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Midbrain in Medical News

Ceregene Presents Additional Clinical Data from Phase 2 Trial of CERE-120 for Parkinson's Disease

... as glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). The two molecules have similar pharmacological properties, and both have been shown to benefit the midbrain dopamine neurons that degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Degeneration of these neurons is responsible for the major motor impairments of Parkinson's ...

University of Pennsylvania researchers find that the unexpected is a key to human learning

.... They used microelectrode recordings obtained during deep brain stimulation surgery of Parkinson's patients to study neuronal activity in the SN, the midbrain structure that plays an important role in movement, as well as reward and addiction. Patients with Parkinson's disease show impaired learning from bot...

Are anxiety disorders all in the mind?

...ine systems. Once administered, the radiotracer revealed functional alterations in these systems by measuring the radioactive binding in the thalamus, midbrain and pons (known to be acted upon by serotonin) and in the striatum (known to be acted upon by dopamine). The altered uptake activity in these regions ...

UC-Irvine scientists present groundbreaking research at Society for Neuroscience conference

...nts with hypertension. In this study, the researchers identified specific acupoints on hypertensive patients that trigger neurons in the hypothalamus, midbrain and medulla to release chemicals that reduce excitatory responses in the cardiovascular system. This resulted in a decrease in heart activity and its ...

MIT IDs binocular vision gene

...here are other instances in the brain where two different inputs have to be properly aligned and matchedsuch as auditory and visual projections to the midbrain that enable us to orient to sound, said lead author Mriganka Sur, Sherman Fairchild Professor of Neuroscience at the Picower Institute and head of th...

Neural Stem Cells Reduce Parkinsons Symptoms in Monkeys

...ining if this would be of any value in clinical settings. Parkinsons disease is caused by a degeneration of dopamine neurons in an area of the midbrain known as the substantia nigra, which is responsible for dopamine production. Reduced production of dopamine in late stage Parkinsons causes symptoms ...
Midbrain in Biological News

Phasic firing of dopamine neurons is key to brain's prediction of rewards

...hington at Seattle to study the firing patterns of midbrain dopamine neurons in mice during reward-based learn...t functional link between the bursting activity of midbrain dopamine neurons and behavior. The research has s...lso a member of UTSA's Neurosciences Institute. midbrain dopamine neurons fire in two characteristic modes,...

Mayo Clinic: Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases

...ubsequent study published in August 2008, the consortium reported that eight patients who died from the disease had substantial loss of neurons in the midbrain area known as the substantia nigra. They also found a molecular signature of Perry syndrome "inclusions," or clumps, of a protein known as TDP-43 wh...

Study first to pinpoint why analgesic drugs may be less potent in females than in males

... likely due to sex differences in mu-opioid receptor expression in a region of the brain called the periaqueductal gray area (PAG). Located in the midbrain area, the PAG plays a major role in the modulation of pain by housing a large population of mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons. Morphine and simila...

Caltech scientists engineer supersensitive receptor, gain better understanding of dopamine system

...as ADHD, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. "By uncovering the biological role of these receptors, especially with regard to their role in the midbrain dopamine system, we show that they are excellent drug targets," says Drenan. ...

Obesity predisposition traced to the brain's reward system

... The researchers measured electrically-evoked dopamine release from nerve terminals. "We also measured regulators of dopamine synthesis and release in midbrain dopamine pathways," explains Brenda Geiger, first author and graduate student in the pharmacology and experimental therapeutics department at TUSM. "O...

Early exposure to common weed killer impairs amphibian development

...tadpoles showed significant increases in caspase-3 levels in the kidney and midbrain at 12 hours and beyond when compared with controls. The findings indicated...opic, or abnormal, apoptosis. "The increased levels of apoptosis in the midbrain and pronephric kidney we observe suggest that atrazine may cause tissue mal...

Morphine makes lasting -- and surprising -- change in the brain

...stunning," Kauer said. "This is your brain on drugs." Kauer recorded the phenomenon in the ventral tegmental area, or VTA, a small section of the midbrain that is involved in the reward system that reinforces survival-boosting behaviors such as eating and sex ?a reward system linked to addiction. The aff...

Frog’s ear canal may provide insights for understanding human hearing loss

...ons showed that males were capable of hearing and responding to ultrasounds. The scientists then measured the electrical activities in A. tormotus' midbrain that is involved in sound processing and found marked electrical responses to sounds extending into the ultrasonic range -- both in the averaged respo...

Scientists discover the body's marijuana-like compounds are crucial for stress-induced pain relief

...n, causing it to be active longer, Hohmann said. Apparently, several parts of the brain are involved in the effect, most notably a structure in the midbrain known as the periaqueductal gray. In this region, stress causes the release of the naturally occurring marijuana-like compounds in the brain. A dru...

Brain Scans Reveal How Gene May Boost Schizophrenia Risk

... risk for schizophrenia and a signature pattern of midbrain dopamine activity.** To see how the two gene ve... midbrain. Frontal cortex activity increased as midbrain dopamine activity increased in subjects with val, ...ch is marked by too little prefrontal and too much midbrain dopamine, the dial is turned "way up," the NIMH re...
Midbrain in Biological Technology

Ceregene Receives Additional Grant From Michael J. Fox Foundation to Expand Long-Term Testing of CERE-120 Patients

... as glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). The two molecules have similar pharmacological properties, and both have been shown to benefit the midbrain dopamine neurons that degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Degeneration of these neurons is responsible for the major motor impairments of Parkinson's ...
Midbrain in Biological Products

Mouse Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation Kit, 2nd Generation from R&D Systems

Description:...mygdala, lateral septum and ventral hippocampus). The basic organization of midbrain dopamine neurons and their projections is consistent across most mammalians. The midbrain dopamine projections to the striatum have been among the most extensively s...
Company:R&D Systems
Midbrain in Biological Definition

Brain

...major parts is used: hindbrain ( medulla oblongata and metencephalon ), midbrain ( mesencephalon ) and forebrain ( diencephalon and telencephalon ). Va...ephelon pons cerebellum mesencephalon tectum midbrain tegmentum crus cererbri prosencephalon diencephalon epi...
Midbrain in Biological Dictionary

Midbrain

In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain ) comprises the tectum, tegmentum, the ventricular mesocoelia (or "iter"), and the cerebral peduncles, as well as several nuclei and fasciculi. Caudally the mesencephalon... The midbrain tegmentum is the part of the midbrain ex...

Medulla oblongata

...com a free ... The medulla oblongata is connected by the pons to the midbrain and is continuous ... Medulla oblongata . You don't need to be Edito...ile and ... The medulla oblongata is connected by the pons to the midbrain and is continuous ... For a definition of " medulla oblongata (anatomy)...

Hindbrain

...ombencephalon (or hindbrain ) is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates. Introduction Forebrain midbrain Hindbrain Spinal Cord Cerebral Vasculature ... Disorders that affect the hindbrain . Region. Disorder. Cerebellum. Medulla ... hindbrain . back...

Forebrain

... diencephalon n. The posterior part of the forebrain that connects the midbrain with the cerebral hemispheres, encloses the third ventricle, and Shop f...brain and preoptic-anterior hypothalamic ... Identify the forebrain , midbrain and hindbrain. ... prosencephalon- (= forebrain ), the most cranial portio...
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