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Evolutionarily in Medical News

Structures from the human immune system's oldest branch shed light on a range of diseases

...or systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as give insight into the pathogenesis of other immune and inflammatory diseases. The complement system, an evolutionarily old arm of the immune system, comprises a network of proteins that "complement" the work of antibodies in destroying foreign invaders. They serve as a...

Wistar Institute team finds key target of aging regulator

... Researchers at The Wistar Institute have defined a key target of an evolutionarily conserved protein that regulates the process of aging. The study, published June 11 in Nature , provides fundamental knowledge about key mechanisms o...

Synthetic peptoids hold forth promise for new antibiotics

...cribing the research in the Feb. 26 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Natural peptides Anti-microbial peptides are evolutionarily ancient infection fighters found in organisms from grasses to amphibians to humans. In the human body, the peptides show up in the mouth, lungs and in...

Cancer stem cell marker also drives transcription in normal cells

...lls. Two separate studies, published by Cell Press in the January 18th issue of Molecular Cell, provide insight into novel subunits associated with an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulatory complex and reveal a previously undescribed chromatin function that is required for full activity of nuclear rece...

Evolution of human genome's 'guardian' gives people unique protections from DNA damage

...cell growth, initiate repairs or, if needed, apoptotic cell death. Apoptotic, or programmed cell death capability in the p53 network, is thought to be evolutionarily conserved throughout the development of vertebrate species and was probably established after the divergence of vertebrates and non-vertebrates. DNA m...

FOXO factor promotes survival of oxygen-deprived cancer cells

... Scientists report that an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor may have both positive and negative effects ...pendent increase in a protein called FOXO3a. FOXO transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved proteins that are critical regulators of cell survival under stre...

Level of oxytocin in pregnant women predicts mother-child bond

... Humans are hard-wired to form enduring bonds with others. One of the primary bonds across the mammalian species is the mother-infant bond. evolutionarily speaking, it is in a mothers best interest to foster the well-being of her child; however, some mothers just seem a bit more maternal than others do. ...

Heat shock proteins are co-opted for cancer

...n, in which brain cells die slowly over time. In cancer, the opposite is true: cancer cells dont die. Ironically, cancer cells hijack and exploit this evolutionarily conserved self-protective function of HSF1. In fact, he says, cancer cells appear much more sensitive than normal cells to the loss of HSF1 functio...

Ancient mechanism for coping with stresses also gives cancer a boost

...rch. "We expected it would have some effect on cancer, but we were surprised at the degree." The heat-shock response is one of the most ancient and evolutionarily conserved protective mechanisms found in nature, the researchers said. While environmental insults provoke a variety of adaptive physiological respons...

Why are some groups of animals so diverse?

...at evolved into amazingly large numbers of skink species. Australian skinks are really fascinating, Rabosky says. Two groups in particular have gone evolutionarily crazy, each splitting into as many as 100 different species. In contrast to skinks on other continents, and even some other groups in Australia, the d...
Evolutionarily in Medical Technology

Rapid Flu Tests May Prove Especially Helpful This Season

...the principle of antibody specificity for the influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) to selectively interact with the influenza A and B viruses. The NP is evolutionarily conserved and not subject to the same year-to-year changes that make it necessary to be vaccinated each year to prevent influenza infection. For this ...

Fast, Accurate Influenza A/B Antigen Detection

...the principle of antibody specificity for the influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) to selectively interact with the influenza A and B viruses. The NP is evolutionarily conserved and not subject to the same year-to-year changes that make it necessary to be vaccinated each year to prevent influenza infection. For this ...
Evolutionarily in Medical Dictionary

Cilia

...been implicated in the pathogenesis ... It has long been known that cilia are regulated dynamically throughout the cell cycle. ... Cilia are evolutionarily related to the motile flagella of lower ... The Microbiology Video Library. ... Cilia (pronounced "silly-ah", from the Latin for "eyelash") (and...
Evolutionarily in Biological News

Dogs, humans, put heads together to find cure for brain cancer

.... "Now, instead of looking at 50 million base pairs that contain several hundred genes, we can focus on the portion of human chromosome 22 that is evolutionarily conserved with dog chromosome 27," Breen says. "By looking at dog and human meningiomas together we reduce the amount of searching we need to do 50-fo...

Size did matter

...euvre them with the same organs as 100 million years ago, it's safe to say this distinctive feature evolved only once in this group. It seems to be an evolutionarily successful reproduction strategy, even though it comes at an exceedingly high price for both genders, as a lot of energy is invested in producing and ...

DOE JGI releases expanded version of Phytozome.net

...ted annotations, sequence analysis, and bulk, as well as targeted, plant data retrieval. The gene families available in Phytozome, defined at several evolutionarily significant epochs, provide a framework for the transfer of functional information to important biofuel and agricultural crops from model plant system...

Genome projects launched for three extreme-environment animals

...ert regions at an altitude of 3,500-5,500 meters above sea level. The Tibetan antelope is the only extant species in the Pantholops genus. It has been evolutionarily isolated since the Himalayan orogeny, and has undergone millions of years of evolution that has not involved species migration or artificial selection...

Penn biologists discover how 'silent' mutations influence protein production

...growth. For biologists, these results fundamentally change the understanding of the role of synonymous mutations, which were previously considered evolutionarily neutral. The findings may also improve the design of therapeutic genes. Many drugs, such as insulin, are produced by transgenic cell lines. Using o...

Early family ties: No sponge in the human family tree

...ndependently in animal history, or that they were lost in sponges and placozoans," explains the LMU researcher. This new study, which compared more evolutionarily ancient life forms than ever before, presents a stimulating framework for future studies. "Our results can now be used to explore how certain key feat...

Why don't more animals change their sex?

...g sexes rarely outweigh the advantages. A report by Yale scientists in the March issue of The American Naturalist says that while this process is evolutionarily favored, its rarity cannot be explained by an analysis of the biological costs vs benefits. Sequential hermaphroditism naturally occurs in various ...

Carnegie's Arthur Grossman receives Gilbert Morgan Smith medal

...hat helped to define its full genome sequence and then exploiting the genomic information. Chlamy performs photosynthesis like plants, but it diverged evolutionarily from flowering land plants about 1 billion years ago and therefore contains many characteristics common to all plants, as well as characteristics asso...

Why you can't hurry love

..., a male gets a positive payoff from mating with any female, though his payoff is higher if he is "good" than if he is "bad". The study looks for evolutionarily stable equilibrium behaviours, in which females are doing as well as they can against male behaviour and males are doing as well as they can against f...

The medium is the message: Manipulating salmonella in spaceflight curtails infectiousness

...ence factor, the protein also acts to regulate ion response pathways,and has been associated with phosphate regulation. Moreover, Hfq appears to be an evolutionarily conserved regulatory factor, and may serve to globally modify bacterial responses to microgravity, regardless of the phenotypic outcomea decrease in v...
Evolutionarily in Biological Technology

Symbiotic microbes induce profound genetic changes in their hosts

...School of Medicine and Public Health and the University of Iowa identify a slew of microbe-induced genetic changes in a tiny squid, including a set of evolutionarily conserved genes that may hold the secrets to developing a mutually beneficial relationship. "Interactions of animals with their microbiota have a p...

QBT Fatty Acid Uptake Assay Kit datasheet

...d Transport Proteins (FATP) that regulate this process is of great importance in biomedical research and drug discovery. FATPs are part of an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins of which six FATP family members are expressed in the human genome. While all six human FATPs are similar in func...

SNPs Powerful Tools for Association Studies

...omologous genes or regions Genes or regions found in different species that are very similar. The homology indicates that these genes or regions are evolutionarily conserved, and implicates their functional importance. Intronic SNPs Single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur in noncoding regions of ...

Isolation to Functional Analyses

...ed with the cloning and sequencing of more than one hundred miRNAs from worms, humans, and mice [1-4]. These evolutionarily conserved, noncoding RNA molecules regulate translation of mRNAs through base pair interactions [reviewed in...

Amplification of the amoA Gene of Nitrosococcus oceani Bacteria Using Eppendorf MasterTaq

...tello, M. E. Lidstrom, and J. C. Murrell. 1995. Evidence that particulate methane monooxygenase and ammonia monooxygenase may be evolutionarily related. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 132:203-208. Rotthauwe, J. H., K. P. Witzel, and W. Liesack. 1997. The ammonia monooxygenas...
Evolutionarily in Biological Products

In Situ Pan-Caspase Assay Kit from CHEMICON

Description:... Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved form of cell suicide, which follows a specialized cellular process. The central component of this process is a cascade of proteolytic enzym...
Company:CHEMICON

In Situ Pan-Caspase Assay Kit, Sulforhodamine from CHEMICON

Description:... Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved form of cell suicide, which follows a specialized cellular process. The central component of this process is a cascade of proteolytic enzym...
Company:CHEMICON

Rabbit Anti-Mint3 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from ABR-Affinity BioReagents

Description:...de (Cat. # PEP-135) is available for use in neutralization and control experiments.The munc-18 interacting protein (Mint) protein family is a group of evolutionarily conserved adaptor proteins that function in membrane transport and organization. In mammals, there exist three mint isoforms, Mint1, 2, and 3. Altho...
Company:ABR-Affinity BioReagents
Evolutionarily in Biological Definition

Histone

...ound histone, while inactive genes are highly associated with histones during interphase . It also appears that the structure of histones have been evolutionarily conserved, as any deleterious mutations would be severely maladaptive. History Histones were discovered in 1884 by Albrecht Kossel . The wor...

Lung

...urther details about the evolutionary origin of these two organs. Arachnid lungs Spiders have structures called " book lungs ", which are not evolutionarily related to vertebrate lungs but serve a similar respiratory purpose. Nonrespiratory functions of the lungs In addition to respiratory functions...

Mycology

...y related to phytopathology : the study of plant diseases. Historically, mycology was a branch of Botany (despite fungi not being plants and being evolutionarily more closely related to animals than plants). Pioneer mycologists were Elias Magnus Fries , Christian Hendrik Persoon , and Anton de Bary . T...

Olfaction

...e subliminal odor messages may transmit opposite immunological sexual compatibility. Finding a partner of non-similar immunological background may be evolutionarily advantageous because children born with a mixture of immunological systems are more likely to survive. It has been suggested that human females uncon...

Sociobiology

...morphology and behaviour must necessarily be an evolutionarily beneficial adaptation. Philosophical debates abo...d as a sociobiological hypothesis by finding an evolutionarily stable strategy that matches the observed behavio... Memetics , Iterated prisoner's dilemma , evolutionarily stable strategy , Evolutionary psychology , ...

Speciation

...f a species become isolated geographically (for example, by habitat fragmentation or migration). The isolated populations are then liable to diverge evolutionarily over many generations as a) they become subjected to dissimilar selective pressures and b) they independently undergo genetic drift ; particularly ...

Species

...occurred in the skull alone. "This is a lot less variation than I'd expected", said Novak..." 2003-08-08, ScienceDaily: Cross-species Mating May Be evolutionarily Important And Lead To Rapid Change, Say Indiana University Researchers Quote: "...the sudden mixing of closely related species may occasionally provi...

Tubulin

...crotubule. Tubulin was long thought to be specific to eukaryotes . Recently, however, the prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ was shown to be evolutionarily related to tubulin. Delta and epsilon tubulin have been found to localize at centrioles and may play a role in forming the mitotic spindle during mi...
Evolutionarily in Biological Dictionary

Prokaryotes

...e to everyone! ... PROKARYOTES - MISSING A NUCLEUS ... Organisms that lack a nucleus or other membrane-bounded organelles. Prokaryotes are evolutionarily ancient, for billions of years the only form of life. ... archaea : bacteria-like prokaryotes . difference between aerobic ... Simple explanatio...

Peptides

...ino acids. The link between one amino acid residue and the next is known as an amide bond or a peptide bond. Antimicrobial peptides are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response and are found among all classes of life. Fundamental differences exist between prokaryotic and eu...

Mismatch repair

...he initiation of mismatch repair ... Models for mismatch repair . MMR in mammalian cells ... Abstract DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily conserved process ... MutS-/L-/H-Dependent Mismatch Repair in Escherichia coli ... Inactivation of the human mismatch repair system conf...

Gastrulation

..... Argonaute2 is essential for mammalian gastrulation and proper mesoderm formation. ... Book: Gastrulation : From Cells to Embryo ... The evolutionarily conserved BMP-binding protein Twisted Gastrulation promotes BMP signalling ... After gastrulation , xTsg is expressed as part of the BMP4 ... ...

Evolutionarily conserved

... identical sequences that may occur within ... evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways ... of mitosis require the actions of the evolutionarily conserved Polo kinase ... ... and Functional Analysis of evolutionarily Conserved Non-Coding Sequences in the ... To id...
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