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Cysteine in Medical News

Targeting oxidized cysteine through diet could reduce inflammation and lower disease risk

A team of scientists at Emory University School of Medicine has identified a direct link between oxidative stress and inflammatory signals in the blood. The finding could lead to improved strategies for preventing several diseases by including antioxidants in the diet and for reducing the impact o...

Finnish research: Cysteine Chewing Gum as a cure for cancers of the mouth

According to a Finnish research it was found that amino acid, l-cysteine can prevent oral cancers. In the developed countries about 80 % of the cancers occur// in the mouth, pharynx and oesophagus. The main causative agent is smoking and alcohol drinking. This results in a strong exposure of the up...

Cathepsin B increases apoptosis in fulminant hepatic failure

...her indicated that LPS/D-Gal N-mediated cathepsin B expression initiates hepatocyte apoptosis in fulminant hepatic failure. Cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is a candidate for an apoptotic mediator originating from acidic vesicles. CA-074me is a selective inhibitor of cathepsin B , and it is high...

Enzyme with a sugar antenna

...ation". In this technique, one peptide fragment is attached to the terminal cysteine group (sulfur-containing amino acid) of a second peptide fragment by means ... protein generated in a cell culture. The difficulty: as well as a terminal cysteine group, this protein fragment contains seven additional cysteines. Their sul...

Study sheds light on causes of HIV dementia

...leagues compared the sequences of the Tat protein of the two clades and noted a key difference. Where the clade B Tat protein contained the amino acid cysteine at a specific position in the Tat protein, the clade C Tat had the amino acid serine. The next step, and the focus of the current study, was to compar...

New study finds that add-on therapy improves depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder

...oxins, researchers in a new study scheduled for publication in the September 15th issue of Biological Psychiatry sought to evaluate whether N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter supplement that increases brain glutathione, might help alleviate depressive symptoms. Dr. Michael Berk and colleagues, ...

Major 'missed' biochemical pathway emerges as important in virtually all cells

...the Duke Department of Biochemistry. The research explains that the enzymes thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 remove nitric oxide from the amino acid cysteine within mammalian cells, thereby regulating several different actions in cells. One result of this removal is the activation of molecules that begin ap...

NSAIDs: Painkillers, inflammation inhibitors, anti-cancer drugs and new de-methylating agents

...-Yea Chuang of Kaohsiung Medical University found that NSAIDs up-regulated several anti-metastatic genes including secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), thrombospindin-1 (TSP-1), TSP-3 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in human lung cancer cells. Our functional assay sugges...

U-M scientists develop tool to probe role of oxidative stress in aging, disease

...es but actually use amino acids known as cysteines to sense oxidative stress. "In my lab, we have been working for a long time on proteins that use cysteine as a reactive oxygen sensor," Jakob said. "With this new technique, we discovered scores of novel proteins that are sensitive towards reactive oxygen ...

Impact of elevated homocysteine levels on vision under study

... whether you are talking about pregnant women, cardiovascular disease or dementia, says Dr. Smith. If homocysteine is not converted into methionine or cysteine (by vitamin B6) to aid protein synthesis, it can do something bad. Dr. Ganapathy notes that people need only about 1 microgram per day of vitamin B...
Cysteine in Medical Technology

Study Suggests a Possible Way to Offset Chemobrain Memory Loss

...s about the mental fog known as chemobrain. Now in animal studies at West Virginia University, researchers have discovered that injections of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, can prevent the memory loss that breast cancer chemotherapy drugs sometimes induce. In the WVU researchers' study, published ...

World First Medical Treatment Announced by Researchers at Queen Mary University London and University of Leicester

...at there was high levels of oxidative stress in the lungs. In addition, we treated the increased oxidative stress by using of an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine - which has no side effects. Since she has been on this treatment she has had no lung bleeds, and the steroid dose has been significantly reduced." ...
Cysteine in Medical Dictionary

Acid

.... Acid dissociation constant ... 4.1 Polyprotic acids . 4.2 Neutralization. 4.3 Weak acid /weak base equilibria ... ... amino acids (such as cysteine and methionine), which produce sulfuric acid when ... Sulfuric acid can be used to displace weaker acids from their salts. ... Vitamin B9 (F...
Cysteine in Biological News

TRAPping proteins that work together inside living cells

...heir results June 15 in the journal ChemBioChem . The tag in their unique method is made up of a "tetracysteine motif" -- two pairs of the amino acid cysteine separated by two other amino acids that doesn't interfere with the normal function of the protein of interest. TRAP includes a small "biarsenical" pro...

Tailor-made recombinant proteins in mammals

...lytic functions of enzymes called sulfatases. FGE does this by converting a cysteine residue, one in a sequence of six core amino acids in a particular sulfatas...he protein. When it does, the FGE system is already in place to convert the cysteine to formylglycine" the nonstandard amino acid bears the aldehyde. Having...

Jefferson scientists discover a key protein regulator of inflammation and cell death

...thogen. When AIM2 binds to the foreign DNA, it recruits a cytoplasmic protein called ASC. ASC and AIM2 then work together to activate caspase-1, a cysteine protease involved in the production of interleukin1beta and other inflammatory cytokines that cause inflammation. "Researchers have long sought th...

Novel technique for fluorescence tomography of tumors in living animals

... For this purpose they injected a substance into to the animals, which normally does not fluoresce, but becomes fluorescent after contact with certain cysteine proteases such as cathepsins. The amount of these proteases is enriched in lung tumors which allows fluorescence imaging of the tumor tissue. Comparis...

Pitt researchers use fluorescence to develop method for detecting mercury in fish

...cting agent. They also submerged two amalgam-filled teeth in the amino acid cysteine to mimic sulfur-rich foods, which are thought to increase mercury seepage from amalgam. Again, the cysteine solution turned bright green when the indicator was added, suggesting that ...

Scripps Florida scientists awarded $1.5M to fight major water and food parasites

...ctive Targets Roush's laboratory is looking at cysteine proteases, which are common in protozoan parasites...ve pharmacokinetic and safety studies; for example cysteine protease inhibitors have already demonstrated pote...oratory attacks the EhCP1 ( Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase), which is believed to be a virulence f...

Tracking down the cause of mad cow disease

...ur-containing group). The centerpiece of the new concept is the linkage of the protein and anchor by means of a native chemical ligation, in which the cysteine group reacts with the thioester. This allowed the prion protein to firmly attach to the vesicle membranes by way of the artificial anchor. This new...

Researchers probe a DNA repair enzyme

...atoms incorporated into the protein structure through interaction with four cysteine residues of the amino acid chain. "DNA helicases, which belong to the Ra...roper function of these enzymes in DNA repair," Spies said. By mutating the cysteine ligands to the cluster, the researchers probed its role in the molecular me...

Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues

...erties of specific enzymes. In these so-called redox-regulated reactions, TRXs can transfer hydrogen to convert a disulfide bridge formed between two cysteine amino acids to their unbridged thiol forms. These TRX-responsive disulfide bridges have regulatory functions in numerous cellular processes, includin...

Microbes at work cleaning up the environment

...at bind zinc and other potentially toxic metals at cysteine locales. cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid. Amino acids are...ver, zinc-sulfide nanoparticles in the presence of cysteine displayed more extensive and prolonged aggregation...
Cysteine in Biological Technology

2009: Immunotec announces important clinical research initiative: New study to be launched with the goal of improving the quality of the aging process

...uct in Canada and an NPN (Natural Product Number) on October 31, 2007 for the health claim "Immunocal is a natural source of the glutathione precursor cysteine for the maintenance of a strong immune system". About Immunotec Inc. Immunotec is engaged primarily in the development and marketing of natu...

LI-COR Introduces Three IRDye(R) Near-Infrared Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (NIR-FRET) Protease Substrates

...unction of Beta-Secretase, it has been established as a validated therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. Caspases are a family of intracellular cysteine proteases that are vital in the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Caspase-3 functions as the most downstream executioner in the caspase-ap...

Fluorometric Protease Assays in the SpectraMax Gemini Microplate Spectrofluorometer: Example Using Caspase3 (MaxLine Application Note #35)

...chem. 70: 258262. 2. Gray, C.J. and J.M. Sullivan. 1989. Synthesis of 7amino4methylcoumarin (AMC) derivatives and their hydrolysis by plant cysteine proteinases. J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol. 46: 1126. 3. Smith, R.E., E.R. Bissell, A.R. Mitchell and K.W. Pearson. 1980. Direct photometric o...

Efficient Primary Structure Elucidation of Disulfide-bridged Peptides

...ive for a disulfide bridge pattern as in the family of ion channel toxins containing the inhibitor cystine knot structural motif. The proximity of the cysteine residues and the absence of suitable cleavage sites within the amino-acid sequences of CSTXpeptides caused the classical approaches for elucidation of...

The development of a CXCR2 chemokine receptorbinding assay using the LEADseeker Multimodality Imaging System

...Chemokines are classified into four families (CXC, CC, C, and CXC3) based on the number and sequential relationship of the first two of four conserved cysteine residues. They induce their biological effect by binding to chemokine receptors that belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled seven-transmembran...

Biolistic Gene Transfer to Generate Transgenic Schistosomes, Rev A

...ad Sci USA 96, 86878692 (1999) Finken-Eigen M and Kunz W, Schistosoma mansoni: gene structure and locatlization of a homologue to cysteine protease ER 60, Exp Parasitol 86, 17 (1997) Gillingham AK and Munro S, The PACT domain, a conserved centrosomal targeting motif i...

Purification and Characterization of beta-Lactoglobulin Genetic Variants A and B Using Preparative Electrophoresis and Isoelectric Focusing

...line-118 (Val). These amino acids are substituted by glycine (Gly) and alanine (Ala) in the B variant. All variants contain five cysteine residues, four of which are involved in forming intrachain disulfide bridges. The function of βLG is not yet clear, although...

Apoptosis detection by annexin V and active caspase-3 with the Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer

...involves active participation of endogenous cellular enzymes in the mediation of death well before membranes lose their integrity. A family of cysteine proteases (caspases) appears to represent the effector arm of the apoptotic program6. Caspase activation can be achieved by different pathwa...

Detection and Identification of Phosphorylation Sites in Proteins Using LC/MS/MS with Neutral Fragment Loss Mapping

...te, can accommodate multiple amino acid modifications in a single search routine. In this case, an alkylation was considered for all cysteine residues in the sequence (a static modification), while oxidation of methionine and phosphorylation of serine and threonine were tre...

Quantification of the Purinergic Receptor P2X3 using ICAT and Orthogonal 2D LC-MS/MS with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

... Quantitative ICAT labeling of membrane proteins remains an important analytical challenge. As expected, cysteine thiols that occur in highly hydrophobic environments, such as transmembrane protein domains, are less accessible for labeling. In in...
Cysteine in Biological Products

Amino Acid Mixture Minus Cysteine from Promega

Description: in vitro Translation, Accessory Products...
Company:Promega

N-terminal Sequencing from Primm Biotech, Inc.

Description:...(Polyvinylidene difluoride) membranes using the well known EDMAN degradation method. Pre-treatment of the sample, i.e. reduction and alkylation of the cysteine residues, is also performed. Set-up for protein sequencing + $96.00/each amino acid...
Company:Primm Biotech, Inc.

Imject Maleimide Conjugation Buffer from Pierce Biotechnology, Inc.

Description:...C). This activation results in a stable, sulfhydryl-reactive carrier protein. Thus allowing the maleimide-activated carrier protein to conjugate with cysteine residues on any peptide or protein, making a complete immunogen. Save timeno need to preactivate the carrier with Sulfo-SMCC • Conjugation c...
Company:Pierce Biotechnology, Inc.

FAM Poly Caspase Assay Kit from B-Bridge International

Description:...t inhibitor of caspase activity. When added to a population of cells, the FAM-VAD-FMK FLICA probe enters each cell and covalently binds to a reactive cysteine residue that resides on the large subunit of the active caspase heterodimer, thereby inhibiting further enzymatic activity. Because the FAM-VAD-FMK F...
Company:B-Bridge International

Immobilized Metal affinity ProteinChip Arrays from Ciphergen

Description:...zed metal affinity capture (IMAC) arrays bind proteins and peptides which have affinity for metals; proteins with exposed histidine, tryptophan and/or cysteine typically bind to metals immobilized on these chip surfaces. Binding occurs under pH 6-8 and high salt and decreases as the concentration of imidizole...
Company:Ciphergen

Rabbit Anti-Peroxiredoxin 1 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from GeneTex

Description:...y isoforms (about 50 proteins), collected in accordance to the amino acid sequence homology, particularly amino-terminal region containing active site cysteine residue, and the thiolspecific antioxidant activity, distribute throughout all the kingdoms. Among them, mammalian Prx consists of 6 different members...
Company:GeneTex

Phosphodiesterase I from USB Corp.

Description:...osyl-AMP (3) . Properties: Molecular Weight: 115,000 Da Optimum pH: 9.8 - 10.4 Activators: Mg 2+ Inhibitors: 5mM EDTA, reducing agents (gluthathione, cysteine and ascorbic acid), partial inhibition by ATP, ADP and AMP Form: Lyophilized powder Purity: Partially purified by the method of Bjrk (4) and treate...
Company:USB Corp.

CaspaTag™ Pan-Caspase In Situ Assay Kit, Fluorescein from CHEMICON

Description:...), which produces a green fluorescence. When added to a population of cells, the FAM-VAD-FMK probe enters each cell and covalently binds to a reactive cysteine residue that resides on the large subunit of the active caspase heterodimer, thereby inhibiting further enzymatic activity. The bound labeled reagent ...
Company:CHEMICON

CaspaTag™ Pan-Caspase In Situ Assay Kit, Sulforhodamine from CHEMICON

Description:...FMK), which produces a red fluorescence. When added to a population of cells, the SR-VAD-FMK probe enters each cell and covalently binds to a reactive cysteine residue that resides on the large subunit of the active caspase heterodimer, thereby inhibiting further enzymatic activity. The bound labeled reagent ...
Company:CHEMICON

EvoQuest Custom Peptide Services from Invitrogen

Description:...logy Special amino acids (peptide mix of 2-19 random amino acids, peptide D-form except ILE and peptide D-form with D-ILE) Cyclization (cysteine to cysteine only) Amino acid analysis (digestion & analysis) Aliquoting - order your peptides pre-aliquoted for convenience. Rapid, Cost-Effective Peptide...
Company:Invitrogen
Cysteine in Biological Definition

Amino acid

...pK 2 (α- + NH 3 ) pKr (R) Remarks A Ala Alanine hydrophobic 89.09 6.11 2.35 9.87 C Cys cysteine hydrophobic (Nagano, 1999) 121.16 5.05 1.92 10.70 8.37 Under oxidizing conditions, two cysteines can join together by a disulfi...

Antibody

... molecules, linked by two additional chains. One of these is the J chain (from j oin), which is a polypeptide of molecular mass 1,5 kD, rich with cysteine and structurally completely different from other immunoglobulin chains. This chain is formed in the antibodies secreting cells. The dimeric form of I...

Apoptosis

...ve in common the activation of central effectors of apoptosis , a group of cysteine proteases called caspases , which carry out the cleaving of both structu...yme (ICE) in human cells, and succeeded in cloning the DNA sequence of this cysteine protease [19] , [20] . That same year, graduate student Shai Shaham worki...

Genetic code

...represents the amino acid asparagine (Asp), and cysteine (Cys) is represented by UGU and by UGC. Tabl...( Stop ) UAG Amber ( Stop ) UGU (Cys/C) cysteine UGC (Cys/C) cysteine UGA Opal ( Stop ) UGG (Trp/W) Tryptophan ...

Disulfide bond

...acid that commonly forms S-S bonds in proteins in cysteine . When two cysteines are bonded by an S-S bond, th...ore than one disulfide bond, proper pairing of the cysteine residues is important for normal structure and act... tombs. Different parts of the hair have different cysteine levels, leading to harder or softer material. Brea...

Genetic code

...represents the amino acid asparagine (Asp), and cysteine (Cys) is represented by UGU and by UGC. Tabl...( Stop ) UAG Amber ( Stop ) UGU (Cys/C) cysteine UGC (Cys/C) cysteine UGA Opal ( Stop ) UGG (Trp/W) Tryptophan ...

Keratin

...ound each other to form strands called intermediate filaments. These proteins contain a high percentage of sulfur -containing amino acids , largely cysteine , which form disulfide bridges between the individual molecules, resulting in a fairly rigid structure. Human hair is approximately 14% cysteine. ...
Cysteine in Biological Dictionary

Keratin

... Therapy™, All rights reserved. ... Brief and Straightforward Guide: What is Keratin ? ... Keratin is difficult to dissolve, because it contains cysteine disulfide, which ... Keratin is any one of the family of tough and insoluble fibrous structural ... Keratin's characteristic toughness and re...

Disulfide bridge

... A nonnative vicinal disulfide bridge between cysteine residues 17 and 18 was ... The vicinal disulfide ...bridge , is a strong covalent ... ... chains of cysteine residue, a disulfide bridge is formed which is...forms a disulfide . Oxidation of two molecules of cysteine forms cystine, a molecule ... ... 4 kcal/mol ...

Caspase

... Caspases , or cysteine-aspartic acid proteases, are a family of cysteine ... the apoptosome (regulated by cytochrome c and the Bcl-2 family) which a...mp;7, 6, 8, 9, ... Caspase -6, also known as Mch-2, is an intracellular cysteine protease first ... Cleavage of the caspase -6 ... caspase -6 is VEID (8),...
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