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wiring in Biological News

MS study offers theory for why repair of brain's wiring fails

Scientists have uncovered new evidence suggesting that damage to nerve cells in people with multiple sclerosis accumulates because the body's natural mechanism for repair of the nerve coating called "myelin" stalls out. The study, published today, July 1, 2009, in the print edition of " Genes ...

Protein identified as critical to insulating the body's wiring could also become treatment target

AUGUSTA, Ga. - A new protein identified as critical to insulating the wiring that connects the brain and body could one day be a treatment target for divergent diseases, from rare ones that lower the pain threshold to cancer, Medical College of Georgia researchers say. They report this week in ...

Maintaining the brain's wiring in aging and disease

Researchers at the Babraham Institute near Cambridge, supported by the Alzheimer's Research Trust and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), have discovered that the brain's circuitry survives longer than previously thought in diseases of ageing such as Alzheimer's dis...

Chemist receives NIH funding to unravel tricks of neuronal wiring

Joshua Maurer, Ph.D., assistant professor of chemistry in Arts & Sciences, has received a four-year, $1,216,000 grant from the National Institute of Mental Health for research titled "Unraveling Development: New Materials for Understanding Neuronal Wiring." Maurer's long term objective is to d...

Left-right wiring determined by neural communication in the embryonic worm

Most animals appear symmetrical at first glance, but we're full of internal lop-sidedness. From the hand used to pick up a pencil or throw a baseball, to where language is generated in the brain, to the orientation of our internal organs, humans are a glut of asymmetries. Worms aren't so different:...

Tracing broken wiring in stroke patients

Researchers have used a technique to trace the functional disruption in brain circuitry that causes stroke patients to show a lack of awareness or response to the side of the body opposite to the side of the stroke lesion in the brain. The researchers said their findings shed new light on the neuro...

A puzzle piece found in unraveling the wiring of the brain

The complexity of the brain and, more specifically, how nerve cells form billions of contacts when there are fewer than 30,000 human genes is still a scientific mystery. A team headed by Drs. Robin Hiesinger and Hugo J. Bellen at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston have unraveled a piece of tha...

Identification of a key molecular pathway required for brain neural circuit formation

...ules are absolutely required for the ability of Shh to guide axons. Connecting axons with an appropriate set of targets is very complex. Inappropriate wiring or damage to these neuronal connections leads to severe abnormalities of the nervous system. "Knowing the effectors of axon guidance molecules such as...

University of Texas at Austin engineer elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences

...egrating electronics with biology to improve the lives of people with illnesses. He and members of his team were issued the core patents on electrical wiring of enzymes. These patents formed the basis of the continuous glucose monitor for diabetes management known as FreeStyle Navigator of TheraSense, a com...

Case Western Reserve researchers develop 'wireless' activation of brain circuits

... Traditionally, stimulating nerves or brain tissue involves cumbersome wiring and a sharp metal electrode. But a team of researchers at Case Western Rese...ups of cells with infrared light. This eliminates the need for the complex wiring by embedding the light-activated nanoparticles directly into the tissue. Th...

Motor nerve targeting to limb muscles is controlled by ephrin proteins

...gether, these studies present a complete picture of how both limb nerves correctly connect the nervous system to muscles. Furthermore, by studying the wiring of a relatively simple nerve connection, the team of scientists has discovered a molecular strategy that is very likely widely used in the nervous sys...

The pepperoni pizza hypothesis

...ember issue of Nature Clinical Practice Urology . The Northwestern researchers discovered the colon's central role in the pain is caused by the wiring of pelvic organ nerves. Nerves from this region -- the bladder, colon and prostate -- are bunched together like telephone wires and plug into the same...

Wealth of genomic hotspots discovered in embryonic stem cells

...t of ES cells. By targeting these hotspots, we may be able to reconnect the wiring in non-stem cells and jump-start the stem cell program in them. This can po...ation for the intrinsic and external signaling pathways. The combinatorial wiring of transcription factors is important in deciphering the code behind gene ...

Scientists discover a molecular scaffold that guides connections between brain cells

...Cerebellums Organized Architecture Distinctive wiring patterns are unmistakable in the cerebellum, a bra...t other parts of the brain have their own specific wiring patterns. Central to the wiring architecture of the cerebellum are so-called Purki...

Yerkes researchers identify language feature unique to human brain

... of the human brain, nor determine how humans resemble or differ from other animals. DTI now makes it possible to understand how evolution changed the wiring of the human brain to enable us to think, act and speak like humans." ...

A switch that controls whether cells pass point of no return

...a, is a key tumor suppressor gene, and E2F is a transcription factor that governs the expression of all the genes important for cells to grow. The wiring diagram is fundamentally the same. Its very likely that different organisms have evolved a very conserved design principle to regulate their growth, s...

OHSU researchers reveal the science of shivering

...nses against the cold: shivering. The scientists have discovered the brains wiring system, which takes temperature information from the skin and determines wh...n which thermal sensory pathways come into play and knowledge of the brains wiring can provide important clues to locating dysfunction in patients with abnorm...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Nov. 14, 2007

... djwild@indiana.edu ARTICLE #5 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE wiring up enzymes for producing hydrogen in fuel cells Nano Letters Researchers in Colorado are reporting the first successful wiring up of hydrogenase enzymes. Those much-heralded proteins are envisioned as s...

Engineers study brain folding in higher mammals

...f Anatomy and Neurobiology. Van Essens hypothesis, published in 1997 in the journal Nature, is a mechanical theory based on tension in the axons (the wiring through which nerve cells communicate). The essence of the hypothesis is that tension in axons is the driving force of folding. Van Essens theory is ...

Modeling the restless brain

...cale computer model of the brain of a macaque monkey -- they demonstrated that the shape and pattern of the fluctuations are determined by the brain's wiring diagram, its neuroanatomy. Their model also can show how slow 5- to 10-second fluctuations of activity emerge naturally from much faster, chaoti...

Role of noise in neurons

...re much larger than previously assumed ?meaning the fidelity of transmission is compromised. Neurons in the cerebral cortex of the brain can have a wiring density of up to 4km per mm3 by using incredibly thin axons as wires, with an average diameter of 0.3 micrometers (1ìm is one millionth of a meter). A...

Deconstructing brain wiring, one neuron at a time

...o figure out how things are connected," Callaway says. "If you were given a wiring diagram, you could begin to understand how the chip moves electricity and h...fect targeted cells and spread only once to connecting cells," he adds. The wiring map can be constructed step by step as subsequent populations of cells are ...

Mechanism of nicotine's learning effects explored

...s its learning-enhancing effects. Now, researchers have discovered important details of how nicotine adjusts the signaling properties of neuronal wiring to enhance memory. Such signaling properties include the strength of the connections by which one neuron triggers another. Huibert Mansvelder and coll...

Wired for sound: How the brain senses visual illusions

...." Mishra said. Interestingly, the pattern was very different between individuals who did or didn't see the second flash, indicating that the brain's wiring and the strength of integration between the different sensory cortices may differ between individuals, or even vary over time. "It suggests that ther...

Motor protein plays key role in connecting neurons

...spinal cord injuries and other disorders. "Growth is precisely controlled during development," she says and errant growth can impair brain wiring or connectivity. "Myosin X gets the DCC receptor where it needs to be so it can interact with netrin-1." Her previous studies, published in 2004...

Novel experiment documents evolution of genome in near-real time

...ny cell," said Palsson. "You wouldn't expect that gene to change because a wide variety of cellular process would be affected; it's like replacing the wiring system in a building when a light bulb burns out. But we repeated the experiment more than 50 times and mutations in the RNA polymerase gene appeared ...

Advance helps explain stem cell behavior

...blems, injuries, failing organs or other medical issues. "If you have an electrical problem in a car, you can repair it a lot easier if you have a wiring diagram," said Michael Gross, an assistant professor of biochemistry and biophysics at OSU. "In a way that's what we're trying to do here, except we'r...

Parkinson's mutation stunts neurons

...abnormal inclusions. Finally, when they introduced the mutant LRRK2 into embryonic rat brain, they saw a reduction of length and branching of neuronal wiring during brain development. The researchers wrote that their findings offer "a useful animal model for early LRRK2-associated disease." They conclu...

Hard-wiring the fruit fly's visual system

...opological map first, and neuronal activity refines this map later," he said. The study adds to an ongoing debate about the extent to which brain wiring can be genetically programmed. "We have to be careful when we interpret these results in light of the complexity of the human brain," said Bellen...

Salk and Stanford teams join forces to reveal two paths of neurodegeneration

... wiring the developing brain is like creating a topiary garden. Shrubs don't automa...t inhibits degeneration. But the mutant Wlds protein doesn't hamper the wiring process in developing brains. In newborn Wlds mice, axons extending from ne...

New roles for growth factors: Enticing nerve cells to muscles

...nections between muscle and nerve cells are established embryonically when newborn neurons extend axons to "wire" the appropriate muscle fiber. The wiring process is highly orchestrated –each motor neuron has already pledged allegiance to a particular muscle fiber before it reaches out to connect with it...

Protein connections: A network to understand disease

... one hand, you have patients with diseases, and those diseases look alike, like the ataxias," said Vidal. "We are in the business of understanding the wiring diagram of cells. In each cell, there are 20,000 to 25,000 proteins, and they interact with one another. We know that many diseases are basically rela...

Long-term changes in experience cause neurons to sprout new long-lasting connections

...y suggests new ideas for future studies aimed at understanding the neuronal wiring process in greater detail. For example, he and his colleagues will study th...led study of the circuitry itself, to understand the changes in the brain's wiring diagram caused by spine growth. ...

Chemical signaling helps regulate sensory map formation in the brain

... and faithful connection," said Zou, "information from the eyes could not be properly deciphered by the brain." "Topographic maps are a very common wiring strategy in our brains," he said. Similar systems are thought to regulate other sensory systems -- such as hearing and touch, as well as motor system...

Master genetic switch found for chronic pain

...ul heat or cold, as well as those involved in pain due to damaged tissue. The researchers also found that the Runx1-deficient animals showed deficient wiring of certain types of pain neurons. In key experiments, the researchers measured the Runx1-deficient animals' response to four types of pain--thermal...

Animal models show that anabolic steroids flip the adolescent brain's switch for aggression

...mselves and to others. Melloni and others researchers also are concerned that drug use during a critical window in brain development can change their wiring for good. He says, "Because the developing brain is more adaptable and pliable, steroids could change the trajectory if administered during developme...

ASU researchers 'wire' DNA to identify mutations

...ctronics Research. "We can now directly read the biological information in a single DNA molecule." Measurement of DNA conductivity first requires wiring the molecule into an electrical circuit. "There are two things required to make a reliable measurement," said Tao. "One is that the DNA has to be teth...

Scientists crack code for motor neuron wiring

... so all you need to do is get regenerating axons to grow past the site of the lesion. "Or, it could be that injury causes subtle alterations in the wiring of spinal circuits, and these alterations may constrain the capacity for full recovery of motor function. So, the more that is understood about the ba...

New battery technology helps stimulate nerves

...y powers a "microstimulater" not much larger than a pencil lead and that can be injected near target nerves to help overcome the faulty nervous system wiring at the heart of Parkinson's, epilepsy and incontinence. "The idea is that whenever you have a broken nerve connection, you can supply the electrica...

Science's Breakthrough of the Year: Watching evolution in action

...cember 2004, may be the result of a short gamma ray burst -- a rapid merger of two ancient neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. Brain wiring and Disease: Several studies in 2005 suggest that diseases such schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome, and dyslexia are rooted in "faulty wiring" of the br...
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