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Codon in Medical News

Amgen's Second Quarter 2009 Adjusted Earnings Per Share Increased 13 Percent To $1.29

...(mCRC) treated with anti-EGFr antibody was discussed. Use of Vectibix is not recommended for the treatment of colorectal cancer with KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13. Motesanib: The Company indicated that enrollment has resumed for the Phase 3 MONET1 trial evaluating motesanib in combination with...

Amgen Announces KRAS Safety Update to U.S. Prescribing Information for Vectibix(R) (Panitumumab)

...ubset analyses of metastatic colorectal cancer trials have not shown a treatment benefit for Vectibix in patients whose tumors had KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13. Use of Vectibix is not recommended for the treatment of colorectal cancer with these mutations. The CLINICAL STUDIES section of th...

Quest Diagnostics Introduces First Comprehensive Laboratory Test To Analyze KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF Gene Mutations in Reflex Testing Service

...O), and recommended RAS mutation testing include KRAS and NRAS encompassing codon 61 in addition to codons 12 and 13. The Quest Diagnostics EGFR Pathwa...aled that other mutations in the EGFR signaling pathway, including those at codon 61 of KRAS and NRAS , also impede treatment response in patients with mC...

Increase in P53 mutation linked to advanced colorectal cancer in blacks

...erican patients and 236 colorectal adenocarcinomas from non-Hispanic whites. Researchers assessed these carcinomas for p53 mutations and genotyped for codon 72 polymorphisms. Overall, whites and African-Americans had a similar rate of p53 mutations. However, the frequency of the Pro72 allele was higher...

DNA2.0 Expands European Presence By Opening UK Office: Experienced Life Sciences Executive, Dr. Michael Dyson, to Lead European Operations

...as particular experience growing and managing life science businesses across Europe, and prior to joining DNA2.0 he was European Managing Director for codon Devices. He has also held chief management positions at such life science companies as Sequenom, MicroCal and PerSeptive Biosystems. About DNA2.0:...

H-ras gene mutation linked to Costello Syndrome

...nts of the affected patients. The researchers have published the results of their study in Wiley Interscience. The researchers identified mutations in codon 12 or 13 in the H-ras gene in 85% patients. The authors feel that the identification of these mutations in combination with the knowledge from cancer ...
Codon in Medical Technology

Vectibix(R) in Combination With Chemotherapy Significantly Improved Progression-Free Survival in First-Line Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

...ase-related symptoms or increased survival with Vectibix. Vectibix has not shown a treatment benefit for patients whose tumors had KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13. In December 2007, the EMEA granted a conditional marketing authorization for Vectibix as monotherapy for the treatment of patients wi...

ARUP Laboratories Applauds FDA's Decision on the Value of KRAS-Mutation Testing in Colorectal Cancer

...alyses of metastatic colorectal cancer trials have not shown a treatment benefit for Erbitux/Vectibix in patients whose tumors had KRAS mutations in codon 12 or 13," and that the use of the drugs is not recommended for the treatment of colorectal cancer patients with these mutations. ARUP offer...
Codon in Medical Dictionary

Tryptophan

...an is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an essential amino acid in the human diet. It is encoded in the standard genetic code as the codon UGG. Only the L-stereoisomer of tryptophan is used in structural... Physician reviewed L-tryptophan patient information - includes ... Ask a Que...
Codon in Biological News

Penn biologists discover how 'silent' mutations influence protein production

..., without changing the properties of the protein. codon bias, the probability that one codon of three adjacent nucleotides will code for one am...ing expression levels of individual genes, whereas codon bias influences global translation efficiency and ...

Researchers discover critical detail of cellular defense against genetic mistakes

...on complex (EJC), the cell concludes that the stop codon has mistakenly fallen in the middle of a set of in... following new model for NMD: When a nonsense stop codon is detected, UPF1 together with the enzyme that di...y mRNA can be prevented. In cases where a nonsense codon occurs in a gene supplying an essential protein, a...

New insights into the diversity of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agents

...genic CJD occurs following human-to-human sCJD transmission. In contrast to the sCJD cases, however, there was no particular correlation with the PRNP codon in the iCJD cases, indicating that observed biochemical properties could be specific to the prion agent. Further studies are required to confirm t...

Viruses evolve to play by host rules, according to University of Pennsylvania researchers

...ave found that many of these viral genomes exhibit codon bias, the tendency to preferentially encode a prot...ng. Researchers analyzed patterns of codon usage across 74 bacteriophages using the concept o... Their findings extend the translational theory of codon bias to the viral kingdom, demonstrating that the ...

MIT model could improve some drugs' effectiveness

...fuel. Lippow conducted the research as part of his thesis work in chemical engineering at MIT, and is now a member of the protein engineering group at codon Devices in Cambridge, Mass. Making drugs out of huge, complicated molecules like antibodies is incredibly hard, said Janna Wehrle, who oversees com...

Study provides insight into cellular defenses against genetic mutation

...on complex (EJC), the cell concludes that the stop codon has mistakenly fallen in the middle of a set of in...lly, Medical Center researchers now believe a stop codon is labeled premature when it occurs more than 55 n...k together to trigger decay once an early nonsense codon is detected, most likely by recruiting enzymes tha...
Codon in Biological Technology

New BL21-CodonPlus Cells Correct Codon Bias in GC-Rich Genomes

High-level expression of heterologous proteins Carsten-Peter Carstens Julie Bonnardel Anna Waesche Ronda Allen Stratagene Codon bias is a significant obstacle for efficient expression of heterologous genes in E. coli hosts. In GC-rich genomes, such as mammals, rare arg...

High-Level Expression of Peanut Allergens Affected by Rare Codon Usage

Produce large quantities of difficult-to-express proteins Tamara Kleber-Janke Wolf-Meinhard Becker Biochemical & Molecular Allergology, Research Center Borstel, Germany By using Stratagenes BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RIL cells * with extra copies of E. coli, argU, ileY, and leuW...

DNA2.0 Awarded US Patents for Breakthrough Gene Optimization Technology -- Company's Unique Algorithm Enables Expression Yields up to 50 Times Greater than Competing Approaches

... The use of codon optimization in gene synthesis has long been misun...ring the technology. DNA2.0's approach goes beyond codon arrangement, so the company is introducing a new, ... technology is far more effective than traditional codon optimization techniques that simply use...

Detection of Apolipoprotein Gene Variants by DGGE Using the DCode System

...igand-defective apoB (FDB) 5, 6, 7 were detected by DGGE (Figure 3, lanes 3, 4 and 5). In addition, a rare missense mutation at codon 3480 (Figure 3, lane 1) and a new silent mutation (Figure 3, lane 2) were detected. Discussion ...

Detection of Variation in Highly Polymorphic Mhc Genes by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Using the DCode System

...ariation between them of 116 nt plus a 2 codon indel. By creating a unique network of control ...ering from one another by 712 nt and a 2 codon indel on a perpendicular gradient gel (F...tly coincided with the location of the 2 codon insert, present in allele 10, but absent ...

Detection of Mutant K-ras in a Kindred With Hereditary Pancreatic Cancer by DGGE

...NA sequencing. Three of these individuals had K-ras mutations in codon 13 present in pancreatic cancer or precancerous tissue and three had mutations in codon 12. There was no evidence of K-ras mutation in the metastatic pa...

Detection of K-ras Point Mutations in the Pancreas by Constant Denaturing Gel Electrophoresis Using the DCode System

...of these tumors bear a point mutation in codon 12 of the K-ras protooncogene. 3, 4 We ... run with samples from all mutations of codon 12 leading to an amino acid exchange an...d Yoshida, S., Detection of K-ras gen mutations at codon 12 in the pancreatic juice of patients ...

Get the 5'-End

...rst exon usage. Finally, the first exon of an mRNA typically includes both a non-coding region upstream of the initiator codon and the translation start site itself. These facts are often required to determine the protein sequence encoded by an mR...

siRNA Design Guidelines

... Find 21 nt sequences in the target mRNA that begin with an AA dinucleotide. Beginning with the AUG start codon of your transcript, scan for AA dinucleotide sequences. Record each AA and the 3' adjacent 19 nucleotides as poten...

Mutation detection for the K- rasand P16 genes

... Mutations in the K-ras gene codon 12 region can lead to cancer, for example of the colon, pancreas, liver, ...sual data. First, we compared mutant versus wild type samples for K-ras codon 12. The sizing differences, as well as the intensity of heterozygous ba...
Codon in Biological Products

LIC Duet™ GST•Tag™ Ek Adaptor from Novagen

Description:... The LIC Duet™ GST•Tag™ Ek Adaptor encodes a T7 promoter, lac operator, ribosome binding site (rbs), ATG translation initation codon and an N-terminal GST•Tag coding sequence. The GST•Tag sequence has been reported to enhance the production and in some cases the solubility...
Company:Novagen

BL21 Competent Cell Set* from Novagen

Description:... stringent control over basal expression levels, the ability to form disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm for proper folding and activity, and alleviating codon usage incompatibilities. Every strain of Novagen’s competent cells is verified for phenotype and purity, and transformation efficiency is guaran...
Company:Novagen
Codon in Biological Definition

Alternative splicing

...e mRNA transcript. However, the intron must be properly encoding for amino acids . The intron's code must be properly expressible, otherwise a stop codon or a shift in the reading frame will cause the protein to be non-functional. Exon cassette mode : in this case, certain exons are spliced out to...

Amino acid

...slation: Selenocysteine is incorporated into some proteins at a UGA codon , which is normally a stop codon. Pyrrolysine is used by some methano...roduce methane . It is coded for similarly to selenocysteine but with the codon UAG instead. Although only 20 amino acids are genetically coded, over 1...

Genetic code

...e") 1 Genome expression 2 Table 1: RNA codon table 3 Table 2: Reverse codon table 4 Technical details 4.1 Stop Cod... ribose . Overall, there are 4 3 = 64 different codon combinations. For example, the RNA sequence UUUAA...

DNA

...netic code . The genetic code is made up of three-letter 'words' (termed a codon ) formed from a sequence of three nucleotides (e.g. ACT, CAG, TTT). These ...ons can then be translated with messenger RNA and then transfer RNA, with a codon corresponding to a particular amino acid. Since there are 64 possible codo...

Gene

...NA molecule or strand (more at DNA ). These four nucleotides constitute the genetic alphabet. A sequence of three consecutive nucleotides, called a codon , is the protein-coding vocabulary. The sequence of codons in a gene specifies the amino-acid sequence of the protein it encodes. In most eukary...

Genetic code

...e") 1 Genome expression 2 Table 1: RNA codon table 3 Table 2: Reverse codon table 4 Technical details 4.1 Stop Cod... ribose . Overall, there are 4 3 = 64 different codon combinations. For example, the RNA sequence UUUAA...

Polymerase chain reaction

... when primer design is based on protein sequence . As several different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often difficult to deduce which codon is used in a particular case. Therefore primer sequence corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A stands for adenine , T...

Primer

... when primer design is based on protein sequence . As several different codons can code for one amino acid , it is often difficult to deduce which codon is used in a particular case. Therefore primer sequence corresponding to the amino acid isoleucine might be "ATH", where A stands for adenine , T...

Protein biosynthesis

...on occur when the ribosome recognizes the starting codon on the mRNA strand and binds to it. The ribosome ...A, there is an anticodon that is used to match the codon on the mRNA. tRNA also has a single unit of amin...to it. As the ribosome travels down the mRNA one codon at a time, another tRNA is attached to the mRNA at...

RNA

...) is a small class of RNA molecules that present specific amino acids to the ribosome during translation , the anticodon of the tRNA paits with the codon of on the mRNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) Main article: Messenger RNA Messenger RNA is RNA that carries information from DNA to the ribos...
Codon in Biological Dictionary

Codon

The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells. The code defines a mapping between tri-nucleotide sequences, called codons, and amino acids. A... Codon usage bias refers to differences among organisms ...

Termination codon

In the genetic code, a stop codon is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation. Proteins are unique sequences of amino acids, and most codons in messenger RNA correspond to the addition of an amino acid to a growing protein chain — stop codons sig...

Stop codon

In the genetic code, a stop codon is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation. Proteins are unique sequences of amino acids, and most codons in messenger RNA correspond to the addition of an amino acid to a growing protein chain — stop codons s...

Start codon

TAC and AUG denote sequences of DNA and RNA respectively that are the start codon or initiation codon encoding the amino acid methionine (Met) in eukaryotes and a modified Met (fMet) in prokaryotes. The most common start codon is AUG which is read as methionine or, in bacteria,...

Initiation Codon

TAC and AUG denote sequences of DNA and RNA respectively that are the start codon or initiation codon encoding the amino acid methionine (Met) in eukaryotes and a modified Met (fMet) in prokaryotes. ... fMet-tRNAfMet interacts via base pairing with the mRNA initiation codon ...

Wobble base pair

...le and double mutations at each pair . ... ... for you below, a wobble interaction is the interaction formed between the third base of a tRNA codon between ... A wobble base pair is a G-U and I-U / I-A ... ... other additional information on Wobble from Biology-Online.org dictionary. ....

Untranslated region

... sequence, is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA) and the DNA that codes for it. It starts at the +1 position and ends just before the start codon (usually AUG) of the coding region . It... The three prime untranslated region (3' UTR) is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA). It...

TATA box

...les for details. ... Locating a TATA box is what RNA "does" in finding proteins and what you will do in this problem. ... string has a start codon 19 base pairs after the TATA box . ... What is TATA box ? Meaning of TATA box medical term. What does TATA box mean? ... TATA b...

Shuttle vector

...binant adenovirus vectors containing mutations in the E1B region which permit the easy deletion of a gene or genes therein, ... GenScript's codon optimization technology can increase the ... These adenoviral shuttle vectors are compatible with the Clontech Adeno-XTM Expression System. ... ...

Ribosome binding site

...s three binding sites for tRNA: the A-, P-, and E-sites (short ... Shine–Dalgarno sequence Part of the leader sequence preceding the start codon of mRNA that is AGGAGGU ... message. Ribosomal Binding Site . Initiation factor ... ... found in the cytoplasm of living cells and serves a...

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