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Eukaryotes in Medical News

How defects in 1 gene cause 3 distinct and devastating human diseases

...ears ago. We can learn a lot about human health by looking deep into evolutionary time. Archaea have particular similarities with humans and other eukaryotes in the way in which they process information, including DNA replication, transcription and repair, White explained. One of those common elements is XP...

Researchers explore the emerging role of infection in Alzheimer's disease

... Chlamydia pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus type 1 in AD. These are followed by a review of amyloid proteins, which occur in many cellular forms in eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. The link between several viral and bacterial infections and the most significant genetic factor for AD, APOE 4, is discussed in t...

How to Hinder Gene Amplification? - Researchers Revealed

...ed,’ said Kirill Lobachev, assistant professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Biology. ‘If these rules operating in yeast can be extended to higher eukaryotes then we can propose that if the oncogene is located between the hairpin-capped break and the telomere, then the amplification event will result in a d...
Eukaryotes in Medical Dictionary

Spores

.... Spores form part of the life cycles of many bacteria, plants, algae, fungi... In contrast to eukaryotic spores , which are produced by many eukaryotes for ... The spore is sometimes surrounded by a thin covering known as the exosporium, ... Simulation game from Will Wright. Starting with single...
Eukaryotes in Biological News

New classification of eukaryotes has implications for AIDS treatment, agriculture and beyond

New classification conveys important information about the biochemistry and metabolism of disease-causing organisms. The new classification recognizes 6 major clusters of organisms, rather than the 4 traditional Kingdoms. Here are three examples. 1) Pneumocystis, an opportunistic pathogen causin...

New study reveals the protein that makes phosphate chains in yeast

...lberg, Germany, are now the first to uncover how this chain is assembled in eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have a nucleus). The study, published this week in ... time how bacteria make phosphate chains, but how the same process works in eukaryotes has so far remained elusive. EMBL scientists now show that in yeast a prote...

New computational technique allows comparison of whole genomes as easily as whole books

... method on 518 genomes, the bulk of them bacteria and Archaea, but also six eukaryotes of varying complexity and two random sequences. The eurkaryotic genomes use...the FFP method clearly segregates whole proteomes of all bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes and random sequences into separate groups or domains. Most of the phylum gr...

New edition of laboratory manual includes cutting-edge techniques to study gene regulation

... to the new edition. The first edition of Transcriptional Regulation in eukaryotes was published in 2000, shortly before the draft sequences of the human gen...tin, a major emphasis of the new edition. Transcriptional Regulation in eukaryotes is geared towards graduate students, postdocs, physician-scientists, and o...

Research-based undergraduate course expands beyond Washington University

...second component of the course is annotation, the construction of "gene models" that distinguish coding regions of the DNA from noncoding regions. In eukaryotes such as humans and fruit flies, only a small percentage of the genome contains instructions for making proteins. Elgin explains, "It's as though some...

Proteins strangle cell during division

...n they are more closely related to another main group of living things, the eukaryotes (humans, animals, plants, fungi, etc). Strangler proteins Until now ... proteins in the new type of cell division are similar to proteins in other eukaryotes that have a completely different function. The study shows that the protein...

New gene-silencing pathway found in plants

...hat prevents transcription in the first place." According to Pikaard, most eukaryotes use the same two-pronged method for silencing genes at the transcriptional ...odification of proteins called histones that act as spools for DNA. All eukaryotes share three essential RNA polymerases: Pol I, II, and III. These polymeras...

Diatom genome helps explain success in trapping excess carbon in oceans

...ing power and ability to cope with environmental change. "We believe this is the first time bacterial horizontal gene transfer has been observed in eukaryotes at such scale," says senior author Igor Grigoriev of DOE JGI. "This study gets us closer to explaining the dramatic diversity across the genera of di...

The structure of the Mre11 protein bound to DNA

...f DNA by means of "recognition loops" in the protein's folded string of amino acid residues. P. furiosus Mre11 has six recognition loops. Mre11 from eukaryotes organisms including yeast, frogs, and humans, whose cells, unlike archaea and bacteria, have membrane-packaged nuclei exhibit only five of these rec...

Exploding chromosomes fuel research about evolution of genetic storage

...etti extended his research to the fruit fly. Like mammals, fruit flies belong to the pantheon of eukaryotes. In contrast to prokaryotes like bacteria, eukaryotes pack their genetic material in a cellular nucleus. Prokaryotes lack a nucleus. "Cations play a very important role in the folding and charge neutra...
Eukaryotes in Biological Technology

International team of scientists discover clue to delay of life on Earth

...And if bacteria cant fix nitrogen fast enough then eukaryotes a kind of organism that includes plants, pachyderms and people are in trouble because eukaryotes cannot fix nitrogen themselves at all. If molyb...ia would have had the upper hand, continues Anbar. eukaryotes depend on bacteria having an easy enough time fixi...

Biological electron transfer captured in real time

... level. Electron transfer is central to many chemical reactions in the cell. It has particular functional importance in cell respiration, which in eukaryotes takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane, and in the cell membrane of prokaryotes. In cellular respiration molecules stemming from food are oxi...

Glossary for The BioPharm Guide to Fermentation and Cell Culture

... (genes) of a cell. Prokaryotes contain only a single chromosome; eukaryotes have more than one, made up of a complex of DNA, RNA, and protein...digestive organs, outer linings of kidneys, and so on). eukaryotes Complex organisms, often multicellular, whose cells contain nucl...

FERMENTATION BASICS

...anisms capable of self duplication or of directing their own replication. Prokaryotes do not possess a true nucleus or a nuclear membrane, whereas eukaryotes have a nucleus enclosed within a distinct nuclear membrane. The non-cellular protists do not undergo self-replication, instead they direct their r...

Efficient Cloning and Electro-transformation of Large Eukaryotic DNA Fragments

...iophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510. Introduction Genes of higher eukaryotes can be hundreds of kilobases in size. The need to rapidly clone and manipulate DNA molecules in that range has become acute in c...

RNAi as a Tool for Mammalian Gene Analysis: Applications of siRNAs

...n mesothelioma. Gene Redundancy In many cases, eliminating the expression of a single gene in higher eukaryotes can be tolerated even if that gene product functions in a critical pathway. This is because many critical ce...

The QIAGEN Guide to Animal Cell Culture

... Welcome to a new series of articles aimed at providing useful hints for culturing animal cells (i.e., cells derived from higher eukaryotes such as mammals, birds, and insects ). This article introduces different types of animal cell cultures. The series will continue in ...

U937

...uspension must be free of air bubbles. Electroporation: Mode eukaryotes Voltage (V) 620 V Time constant (T) ...

U-266

...uspension must be free of air bubbles. Electroporation: Mode eukaryotes Voltage (V) 600 V Time constant (T) ...

t-HUVEC

...uspension must be free of air bubbles. Electroporation: Mode eukaryotes Voltage (V) 670 V Time constant (T) ...
Eukaryotes in Biological Definition

Alga

...eria and conduct photosynthesis directly within the cytoplasm , rather than in specialized organelles. Eukaryotic algae All other algae are eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane-bound structures (organelles) called chloroplasts . Chloroplasts contain DNA and are similar in structur...

Alternative splicing

... Alternative splicing is the process that occurs in eukaryotes in which the splicing process of a pre-mRNA can lead to different ripe...pretation of a mutation may be changed. It has been proposed that for eukaryotes it was a very important step towards higher efficiency, because informatio...

Archaea

...lar to bacteria in some respects but similar to eukaryotes in others. Contents showTocToggle("show"...l features, but are extremely similar to those of eukaryotes . For instance, archaean translation uses eukaryo... peptidoglycan wall. Further, both bacteria and eukaryotes have membranes composed mainly of glycerol- ester ...

Biology

...ta, showing the separation of the three domains bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese . Trees constructed with other gene...ory of universal common descent ( UCD ) for all bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes (see Three domain system ). Homeostasis: adapting to change Main...

Bacterium

...rast to organisms with more complex cells, called eukaryotes . The term "bacteria" has variously applied to al... divisions of the living world, together with the eukaryotes . eukaryotes were generally believed to have evolved from bac...

Cell growth

...hird major aspect of cell reproduction is the physical division of entire cells, usually called cytokinesis . Cell reproduction is more complex in eukaryotes than in other organisms. Non-eukaryotic cells such as bacterial cells reproduce by binary fission , a process that includes DNA replication, chrom...

Chromosome

...ing nucleotide sequences . In the chromosomes of eukaryotes , the uncondensed DNA exists in a quasi-ordered st...owTocToggle("show","hide") 1 Chromosomes in eukaryotes 2 Chromosomes in bacteria 3 Chromatin ...so 9 External links Chromosomes in eukaryotes ...

Citric acid cycle

...d outputs The citric acid cycle takes place within the mitochondria in eukaryotes , and within the cytoplasm in prokaryotes . Fuel molecule cataboli...a six-carbon-molecule) down into pyruvate (a three-carbon molecule). In eukaryotes , pyruvate moves into the mitochondria . It is converted into acetyl-CoA a...

Classical genetics

... consists of the techniques and methodologies of genetics that predate the advent of molecular biology . A key discovery of classical genetics in eukaryotes , was genetic linkage . The observation that some genes do not segregate independently at meiosis , broke the laws of Mendelian inheritance , and...

Common descent

...generally regarded by biologists as definitive evidence in favor of the theory of universal common descent ( UCD ) for all bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes (see Three domain system ). Analysis of the small differences in the genetic code has also provided support for UCD. The Tree of Life Web Project ...
Eukaryotes in Biological Dictionary

Eukaryotes

A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. Almost all species of large organisms are eukaryotes , including animals, plants and fungi, although most species of eukaryotic... The vast majority of eukaryotes that we knowingly interact wi...

Unicellular

...ich fall into two general categories: prokaryotic ... They are unicellular organisms and lack organelles, including a nucleus. ... Unicellular eukaryotes are those whose members consist of a single cell ... Print Unicellular Organisms (font options, pick words for additional puzzles, and more) ....

Ubiquitin

... ubiquitin ( yü′bikwə′tin ) ( biochemistry ) A small, 76-amino-acid, highly conserved protein present in the cytoplasm and nucleus of all eukaryotes Ubiquitin ligase A ubiquitin ligase (also called an E3 ubiquitin ligase) is a protein that covalently attaches ubiquitin to a lysine ...

Trans-splicing

... Trans - splicing is a special form of RNA processing in eukaryotes where exons from two different primary RNA transcripts are joined end to...s - splicing Trans - splicing is a special form of RNA processing in eukaryotes where exons from two different primary RNA transcripts are joined end ...

Transposable element

...element can inactivate a gene? ... Transposable Genetic Elements . A. There are three types of transposable ... Transposable elements in eukaryotes are of two types: those that have DNA as ... Definition of transposable element from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary with audio pronunci...

Transcription start site

...th ... The transcription start sites of the human FMR1 gene were determined using 5' ... transcription factors, RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes recognizes the start site ... TATA box and the transcription start site . This spacing is characteristic ... ... initiation factor intera...

TATA box

... The TATA box is a DNA sequence found in the promoter region of most genes in eukaryotes and Archaea. The TATA binding protein (TBP) is a transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box . Thi...

Start codon

...and AUG denote sequences of DNA and RNA respectively that are the start codon or initiation codon encoding the amino acid methionine (Met) in eukaryotes and a modified Met (fMet) in prokaryotes. The most common start codon is AUG which is read as methionine or, in bacteria, ... Alternative ...

Spliceosome

.... This process is generally referred to as splicing. spliceosome ( ) n. A nucleoprotein particle that aids in the splicing of messenger RNA in eukaryotes ... A spliceosome is a complex of specialized RNA and ... spliceosome . Term information. Term lineage. External references ... exact: spliceo...

Satellite DNA

...nine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, and thus have a different density from bulk DNA - such that... satellite DNA n. A portion of DNA in eukaryotes whose density differs from that of the majority of DNA and that consists of short, repeating sequences The general category of satellite DNA ...
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