50 kinds of proteins have been found in the plasma membrane of red blood cells. ... The plasma membrane , composed o...

Organelle

...inition of Organelle at Dictionary.com a free online dictionary ... Some organelles , such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, have their own genome ... N...lle is a discrete structure of a cell having specialized functions. ... organelles : (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) ... Online Shopping a...

Nucleus

...ed mainly of gray matter ... Nucleus (band), a British jazz-rock band led by Ian Carr ... Cell nucleus The largest of the membrane-bounded organelles which characterize eukaryotic cells; it is thought of as the control center since it nucleus n. , pl. -clei ( ) or -cleuses . A central or essen...
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(Date:9/30/2014)... has been awarded a three-year $1.7 million grant ... develop new imaging technologies and data analysis techniques ... networks of neurons in the brain interact to ... identify the precise interactions between millions of nerve ... and alterations in these interactions that may be ...
(Date:9/30/2014)... (PRWEB) September 30, 2014 The ... option to help diabetics curb their sweet tooth, but ... Nature this September, suggests that zero-calorie sweeteners may ... 2 diabetes. , The Weizmann Institute of Science ... fed artificial sweeteners to mice, the mice developed glucose ...
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(Date:9/30/2014)... environmental scientists and engineers, led by Clemson University ... $5.25 million grant from the U.S. Department of ... make a direct positive impact on South Carolina ... of radioactive contaminants. , "Understanding the scientific and ... environmental aspects of nuclear technologies is imperative if ...
(Date:9/30/2014)... farm runoff in Hawaii is causing tumors in endangered ... study, published Tuesday in the peer-reviewed open-access journal ... up in algae that the turtles eat, promoting the ... internal organs. , Scientists at Duke University, the University ... (NOAA) conducted the study to better understand the causes ...
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