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Archaea in Medical News

The 2009 Leibniz Prize: Eleven new scientific discoverers

...She was the first marine microbiologist to prove the existence of microbial communities consisting of bacteria that reduce sulphate and methanotrophic archaea on the ocean floor. In the absence of oxygen, these microorganisms consume methane, which is present in abundance on the sea bed, thus reducing the am...

NWO/Spinoza Prize for literature, microbiology, physics and medicine

...nd Distinguished Professor at the University of Helsinki. De Vos is a leading expert in the molecular genetics of microorganisms, such as bacteria, archaea and fungi. For example, he has discovered that lactic acid bacteria communicate with each other by means of special peptides and that by producing the...

How defects in 1 gene cause 3 distinct and devastating human diseases

... structures for XPD, we suddenly see how it is working. The protein from archaea is a simplified model, but that doesnt stop us learning a lot about the bio... learn a lot about human health by looking deep into evolutionary time. archaea have particular similarities with humans and other eukaryotes in the way in...

Protein Folds Research Offers Insight into Metabolic Evolution

...rotein folds are quite ancient: These architectures were found to be quite common in all the species of bacteria, animals, plants, fungi, protists and archaea the researchers analyzed. Of 776 metabolic protein folds surveyed, 16 were found to be universal, and nine of those occurred in the earliest b...
Archaea in Biological News

Ammonia-loving archaea win landslide majority

A genetic analysis of soil samples indicates that a group of microorganisms called crenarchaeota are the Earth's most abundant land-based creatures that oxidize ammonia, according to an international team of researchers from Norway, Germany, United Kingdom and the United States. Soil microbes...

Exploring standards to advance microbial genomics

...pides applauds the effort to coordinate balanced sampling of the Tree of Life recently launched through GEBA: the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and archaea ( http://www.jgi.doe.gov/programs/GEBA/index.html ). He also sees a way forward using single-cell genomics ⎯ a technique now being pursued in ea...

Methane-eating microbes can use iron and manganese oxides to 'breathe'

...rganisms living in the sediments she used, she does not know which of these microbes is responsible for consuming methane. It might be one bacteria or archaea species, or it may be a consortium of microbes. She is trying to identify the organisms responsible. ...

Rampant helper syndrome

... The archaea are single-celled organisms and a domain unto themselves, quite apart from the so called eukaryotes, being bacteria and higher organisms. Many species...

Proteins strangle cell during division

...ights into the processes involving ESCRT proteins, such as HIV particle release. Evolution Some theories suggest that in evolutionary terms the archaea are the predecessors of eukaryotes. This is confirmed by the fact that genes involved in cell division in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are related to euk...

New life beneath sea and ice

...ve microbial communities. Together with other international partners, Yakimov's team has already identified more than ten new lineages of bacteria and archaea (these are ancient bacteria-like organisms), which they have named the Mediterranean Sea Brine Lake Divisions. There is ample life at the boundary ...

New cell division mechanism discovered

...n virus budding, including HIV, from the cell surface. The results are, thus, important not only for an increased understanding of the cell biology of archaea and extremophiles, but also for key cellular processes in human and other higher organisms, and for issues related to the origin and evolutionary hist...

Novel publishing approach puts textbook in more hands

...ily on vertebrate glycobiology, the second edition reflects the fact that glycosylation is universal, that all cells in all speciesfrom eubacteria and archaea to arthropods and vertebratesare coated (both inside and out) with a dense array of various sugar molecules. The roles of glycans in human physiology...

The structure of the Mre11 protein bound to DNA

...acid residues. P. furiosus Mre11 has six recognition loops. Mre11 from eukaryotes organisms including yeast, frogs, and humans, whose cells, unlike archaea and bacteria, have membrane-packaged nuclei exhibit only five of these recognition loops but are otherwise similar. How Mre11 works The end...

Nature publishes new evidence about the deep biosphere written by biogeoscientists

...r 10 centimeters of the seafloor. Below this level archaea appear to take over the major fraction of the biomass pool." According to Lipp, archaea make up at least 87 percent of organisms that colonize the deep biosphere. "These subsurface archaea can be viewed as starvelings," he continues. "Comp...
Archaea in Biological Technology

Molecular sleuths track evolution through the ribosome

...leotides that spell out the RNA of the ribosome in bacteria and archaea. These "molecular signatures" were so pronounced that Woese concluded that the archaea comprised a separate domain of life, distinct from bacteria and eukarya (animals, plants, fungi and protists). His classification system is now widel...

90 billion tons of microbial organisms live in the deep biosphere

...r 10 centimeters of the seafloor. Below this level archaea appear to take over the major fraction of the biomass pool." According to Lipp, archaea make up at least 87 percent of organisms that colonize the deep biosphere. "These subsurface archaea can be viewed as starvelings," he continues. "Comp...

Monitoring Microbial Populations Using Real-Time qPCR on the MJ Research Opticon 2 System

... assay costs make this method invaluable for the analysis of microbial populations. References 1. DeLong, E.F. archaea in coastal marine environments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89: 5685- 5689 (1992). 2. Giovannoni, S.J., Britschgi, T.B., Moyer, C.L., ...

Comparing Fidelity and Performance of Proofreading PCR Enzymes

...modifications (e.g., neutralizing antibodies) have not been directly demonstrated for PCR enzymes derived from hyperthermophilic archaea (e.g. Pfu DNA polymerase, KOD, Deep Vent). Although Pfx DNA polymerase is blended with neutralizing antibody, the results shown ...
Archaea in Biological Definition

Archaea

Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota Halobacteria Methanobacteria Methanococci Methanopyri Archaeoglobi Thermoplasmata Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea are a major group of prokaryotes . Their classifi...

Biology

...g the separation of the three domains bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl...nerally begin with the three-domain system : archaea (originally Archaebacteria) -- Bacteria (origin...versal common descent ( UCD ) for all bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes (see Three domain system ). ...

Bacterium

... each of these and the eukaryotes all evolved separately and in 1990 emphasized this by promoting them to domains , which were renamed the Bacteria, archaea , and Eucarya . This redefinition has generally been accepted by molecular biologists but criticized by some others, who maintain that he over-empha...

Genetic code

...odes for Cysteine. Another variant is found in some species of the yeast candida , where CUG codes for Serine. In some species of bacteria and archaea , a few non-standard amino acids are substituted for standard stop codons; UGA can code for selenocysteine and UAG can code for pyrrolysine . Ther...

Common descent

...netic code is generally regarded by biologists as definitive evidence in favor of the theory of universal common descent ( UCD ) for all bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes (see Three domain system ). Analysis of the small differences in the genetic code has also provided support for UCD. The Tree of ...

Ion gradient

...t is an interconvertible form of energy in active transport, electron potential generation, NADPH synthesis and ATP synthesis/hydrolysis. Some archaea , most notably halobacteria , make proton gradients by pumping in protons from the environment with the help of the solar driven enzyme bacteriorhod...

Endosymbiotic theory

...lar and in its size). Mitochondria utilize a different genetic code than the eukaryotic host cell; this code is very similar to bacteria and archaea . They are surrounded by two or more membranes , and the innermost of these shows differences in composition compared to the other membranes in th...

Bacterium

... each of these and the eukaryotes all evolved separately and in 1990 emphasized this by promoting them to domains , which were renamed the Bacteria, archaea , and Eucarya . This redefinition has generally been accepted by molecular biologists but criticized by some others, who maintain that he over-empha...

Evolution

... A phylogenetic tree of all living things , based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains bacteria , archaea , and eukaryotes as described initially by Carl Woese . Trees constructed with other genes are generally similar, although they may place some earl...

Evolutionary tree

...omycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaete Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae unclassified Bacteria ... Domain archaea Crenarchaeota (extremely thermophilic archaebacteria) Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Domain Eukaryota , organisms...
Archaea in Biological Dictionary

Ribosomes

... Ribosomes ") are complexes of RNA and protein that are found in all cells. Ribosomes from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, the three domains of life on Earth, have significantly different structure and RNA. The ribosomes in... All living cells contai...

Prokaryotes

...the smallest and most diverse group of organisms living on this planet, the archaea and bacteria. An introduction to the basic classification of living thin...re evolutionarily ancient, for billions of years the only form of life. ... archaea : bacteria-like prokaryotes . difference between aerobic ... Simple e...

Phylogenetic tree

...r taxa.... In a phylogenetic tree , each node with descendants represents the most recent ... A phylogenetic tree , showing how Eukaryota and archaea are more closely related ... ... in the form of the evolutionary tree that connects all organisms to each other. ... read more about the Tree o...

Insertion sequences

...logy,biology terms,biology abbreviations ... insertion sequence ... Insertion Sequences show diverse recent activities in Cyanobacteria and archaea ... Mahillon J, Chandler M: Insertion sequences . ... ... Insertion Sequences , and Transposons – Encyclopedia.com has Episomes, Plasmids, .....

Eubacteria

... of the three main domains of life, along with the archaea and the Eukarya bacteria ( bak′tirēə ) ( micro...more than 150 ... The Eubacteria differ from the archaea in the form and structure of their ... Eubacte...acteria . ... Eubacteria are differentiated from archaea primarily based on chemical ... [ Bacteria, Eu...

Archaebacteria

... The archaea are a group of single-celled microorganisms. A sin...cteria was a misnomer, ... ... Biochemistry of archaea ( Archaebacteria ) (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Pu...karyotes) ... archaeon or Archaeon ( ) n. , pl. archaea . Any of various single-celled prokaryotes genet...
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