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Mitochondrion in Medical News

Key protein in cellular respiration discovered

...now discovered a new function for a protein in the mitochondrion popularly called the cell's power station that p...ration depends on proteins synthesised outside the mitochondrion and imported into it, and on proteins synthesised inside the mitochondrion from its own DNA. Researchers at Karolinska Instit...

Transgenomic Obtains Exclusive License to Mitochondrial DNA Damage Detection Technology

...dria are organelles that produce the energy required for cells to function normally. There are hundreds of mitochondria in each cell, and within each mitochondrion are approximately 5 to 10 circular mtDNA molecules. These are maternally inherited, distinct from nuclear DNA, and encode a small number of mitochondr...

Yeast gives rise to new concept: cell fuel is 'brains' behind division

...l Public Library of Science-Genetics. The research was funded by the National Institute of Health. The finding changes the traditional view of the mitochondrion from an energy depot at the service of its larger cellular host to a command center that directs cell division, Polymenis said. The researcher...
Mitochondrion in Biological News

Cutting calories could limit muscle wasting in later years

...ts found in every cell. The excess iron affects the chemistry inside the mitochondria, sparking the formation of harmful free radicals that can lead a mitochondrion straight to the emergency exit, said Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Ph.D., a UF professor of aging in the UF College of Medicine and the Institute on Aging....

Mitochondrial cholesterol makes response to chemotherapy difficult in hepatic cancer

...es August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), is centred in the mitochondrion and its role in programmed cell death or apoptosis. The mitochondrion is the organelle in charge of the cell's respirati... its fluidity and response to several stimuli. The mitochondrion contains indispensable molecules so that the cell ...

Boston College profs study oxidative stress subcellular to discover its role in diseases

...rating compounds that cause oxidative stress, the Boston College researchers have targeted specific locations within the cell notably the nucleus and mitochondrion and observed how these molecules interact with nucleic acids (DNA). This will make it easier to determine what parts of a cell are most likely to com...

Zebrafish to shed light on human mitochondrial diseases

...orders, according to researchers at the University of Oregon. COX deficiencies refer to a breakdown of cytochrome coxidase, an enzyme located in the mitochondrion of every cell. Mitochondria are crucial cellular workhorses that provide chemical energy. Research of the deficiency has been stymied by a lack of mod...

Researchers create artificial enzyme that mimics the body's internal engine

...urce Many organisms, including humans, derive their energy from tiny organelles in cells known as mitochondria. Embedded in the membrane of each mitochondrion is a structure called the electron transport chain, which produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that is the source of the cell's energy. T...

Mitochondrial genes move to the nucleus -- but it's not for the sex

...lly or are capable of self-pollinating have transferred more genes from the mitochondrion to the nucleus," said graduate student Yaniv Brandvain, lead author of the ...lear genomes replicate separately, and a new and beneficial mutation in the mitochondrion could be separated from partner genes in the nucleus -- in the production o...

Hopkins researchers discover genetic switch that turns off an oxygen-poor cell's combustion engine

...is that this genetic switch actively shuts off the mitochondrion under low oxygen conditions, apparently to protect...disruption of this link blocks the tendency of the mitochondrion to make toxic molecules as it struggles to produce...t into the TCA cycle within the mitochondrion. The mitochondrion then processes acetyl CoA using oxygen to obtain l...

New protein vital for immune response is found in surprise location

... or activity may be a viable option for boosting immune responses against viral diseases." The fact that MAVS is located within the membrane of the mitochondrion makes sense for a couple of reasons, Dr. Chen said. First, proteins housed within the mitochondria have been shown by researchers, such as UT Sout...

A human parasite with a streamlined mitochondrion

...equiring reactions within the mitosome but might not perform other functions. The work suggests that the Entamoeba mitosome may represent the simplest mitochondrion yet described, and thus it provides a model system for probing which mitochondrial functions are truly essential for eukaryotic cells. ...

Novel ultrafast laser detection of cancer cells also may improve understanding of stem cells

...ng state. Apparently, the rapidly growing cancer cells derive energy from an alternative source such as free glucose in the cell." Fortunately, the mitochondrion is nearly the same size as the light wavelength of about 800 nanometers, a frequency otherwise little absorbed by the body. Because of this close matc...
Mitochondrion in Biological Products

Mouse Anti-Porcine Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH), complex Immunocapture Kit Monoclonal Antibody, Protein G-Agarose Conjugated, Clone 15D3G9C11 from MitoScience LLC

Description:...onal modification of the complex. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in energy metabolism. It converts pyruvate that has been transported into the mitochondrion into the 2-carbon molecule acetyl-CoA for subsequent breakdown in the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle). PDH activity is under tight control through pho...
Company:MitoScience LLC
Mitochondrion in Biological Definition

Mitochondrion

In cell biology , a mitochondrion (from Greek mitos thread + khondrion granule) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells , including those of plants , animals , fungi , and protists . A few cells, such as the trypanosome protozoan , have a single large mitochondrion, but...

Mitochondrion

In cell biology , a mitochondrion (from Greek mitos thread + khondrion granule) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells , including those of plants , animals , fungi , and protists . A few cells, such as the trypanosome protozoan , have a single large mitochondrion, but...

Adenosine triphosphate

...ruvate in the cytosol . Two molecules of ATP are generated for each molecule of glucose. The terminal stages of ATP synthesis are carried out in the mitochondrion and can generate up to 36 ATP. ATP in the human body The total quantity of ATP in the human body is about 0.1 mole . The energy used by huma...

Apoptosis

...c integrity, and massive activation of PARP-1 can deplete the cell of energy-providing molecules, an event that sends signals from the nucleus for the mitochondrion to start the apoptotic process. Homeostasis In the adult organism, the number of cells within an organ or tissue has to be constant within ...

ATP synthase

...bunit types. Yeast ATP synthase Yeast ATP synthase is the most complex known and is made of 20 different types of subunits. See also mitochondrion chloroplast electron transfer chain proton pump transmembrane ATPase External links "ATP synthase - a splendid molecula...

Cell biology

... Cilia Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Endoplasmic reticulum Flagella Glycolysis Golgi apparatus Lipid bilayer Membrane mitochondrion Nucleus Organelle Passive transport Ribosome Signal transduction Vesicle Important publications in cell biology E...

Cellular respiration

...ion) Aerobic respiration requires oxygen . It is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown. A molecule of pyruvate acid travels into a mitochondrion entering the Krebs cycle . In this process it is broken down producing energy in the form of ATP (which travels to the cell), NADH and FADH2 whi...

Chemiosmotic hypothesis

...smotic Hypothesis is the proposal in 1961, by Peter D. Mitchell, that the mitochondrion functioned as a kind of electrochemical capacitor , using the energy of ...78, Peter Mitchell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry . see also: mitochondrion , chloroplasts , chemiosmotic potential , electron transfer chain , cyt...

Crista

... Cristae are the infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion . They are studded with proteins, including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes , and function in cellular respiration . They provide more...

Electron transfer chain

...arious poisons . Among them we can cite carbon monoxide , cyanide , azide , antimycin , amytal and rotenone . See also: cytochrome mitochondrion chloroplast ...
Mitochondrion in Biological Dictionary

Mitochondrion

In cell biology, a mitochondrion is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These organelles range from 0.5–10 micrometers (μm) in diameter. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power... membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of almost...

Ribosomes

...ction at the Department of Chemistry and ... Ribosomes occur in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. ... Interestingly, the ribosomes in the mitochondrion of eukaryotic cells resemble ... This can be done in the cytoplasm on clusters of ribosomes , called "polyribosomes" ... These ribosomes pr...

Organelles

... organelle ( ) n. A differentiated structure within a cell, such as a mitochondrion, vacuole, or chloroplast, that performs a specific function mitochondrion n. , pl. -dria . A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and These o...

Organelle

...tructures are to cells what ... Information about organelle in the free online English dictionary and ... cell organ, cell organelle ... mitochondrion - an organelle containing enzymes ... So what is an organelle ? (I know you know this but we'll review just to make sure. ... Pick an organe...

Mitochondrial membrane

... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is a membrane -enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These... products] GO:0005741 : mitochondrial outer membrane [268 gene ... mitochondrion n. , pl. -dria . A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of...

Mitochondria

... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most ...ria ATP machinery laser-etched in crystal ... mitochondrion n. , pl. -dria . A spherical or elongated organe...ures, or organelles, found in the cytoplasm ... mitochondrion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ... ... and...

Intermembrane space

...en the inner membrane and the outer membrane of a mitochondrion or a chloroplast. The main function of the inter... space of mitochondria Simplified structure of mitochondrion Because of channels in the outer membrane of the ... Intermembrane space Simplified structure of a mitochondrion Simplified structure of a chloroplast The inte...

FADH2

...ecule, and it can be used as ... FADH2 is reoxidized to FAD, which produces enough of a proton gradient across ... Describe the structure of the mitochondrion and know where acetyl ... FAD, FADH2 . terminal oxidase. Lecture Outline: ... 2 ATP's made per oxidation of FADH2 ... ... are then passed to ...

Electron transport chain

...uch as O2) to the transfer of H+ ions across a membrane, through a set of mediating biochemical... The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative ... 3 Eukaryotic electron transport chains . 3.1 NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase (complex I) ... Definitions of...

Cristae

..., thesaurus, Word of the Day, and word games. The inner membrane of the mitochondrion folds inwards, forming the cristae . ... evidence that subunits of ATP sy...ction of micrographs. Chapter 2: Paramecium ... Fig. 18: QF-DE of isolated mitochondrion showing F1F0 synthases on tubular cristae ... What is embedded in the...
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(Date:10/15/2014)... the 44th Rosenstiel Award for Distinguished Work in Biomedical ... the mechanisms of genomic instability and its implications for ... second alumnus to win the Rosenstiel Award; the first, ... Alt is the Charles A. Janeway Professor of Pediatrics ... an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at ...
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