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Neuron in Medical News

Scientists show how a neuron gets its shape

Ask a simple question, get a simple answer: When Abraham Lincoln was asked how long a man's legs should be, he absurdly replied, "Long enough to reach the ground." Now, by using a new microscopy technique to watch the growth of individual neurons in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans...

Researchers Map Paths Governing Neuron Function

Findings identify proteins that determine nature of connections between neurons TUESDAY, Jan. 29 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. researchers have mapped thousands of neuronal proteins that are connected in complex signaling networks that control neuron function. This line of research may h...

Discovery of Agile Molecular Motors Could Aid in Treating Motor Neuron Diseases

Over the last several months, the labs of Yale Goldman, MD, PhD, Director of the Pennsylvania Muscle Institute at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine,// and Erika Holzbaur, PhD, Professor of Physiology, have published a group of papers that, taken together, show proteins that function...

Golgi Orientation controls Neuron Growth

Michael Ehlers and his colleagues have reported in the Journal Neuron the mechanism by which the Golgi apparatus controls the growth of the dendrite cells that are responsible for the growth and development of neurons//. The dendrite cells are the branches of neurons that are responsible for transm...

Live recordings of cell communication

...es and mental disorders like e.g. depression. Nerve signals travel from one neuron to another through vesicles - a nano-sized container loaded with neurotrans...eases neurotransmitters into the surroundings that are detected by the next neuron in line. However, we still lack a more detailed understanding of how the fu...

Learning Takes Place When You Get Things Right

...re produced little or no change in the brain, nor any improvement in behavior, the researchers found. The study, published in the July 30 issue of neuron , offers new insight into how the brain uses environmental feedback to change in response to experience. In this study, monkeys were shown alternat...

Protein Clumps May Appear Years Before Memory Problems

...nk between the deposits and memory impairment had not been clearly demonstrated in humans. In the new study, which appears in the July 30 issue of neuron , U.S. researchers used medical imaging to examine the brains of older people who did not have significant memory impairment. "Two recent advances ...

Famous Names Get Single Neurons Fired Up

...ealthDay News) -- As you read her name, your Oprah neuron will probably rev up. An international team of ...ne experiment, Quiroga and his colleagues observed neuron activity in subjects while they looked at three im...ed to an electronic voice saying "Oprah." A single neuron activated in the hippocampus during the Oprah expe...

Neuronal survival and axonal regrowth obtained in vitro

...pinal injury or lesion, astrocytes synthesize two particular proteins (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin), which isolate the damaged neuron to prevent interference with the operation of the central nervous system. While the protection is initially useful, in the long run it induces form...

St. Jude Scientists Discover a New Mechanism Controlling Neuronal Migration

...heir findings in the July 16 issue of the journal neuron . In the experiments, the researchers sou...achinery pulls the internal cell structures of the neuron forward during migration to allow those structures to build the scaffolding that enables the neuron to move the main cell body forward. The researcher...

Key Protein Might Shield Brain Cells

...the cell death cascade and protects brain cells against toxic compounds, according to the study. The finding is published in the July 16 issue of neuron . More information The U.S. National Institutes of Health has more about research into preventing Alzheimer's disease . ...

New Treatments for Alzheimer's on the Horizon

... could be that Dimebon neutralizes then expels the excess amyloid from the brain, or that there is actually some benefit to having amyloid outside the neuron as opposed to inside (where it might be more toxic), Gandy postulated. And it's entirely possible that beta amyloid is not the main culprit in Alzh...

Drug rescues memory lost to Alzheimer's disease

...ed inflamed immune cells from gathering in brain regions with Alzheimer's lesions called amyloid plaques. Cell inflammation in these areas accelerates neuron damage, exacerbating the disease. "We used a multidisciplinary approach combining an understanding of immunology and neurobiology to uncover a comp...

Gene's novel role may provide key to treating liver and neurodegenerative diseases

... Huo and Xu, there is also significant existing evidence that FAIM prevents neuron death and promotes neural outgrowth. They hypothesize that FAIM might play a role in neuron protection, making it a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative ...

AlphaRx and Gaia BioPharma Report Positive Efficacy Results in a Pre-Clinical Trial of GAI-122 Injectable Nano-emulsion for Post-operative Delirium

...nd memory disturbances produced by cerebral embolization, cerebral ischemia or lesions in the basal forebrain, the area of origin of the acetylcholine neuron system projecting into the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In clinical tests, an oral form of GAI-122 has been shown to be effective in psy...

Sleep May Be Essential for Long-Term Memory

...from the RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at MITs Picower Institute for Learning and Memory report their findings in the June 24 issue of neuron . "Our work demonstrates the molecular link between post-experience sleep and the establishment of long-term memory of that experience," study auth...

Slugs a home run with NIH

...in Alzheimer's disease and how the function of cells within the brain change when an animal ages. Besides using the oversized Aplysia californica neuron as a model for the study of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, they are also used in studies of natural products, chemistry for isolation o...

17 of America's Most Promising Scientists Selected as 2009 Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences

... The Pen n sy l va n ia S t at e U n i ver s i t y neuron degeneration C harle s G . Mu l l i gha n , M . D .... Mia m i, M i l l er Scho o l of M e di c ine neuron protection and repair mechanisms For full biographies and information ...

Why Huntington's Shows Up in Midlife

...making more and transporting more proteins in each neuron than you need," co-principal investigator Scott Br...e university. "But as you get older and older, the neuron produces and transports less. Each hit diminishes the system further. Eventually, the neuron falls below the threshold needed to maintain cell ...

Prize4Life and the Alzheimer Research Forum Announce Launch of New Web-Portal for ALS Research

...earchALS.or g ), a web-based resource for researchers interested in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease or motor neuron disease. The site is modeled on the Alzheimer Research Forum's popular website, www.alzforum.org , and is the first step in Prize4Life's efforts to ...

Making Obese Mice Slim, Without Diet or Exercise

... appetite and metabolism. As a result, the mice became morbidly obese and diabetic. When researchers added leptin receptors to a particular type of neuron (pro-opiomelanocortin neurons) in the hypothalamus of the mice's brains, their blood glucose levels dropped to normal. The mice, which had previous...

Cocaine Spurs Long-Term Change in Brain Chemistry

...rtuins are activated by chronic cocaine use and fuel addiction-related behaviors in lab animals. The research was published May 14 in the journal neuron . "This analysis provides fundamentally new information about the range of genes that are altered by cocaine in this brain region," Nestler said. ...

Science Zeroes In on New Alzheimer's Drug Target

... to lack HDAC2 learned better. At the cellular level, overexpressors had fewer synapses and dendritic spines -- that is, fewer connections from one neuron to another -- and less synaptic plasticity overall. On the other hand, mice without HDAC2 had many more of these learning-enhancing brain cell connect...

Glutamate Identified As Predictor of Disease Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

...in are understood clinically as a cause of cell injury and death. Injury to neuro-axons, which are the long fibers that extend from the cell body of a neuron cell toward other nerve cells, is partly responsible for disability progression in MS. In a previous study using proton MR spectroscopic imaging, the...

Imaging IDs Brain Neurons With Preference for Real Words

...r complete, real words are located in the brain's visual word form area, U.S. researchers report. This finding, published in the April 30 issue of neuron , offers new insight into reading-associated brain mechanisms and may help improve understanding of reading disabilities. "Although some theories o...

Jet Lag Upsets Brain's Internal Clocks

...et lag treatments. "We can go back to the treatments that are believed to be effective and see where they might be acting in the circuitry of these neuron centers, then refine them to be more effective," de la Iglesia said. More information The National Sleep Foundation has more about jet lag . ...

Team Regrows Neurons Controlling Movement in Rats

...esearchers have shown it's possible to re-grow some neurons responsible for movement. But the new research showed regeneration of a particular type of neuron -- corticospinal motor axons -- that had so far proven resistant to regeneration efforts. Corticospinal motor axons are key to controlling fine and...

JHU researcher discovers brain cells have 'memory'

...f the brain's visual cortex which is in charge of distinguishing between background and foreground images. Writing in a recent issue of the journal neuron , the team demonstrates that nerve cells in this region (called V2) are able to "grab onto" figure-ground information from visual images for severa...

2 NYU scientists named Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Early Career Scientists

...that produce proteins called Hox factors, may help scientists restore motor neuron function in people whose spinal cords have been damaged by trauma or diseas...ether Hox proteins in interneurons and sensory neurons, which control motor neuron firing patterns and transmit feedback about muscle action, help assemble th...

Two NYU Scientists Named Howard Hughes Medical Institute's early career scientists

...that produce proteins called Hox factors, may help scientists restore motor neuron function in people whose spinal cords have been damaged by trauma or diseas...ether Hox proteins in interneurons and sensory neurons, which control motor neuron firing patterns and transmit feedback about muscle action, help assemble th...

Mechanism of Alzheimer's suggests combination therapy needed

...oss of synaptic activity, a gradual dying back of the neurons, and eventual neuron death -- exactly the pattern of Alzheimer's disease progression," Brady sai...earlier work, the researchers showed that tau tangles halt transport to the neuron periphery through other regulatory enzymes by causing the motor protein to ...

Penn Medicine pathologists pioneer biomarker test to diagnose or rule out Alzheimer's disease

... researchers, led by Leslie M. Shaw, PhD, Co-Director of the Penn Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) Biomarker Core, found evidence of neuron degeneration marked by an increase in CSF concentration of tau proteins and plaque deposition, indicated by a decrease in amyloid beta42 concentrati...

University of Pennsylvania researchers find that the unexpected is a key to human learning

... draw did not yield a reward or if no choice was made, the screen turned blank and participants heard a buzz. "This new way to measure dopaminergic neuron activity has helped us gain a greater understanding of fundamental cognitive activity," said Baltuch, director of the Penn Medicine Center for Functio...

Clues Found to Brain Mechanism Behind Migraines

...thDay News) -- Scientists believe they may have found the biological trigger to a particular type of migraine headache. In the March 12 issue of neuron , an Italian university study on mice found that increased levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain appear to kick off a cortical spreadi...

Diabetes and Elevated Levels of Cholesterol Linked to Faster Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Patients

... may increase oxidative stress or activate inflammation in the brain, thereby triggering the production of amyloid, and/or triggering the formation of neuron tangles - known as neurofibrillary tangles - which are believed to be a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Stern and his colleagues are con...

Experts examine causes, treatment and prevention of glaucoma

...tection itself may lead to problems if not properly controlled. The session called for more study about whether immune activity creates or worsens the neuron degeneration in glaucoma. The conference concluded with a call for more research on how these factors interact, and asked participants to search fo...

Brain Adapts to Age-Related Eye Disease

...ound when the cells in the fovea, the part of the retina responsible for the central field of vision, were damaged by macular degeneration (MD) -- the neuron attached to them begin responding to stimuli in an undamaged section -- a type of internal reorganization of the eye's visual map as opposed to the co...

How yeast is helping us to understand Parkinson's Disease

...on for researchers in the field has been whether or not there is a single cause, or related group of genetic determinants, that result in dopaminergic neuron loss, or 'Parkinson's disease'. "We would love to be able to link all the genes that we know have something to do with Parkinson's disease," sai...

Human stem cells provide a new model for Lou Gehrig's disease

... February 23, 2009, Cambridge, UK Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a devastating condition in which motor neuron degeneration causes progressive loss of movement and muscle tone, leading to death. Overcoming the limited success of previous models, a report publi...

Eisai and Bial Announce Partnership Agreement for the European Commercialisation of the Novel Once Daily Anti-Epileptic Zebinix(R)

...sness. Epilepsy is a disorder with many possible causes. Often the cause of epilepsy is unknown. However, anything that disturbs the normal pattern of neuron activity - from illness to brain damage to abnormal brain development, can lead to seizures. 4. About Zebinix Zebinix(R) (eslicarbazepin...
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