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Organelle in Medical News

'Artificial Golgi' may provide new insight into key cell structure

...searchers note. Their study is scheduled for the Aug. 12 issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society , a weekly publication. The Golgi organelle is named for Camillo Golgi, the Italian scientist and Nobel Prize winner who discovered the structure in 1898. It is composed of a network of sacs, st...

Researchers decipher blood stem cell attachment, communication

...e laboratory of Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Chief of the NICHD Section on organelle Biology. The study's first author was Jennifer Gillette, also of the Section on organelle Biology. Other authors were Andre Larochelle and Cynthia E. Dunbar of the ...

Experimental Biology 2009 meets April 18-22

...lation; chromatin regulation; protein synthesis and turnover; protein folding, aggregation and chaperones; enzymology; membrane proteins, dynamics and organelle biogenesis; drug discovery and design; metabolism and disease mechanisms; receptor signaling, lipid signaling and metabolism. Three Nobel Laureates wi...

Researchers identify toehold for HIV's assault on brain

... to protect themselves from changes in levels of calcium. The scientists discovered another effect of Tat as well. Tat has a dramatic effect on an organelle known as the endoplasmic reticulum, where proteins are actually assembled and folded. Gelbard's team discovered that it's Tat's effects on the ryanodi...

Sullivan wins NSF Career Award for research on therapeutic drug carriers

...make the rough-and-tumble journey from a blood vessel, through the connective tissue, through the cell membrane, and finally into the nucleus or other organelle within a target cell where the package will open up to deliver its contents. "It's a challenge to achieve because in protecting the DNA or drug, yo...

UC Davis researchers find evidence of mature heart cell potential in embryonic stem cells

...nse to those signals. This link, called the excitation-contraction coupling, is dependent on the cells ability to move calcium ions across an internal organelle known as sarcoplasmic reticulum, or the so-called calcium store. The ability to handle calcium is disrupted in the cells of patients who experience he...

Customized virus kills brain tumor stem cells that drive lethal cancer

... devour themselves until they die. This self-cannibalization, called autophagy, occurs when a cell forms a membrane around part of its cytoplasm or an organelle and then digests the contents, leaving a cavity. A cell that dies from autophagy is riddled with cavities. Cells normally employ autophagy temporar...

Unfolded Proteins May Protect Cells from Dying

...n autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), which causes blindness. Unfolded proteins linked to ADRP accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum, an organelle where proteins are manufactured and packaged for transport to the cell surface, unlike some other forms of the unfolded protein response that occur in...

Montreal Researchers And US Develop Model Of Key Immune-System Component

... time, using a systems biology approach, they have developed a model that facilitates the study of the function of the phagosome. The phagosome is the organelle responsible for the destruction of infectious pathogens that cause such diseases as tuberculosis and salmonellosis, as well as pathogens that could be...

Two Chemical Compounds Restore Healthy Glucose Levels In Obese Mice

...ins and lipids are manufactured, processed, and shipped around the cell. When unusual demands - such as excess fat - are put on the ER's capacity, the organelle starts failing, and the cell enters an emergency mode, emitting stress signals. The condition is called ER stress. Cellular inflammation, insulin resi...
Organelle in Medical Technology

Raven Announces Initiation of a RAV12 Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

... directly cytotoxic to a human colon cancer cell line in vitro through induction of oncotic cell death, a form of cell death characterized by cell and organelle swelling and loss of membrane integrity; second, the antibody mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; third, the antibody mediates compleme...

Raven Announces Completion of Enrollment in the Phase 1/2a Clinical Trial of RAV12 Therapeutic Antibody for the Treatment of Adenocarcinomas

... directly cytotoxic to a human colon cancer cell line in vitro through induction of oncotic cell death, a form of cell death characterized by cell and organelle swelling and loss of membrane integrity; second, the antibody mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; third, the antibody mediates compleme...

Raven Announces Continued Enrollment of Phase 1/2a Clinical Trial of RAV12 Therapeutic Antibody for Treatment of Adenocarcinomas

... directly cytotoxic to a human colon cancer cell line in vitro through induction of oncotic cell death, a form of cell death characterized by cell and organelle swelling and loss of membrane integrity; second, the antibody mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; third, the antibody mediates compleme...

Raven Announces Phase 1 Clinical Trial Results of RAV12 Therapeutic Antibody for Treatment of Adenocarcinomas

... directly cytotoxic to a human colon cancer cell line in vitro through induction of oncotic cell death, a form of cell death characterized by cell and organelle swelling and loss of membrane integrity; second, the antibody mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; third, the antibody mediates compleme...

Protein Found to Shield Pancreatic Cancer Cells from Self-Destruction

...s called vacuoles. When autophagy occurs, a double membrane forms around a cell organ, or organelle. This autophagosome then merges with a digestive organelle called a lysosome and everything inside is consumed, leaving the vacuole and a residue of digested material. If enough of this happens, the cell dies....
Organelle in Medical Dictionary

Cilia

... A cilium (plural cilia ) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are tail-like projections extending approximately 5–10 micrometers from the cell body. Flagella also tend to ...

Antibody

...y (N-term) Cell Function, SENP3 ... Western blot analysis of SENP3 N-term polyclonal antibody (Cat. ... Antibody Review. Cell Markers Review. organelle Markers Review. Tumor Markers Review ... Specific Antibodies Review. Antibody Applications ... Antibody Therapy ... Archive of avian (chicke...
Organelle in Biological News

Yale researchers uncover secrets of salmonella's stealth attack

...lated within a tiny bubble-like compartment called a vesicle. SopB's second trick helps prevent the vesicle from being sucked into the lyosome, the organelle within the cell that degrades proteins. In order to accomplish this, SopB must move from the plasma membrane of the cell to the membrane of the inter...

A budding role for a cellular dynamo

...networks of filaments that give the cell structural plasticity while driving many essential functions, from cell motility and division, to vesicle and organelle transport within the cell. In a groundbreaking new study in the current issue of Developmental Cell , Brandeis researchers raise the curtain on how t...

How Toxoplasma gondii gets noticed

...n. They find that the parasite gets noticed by the immune system when the membrane of the bug-containing vesicle fuses to the endoplasmic reticuluman organelle normally involved in presenting pathogens to T cellsallowing a swap of parasitic peptides. ...

IRB Barcelona to coordinate two European projects on biomedicine

... alterations in a disease". The six groups that comprise the consortia seek to identify the processes that occur in mitochrondria an intracellular organelle that transforms molecules from the food we ingest into energy -, and that are responsible for insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone generated by th...

Bacterial biofilms as fossil makers

...l undergo "autolysis," or self-destruction, as digestive enzymes get free and wreak havoc. Without oxygen, autolytic enzymes remain stuck inside their organelle prisons. "The next step, we believe, is that bacteria able to survive in low-oxygen conditions must then infest the cells of the dying embryo," Raf...

Proteomics study yields clues as to how tuberculosis might be thwarting the immune system

...pes of proteins in the membrane of a phagosome, an organelle of macrophages (a type of white blood cell) that e...rlier proteomic studies, which profiled the entire organelle and focused on abundant water-soluble protein spec...new light on the diverse functions and pathways an organelle may engage in." The LC3-II protein is a critica...

Mitochondrial cholesterol makes response to chemotherapy difficult in hepatic cancer

... Biomdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), is centred in the mitochondrion and its role in programmed cell death or apoptosis. The mitochondrion is the organelle in charge of the cell's respiration and of energy generation to satisfy important metabolic functions, which are altered in cancer. In an article publ...

Undergrad has sweet success with invention of artificial Golgi

...y to solve it. Cells build sugars in a cellular organelle known as the Golgi Apparatus. Under a microscope, ...imilar to a stack of pancakes. The strange-looking organelle finishes the process of protein synthesis by decor...way to the natural Golgi, but he gives the ancient organelle a very high-tech makeover. His chip looks similar ...

72 new members chosen by Academy

...ord Institute of Theoretical Physics, department of physics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. LIPPINCOTT-SCHWARTZ, JENNIFER; chief, section on organelle biology, cell biology and metabolism branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. ...

Legionnaire's bacterial proteins work together to survive

...ort of the vacuole formed after macrophages ingest the bacterium, Roy said. It hijacks the vacuole and directs it to be transported to a nutrient-rich organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum, where the bacteria replicate in high numbers. Roy and his colleagues identified the Legionella proteins that are...
Organelle in Biological Technology

Researchers at the University of Georgia Discover Protein is Crucial to Reproduction of Parasites Involved in Disease

...ditional functions, and it is these functions that the parasites require. Since humans do not have chloroplasts, the parasite's dependence on this organelle is viewed by reseachers as an Achilles heel. Scientists are interested in the group to which Toxoplasma belongs, the Apicomplexa, because it incl...

Raven Announces RAV12 Phase 1/2a Study Results To Be Presented at ASCO

... directly cytotoxic to a human colon cancer cell line in vitro through induction of oncotic cell death, a form of cell death characterized by cell and organelle swelling and loss of membrane integrity; second, the antibody mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; third, the antibody mediates compleme...

Glossary for The BioPharm Guide to Fermentation and Cell Culture

...cturing practices required by FDA regulations. Golgi body A cell organelle consisting of stacked membranes where post translational modifica...cerous, usually by removing the normal constraints on its growth. organelle A structurally discrete component that performs a certain func tion insi...

A Robust LC/MS/MS Method for the Quantitation of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids for Research into the Characterization of Peroxisomal Disorders

... Purpose The peroxisome is a cellular organelle that plays an important role in a number of functions, including the beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Peroxisomal disorders are ...

Sub-Micron Gold Particles Are Superior to Larger Particles for Efficient Biolistic Transformation of Organelles and Some Cells

...f mitochondria in the green alga Chlamydomonas, Meth. Enzymol., 264 , 279-296 (1996). 4. Butow, R. A. and Fox, T. D., organelle transformation: shoot first, ask questions later, Trends in Biochem., 15 , 465-468 (1990). 5. Butow, R. A., Belcher, S. M., Mora...

Separation and Comparison of Proteins From Virulent and Nonvirulent Strains of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Using a 2-D Electrophoretic Approach

...Proteins To identify hydrophilic (primarily cytoplasmic nonmembrane proteins) and hydrophobic proteins associated with cell or organelle membranes, a method for sequential extraction was developed using the ReadyPrepTM sequential extraction kit. Briefly, proteins w...

The Bio-Rad Silver Stain, Rev E

...Anal Biochem 141, 311315 (1984) 65. Noll H et al., Characterization of toposomes from sea urchin blastula cells: a cell organelle mediating cell adhesion and expressing positional information, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82, 80628066 (1985) 66. Oesch B et al., A ce...

Getting Started with MicroRNA Research

... studies require quantitative, phenotypic assays (e.g., protein level, activity, or modification; protein or organelle transport; cell morphology or number; cell cycle status; membrane potential; calcium content; etc.) that can...

New Mammalian Expression Vectors Employ Stable, High-Level Fluorescence Humanized Renilla GFP Reporter

...de subcellularly localized proteins. In Figure 3, each fluorescent microscope photograph shows hrGFP expression localized to the organelle that corresponds to the appropriate fusion protein. These data confirm that the phrGFP-N1 and phrGFP-C protein fusion vectors provide ...
Organelle in Biological Definition

Organelle

In cell biology , an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell . Organelles were historically identified through the use of some form of microscopy and were also identified through the use of cell fractionation . ...

Biological membrane

...lecules attempting to cross it will determine whether they succeed to do so. Selective permeability is essential for effective separation of a cell or organelle from its surroundings. If a particle is too large or otherwise unable to cross the membrane by itself, but is still needed by a cell, it could eithe...

Cell biology

...ytoskeleton Endoplasmic reticulum Flagella Glycolysis Golgi apparatus Lipid bilayer Membrane Mitochondrion Nucleus organelle Passive transport Ribosome Signal transduction Vesicle Important publications in cell biology External links The V...

Cell nucleus

...ology , the nucleus (from Latin nucleus or nuculeus , kernel) is an organelle , found in the majority of eukaryotic cells , which contains most of the...ormation needed for cellular division . The nucleus, being the largest organelle , varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres . It is enclosed by a doubl...

Centriole

... A centriole in biology is a hollow cylindrical organelle found in most animal cells , and cells of fungi and algae though not frequently in plants . The walls of each centriole are composed of nine...

Centrosome

... A centrosome , the connecting point of a centriole , an organelle , is the portion of a cell where microtubules are manufactured. Its structure, since it acts as a nexus for cell activity, facilitates cell divi...

Endoplasmic reticulum

... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER (endoplasmic means "within the cytoplasm ", reticulum means "little net") is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells . The ER modifies proteins , makes macromolecules , and transfers substances throughout the cell. Prokaryotic organ...

Endomembrane system

...out of the cell. The nuclear envelope is the membrane around the nucleus of the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum is a synthesis and transport organelle [the endoplasmic reticulum is an extension of the nuclear envelope]. The Golgi apparatus acts as the packaging and delivery system for molecules. ...

Eukaryote

... radiolaria and heliozoa , which produce axopodia used in flotation or to capture prey, and the haptophytes , which have a peculiar flagellum-like organelle called the haptonema. Reproduction Nuclear division is often coordinated with cell division . This generally takes place by mitosis , a pr...

Flagellum

... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. They may also be involved in other processes. The name actually co...
Organelle in Biological Dictionary

Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle gəˡnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane. In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is us...

Vacuoles

... A vacuole is a membrane organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, anim...es of plant, fungal, and ... contractile vacuole n. A membrane-bound organelle found in certain protists that pumps fluid in a cyclical manner from withi...

Vacuole

... A vacuole is a membrane organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells...aste contractile vacuole n. A membrane-bound organelle found in certain protists that pumps fluid in a c... to maintain the ... A vacuole is a membrane organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells...

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

... The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a eukaryotic organelle that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae within cells. The lacey membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were firs...

Ribosome

...serves as the site of assembly ribosome an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell; ribosomes ... (A) and large subunit (B) ... A ribosome is an organelle composed of rRNA (synthesized in the nucleolus) a...Unit ... In cell biology, a ribosome is an organelle composed of RNA and ribosomal ... A triennial con...

Ribosomal RNA

...es (assemblies of amino acids that make up proteins) ... Ribosomal RNA . Ribosomal RNA (or rRNA) is synthesized in the nucleolus, a small organelle ... Retrieved from "http://en.citizendium.org /wiki/ RNA " ... What is ribosomal RNA ? Meaning of ribosomal RNA medical term. What does ri...

Plasma membrane

...cules, plus ... A cell membrane (also known as a plasma membrane ) is a thin semifluid structure that separates the contents of a cell or organelle from its surroundings. SPATIAL MAPPING OF RAS PROTEINS ON THE PLASMA MEMBRANE ... A NEW MODEL FOR RAS PLASMA MEMBRANE MICRO-ORGANIZATION. ...

Peroxisome

...ia (1) Peroxisome . Back to top. Try AmiGO Labs. GO database ... Britannica online encyclopedia article on peroxisome (biology), membrane-bound organelle occurring in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Peroxisomes contain enzymes ... Brief and Straightforward Guide: What is a Peroxisome ? ... A...

Organelles

...he rest of the cell by lipid bi-layers ... organelle ( ) n. A differentiated structure within a cell, ...ondrion n. , pl. -dria . A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells...hink of organelles as small organs. ... NCBI organelle Genome Resources is a collection of ...

Nucleus

...quot;control center", is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of th...ress ... The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information and administrative...t 10 ... The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information and administrative...
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