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Astrocytes in Medical News

Targeting astrocytes slows disease progression in ALS

In what the researchers say could be promising news in the quest to find a therapy to slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrigs disease, scientists at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine have shown that targeting neuronal support cell...

Link between Astrocytes and Alzheimer's Discovered

United States: Alzheimer’s was always profiled as a disease of the Neurons or Brain cells, until, New York researchers placed a finger on the participation// of Astrocytes in regulating blood flow in the brain- a direct link between Astrocytes and Alzheimer’s. According to Neuroscientist, Dr. M...

Neuronal survival and axonal regrowth obtained in vitro

... surround neurons. Normally, the primary role of astrocytes is to supply the nutrients necessary for neuronal ...function. In the event of spinal injury or lesion, astrocytes synthesize two particular proteins (glial fibrilla...sure, were inserted into the cytoplasm of cultured astrocytes using a viral therapeutic vector. Once in the cell...

Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation awards prestigious fellowships to 17 top young scientists

...vestigating the development and function of brain cells called astrocytes. astrocytes have been shown only recently to play critical roles in neuronal development and diseases, such as brain tumors (astrocytomas). Understanding how astrocytes are generated and maintained in the brain will help to develop better strat...

Protein Might Mute Effects of Methamphetamine

... point to their role in Parkinson's disease." astrocytes with active oct3 were found in brain tissue the re... product of another brain chemical, MPTP, that the astrocytes convert. How and why MPP+ leaves the astrocytes has been a mystery to scientists. The study, ...

New insights into how brain responds to viral infection

...hile scientists have been aware of the capacity of astrocytes to trigger an innate immune response when encounte...ntral nervous system, immune mediators secreted by astrocytes may injure other cells and tissues in the vicinity...plasm. By culturing the supportive cells known as astrocytes obtained from the brains of newborn mice and expos...

Astrocytes help separate man from mouse

...inding striking differences in the astrocytes. Our astrocytes signal faster, and they're bigger and more complex...ch higher brain capacity in large part because our astrocytes are more sophisticated and have more complex proce...nformation processing, and our study suggests that astrocytes are part of the higher cognitive functioning that ...

Alzheimer's Plaques More Complex Than Thought

...vely acute, localized neuro-toxicity. We show that astrocytes could provide a network mechanism that may stretch...ques to more distant areas of the brain." Since astrocytes make up about half the volume of the brain, Kuchib...vity in living mice. The researchers found that astrocytes flicker on and off at a much higher rate in mice g...

Support cells, not neurons, lull the brain to sleep

... Brain cells called astrocytes help to cause the urge to sleep that comes with pr...results of the new study show that "adenosine from astrocytes clearly regulates sleep pressure." He notes that ...been shown to influence behavior. Unlike neurons, astrocytes do not fire electrical spikes, and they are often ...

Scientists find how neural activity spurs blood flow in the brain

...called astrocytes. By manipulating calcium levels, astrocytes can dilate or constrict blood vessels, depending o...amate, is widely released at synapses and binds to astrocytes as well as to postsynaptic receptors. Murthy's group found that after binding glutamate, astrocytes elevate their intracellular calcium levels, dilati...
Astrocytes in Medical Technology

Astrocytes Help Separate Man From Mouse

...inding striking differences in the astrocytes. Our astrocytes signal faster, and they're bigger and more complex...ch higher brain capacity in large part because our astrocytes are more sophisticated and have more complex proce...nformation processing, and our study suggests that astrocytes are part of the higher cognitive functioning that ...

Brain Stem Cells Can Be Awakened, Say Schepens Scientists

...other parts of the brain, the team discovered that astrocytes in the hippocampus were sending one signal to the ... that in the areas where stem cells were sleeping, astrocytes were producing high levels of two related molecule...he sleeping stem cells. The team also found that astrocytes in the hippocampus produce not only much lower lev...

Data to be presented at AAN Meeting -Study results of drug candidate for MS

...es presented at AAN evaluated FTY720's ability to activate S1P receptors on astrocytes in cell culture. astrocytes are known to play an active role in nervous tissue repair, and to regulate ...
Astrocytes in Medical Dictionary

Rett syndrome

...ndrome - a truly compelling cause! ... Rett Syndrome (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) ... Article: Rett syndrome astrocytes are abnormal and spread MeCP2 deficiency through... Find articles about Rett Syndrome and hundreds of other health-related topics at LIVESTR...

Gliomas

...iomas increase with age. ... CINN -- The Chicago Institute of Neurosurgery and Neuroresearch ... The most common gliomas are those derived from astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. ... Gliomas are classified into four grades that reflect the degree of malignancy. ... Between 10 - 20% of brain tumors ...

Gene

...en B6 and ... Here, we used microarray gene expression profiling and data-analysis algorithms ... We also compared gene expression patterns in astrocytes with those in human HeLa ... To identify functionally related gene sets that are differentially perturbed in ... This procedure generates an enr...
Astrocytes in Biological News

Neural stem cell differentiation factor discovered

...form new stem cells or differentiate into neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. astrocytes have supportive functions in the environment of ne...fined that Notch signaling drives the formation of astrocytes from neural stem cells while it suppresses the for...

Brain protein central to both Parkinson's, drug addiction identified

...e. In the brain, MPTP is converted primarily in astrocytes to a chemical called MPP+, which is deadly to dopa...urrent paper, concluded that MPP+ is released from astrocytes before it kills dopaminergic neurons. But exactly how MPP+ is freed from astrocytes was unknown. In this week's PNAS paper, the s...

West Nile virus studies show how star-shaped brain cells cope with infection

.... In this study, Lipkin and colleagues cultured astrocytes from the brains of newborn mice and exposed the ce...ar machinery (such as a protein called MDA-5) that astrocytes use to "see" viral invaders. They also identified recognition molecules on the astrocytes that initiate and control the central nervous syst...

Rett Syndrome Research Trust advisor makes significant discovery

...sorders. The researchers show that MeCP2-deficient astrocytes (a subset of glia) stunt the growth of neighboring... Mandel and colleagues found that MECP2- deficient astrocytes could not sustain normal neuronal growth. In fact, their experiments suggest that MeCP2-deficient astrocytes secrete a toxic factor that impacts the entire nei...

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features organ and cell culture methods

... cells as well as to determine both their self-renewal capacity and their ability to generate three primary cell types of the nervous system: neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The protocol is freely accessible on the website for Cold Spring Harbor Protocols ( http://www.cshprotocols.org/cgi/content/fu...

Swamping bad cells with good in ALS animal models helps sustain breathing

...o mature, healthy astrocytes, found living alongside sick motor neurons. astrocytes are the most common cells in the central nervous system. Work at Johns Hopk...o the clinic." Earlier research by U.S. scientists suggests that, while astrocytes go downhill in ALS, they may not be a primary cause of the disease. The ide...

Astrocytes and synaptic plasticity

...excess neurotrophic factor from neuronal synapses, astrocytes may finely tune synaptic transmission to affect pr...rompting LTP. By specifically mopping up pro-BDNF, astrocytes seem to have another means to assist in LTP. Howev...ome gets recycled and re-released, suggesting that astrocytes in fact fine-tune synaptic plasticity. ...

Salk researchers reprogram adult stem cells in their natural environment

...d a neuron, or becoming part of the brain's support network, which includes astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. astrocytes are star-shaped glia cells that hold neurons in place, nourish them, and di...

Brain stem cells can be awakened, say Schepens scientists

... in the hippocampus with other parts of the brain, the team discovered that astrocytes in the hippocampus were sending one signal to the stem cells and that those...tic tool) activated the sleeping stem cells. The team also found that astrocytes in the hippocampus produce not only much lower levels of ephrin-A2 and eph...

Veterinary college researcher studying brain tumors in people and animals

...upporting its functions. There are several different specific types of glial cells, but two that interest Rossmeisl and colleagues most are called astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Oncogenic abnormalities associated with each of these can lead to cancers called astrocytomas and oligodendrocytomas, according ...
Astrocytes in Biological Technology

Breakthrough in spinal injury treatment

...nown to be involved in the generation of embryonic astrocytes during spinal cord development, the researchers we...le to make pure cultures of two different types of astrocytes from the GRP cells. When Dr. Davies and his team transplanted these two types of astrocytes into the injured spinal cord, they had dramaticall...

UW-Madison rat experiment could lead to stem-cell treatment for ALS

...e the brain or spinal cord, neural progenitor cells grow into neuron-supporting stem cells called astrocytes. Some researchers believe that ALS causes astrocytes to malfunction, which in turn causes motor neurons to degenerate and eventually die. Several research groups around the world are working with neur...

Deliver siRNAs Into Primary Cells

...uman mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), normal human astrocyte cells (NHA), normal human dermal fibroblasts-neonatal (NHDF-Neo), rat astrocytes (DI TNC1), normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), bovine aortic vascular ...

Efficient DNA transfection of primary CNS neurons using TransMessenger Transfection Reagent

...f the neurons. Staining with anti-GFAP antibodies shows glial-cell astrocytes with a stellate morphology. Serum-free cultures contain many fewer astrocytes than serum-containing cultures (data not shown). Transfected and u...
Astrocytes in Biological Products

NeuroCyte - Rat Neural Stem Cell Kit from Orion BioSolutions, Inc.

Description:...ate these unique cells generated from E18 fetal rat brain in the format you need for a tissue-like mixture of in vitro stem/progenitor cells, neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Better than neurospheres and primary E18 hippocampal preparations. Orions scientists have developed a proprietary culture system...
Company:Orion BioSolutions, Inc.
Astrocytes in Biological Dictionary

Glial cells

... nervous system are non-neuronal cells of which astrocytes are ... It was generally considered that glial cells or astrocytes provide support and ... Rockefeller University ... cells present in the nervous system of humans: astrocytes ... Since the number of glial cells per ne...
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