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Twin nanoparticle shown effective at targeting, killing breast cancer cells

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] Breast cancer patients face many horrors, including those that arise when fighting the cancer itself. Medications given during chemotherapy can have wicked side effects, including vomiting, dizziness, anemia and hair loss. These side effects occur because medic...

Dictyostelium cells shown to lay 'breadcrumb trail' as first step in multicellular formation

When starved of their food source and then presented with a chemoattractant signal like cAMP, individual Dictyostelium cells acquire a polarized morphology and aggregate to form a migrating stream. This is the first step in a developmental program that culminates in the formation of a multicellula...

Ultrasound shown to exert remote control of brain circuits

In a twist on nontraditional uses of ultrasound, a group of neuroscientists at Arizona State University has developed pulsed ultrasound techniques that can remotely stimulate brain circuit activity. Their findings, published in the Oct. 29 issue of the journal Public Library of Science (PLoS) One...

Chocolate bar shown to lower cholesterol

The results of a University of Illinois study have demonstrated an effective way to lower cholesterol levels by eating chocolate bars. Eating two CocoaVia dark chocolate bars a day not only lowered cholesterol, it had the unexpected effect of also lowering systolic blood pressure, said John Er...

DNA methylation shown to promote development of colon tumors

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (December 1, 2007) Damaged or defective genes have long been known to be the cause of some cancers. Over the past decade, however, scientists have discovered that even healthy genes can be switched on or off and can cause cancer without any changes in the underlying DNA sequencea...

Spaceflight shown to alter ability of bacteria to cause disease

Space flight has been shown to have a profound impact on human physiology as the body adapts to zero gravity environments. Now, a new study led by researchers from the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University has shown that the tiniest passengers flown in spacemicrobescan be equally affecte...

Active ingredient in common Chinese herb shown to reduce hypertension

Some 50 million Americans have hypertension, that is, blood pressure measuring above the normal range (less than 120/80 mmHg). If untreated, it can lead to heart attacks, strokes, or kidney disease. Lifestyle changes are the first-stage treatment for the disease, but if they fail, medications are ...

Protein shown to rally biological clock

A biologist at Washington University in St. Louis and his collaborators have identified the factor in mammalian brain cells that keeps cells in synchrony so that functions like the wake-sleep cycle, hormone secretion and loco motor behaviors are coordinated daily over a 24-hour period. Erik Herzo...

Vaccine shown effective against chancroid

HIV plagues more than 25 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the World Health Organization, and efforts to develop a vaccine against the virus have achieved limited success. But what if a vaccine against another sexually transmitted infection found widely in that region of Africa ?ch...

Ultra low-dose estrogen shown safe for post-menopausal women

A study led by researchers at the San Francisco VA Medical Center has shown that extremely low doses of estrogen had no ill effects on the cognitive abilities or general health of older women over the course of two years. "This is exciting. It shows that women can take estrogen safely," observes...

New imaging technology shown to detect pancreatic inflammation in type 1 diabetes

A key obstacle to early detection of type 1 diabetes - as well as to rapid assessment of the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention - has been the lack of direct, non-invasive technologies to visualize inflammation in the pancreas, an early manifestation of disease. Instead, clinicians have had ...

Novel gene-silencing nanoparticles shown to inhibit Ewing's sarcoma

A novel delivery system that transports gene silencing nanoparticles into tumor cells has been shown to inhibit Ewing's sarcoma in an animal model of the disease. In this classic "Trojan horse" approach, a protein called transferrin that normally delivers iron into cells is modified to also smug...

Enzyme shown to help protect genomic stability

Genomes throughout the animal kingdom and beyond are characterized by extensive segments that are inactive, lengthy stretches of DNA containing multiple genes that are closed to gene transcription. Scientists believe one reason for this broad gene silencing is the vital need for genomic stability, ...

Controversial drug shown to act on brain protein to cut alcohol use

Medication against nicotine addiction is nowadays readily available. However, a similar and equally dangerous addiction, alcoholism, can't yet be controlled by drugs. Or can it be? Researchers from the University of California in San Diego identified a natural compound able to block alcohol addict...

Topical treatment shown to inhibit HIV and herpes simplex virus infection

Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers demonstrated that a gel applied in the vagina provides protection from both the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the herpes simplex Virus. The study, presented at the 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, is the first to show ...

Enzyme, lost in most mammals, is shown to protect against UV-induced skin cancer

In a finding that broadens our insight into the cause of certain kinds of UV-induced skin cancer, researchers at Erasmus University Medical Center (Rotterdam, The Netherlands) have employed an evolutionarily ancient enzyme-repair system to identify the principal type of DNA damage responsible for t...

The hepatitis healing power of blueberry leaves

... A chemical found in blueberry leaves has shown a strong effect in blocking the replication of the Hepatitis C virus, opening up a new avenue for treating chronic HCV infections, which affect 200 mi...

Carnegie donates landmark clones to biology

...ng. These genes are now used to unravel the interaction of the membrane proteins amongst each other. Recent research at the Carnegie department has shown that cells across different species use the same mechanism at the cell membrane to regulate the uptake of the vital nutrient nitrogen. Previous Carneg...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

...ts that human interference has affected the amount of solar radiation that is able to penetrate the atmospherein general, aerosol pollutants have been shown to scatter or absorb incoming solar radiation and increase the reflectance and lifetime of clouds, thereby reducing the amount of solar radiation reac...

New cancer drug delivery system is effective and reversible

...st cancer cells treated with cisplatin alone had died. "By labeling a liposome that contains cisplatin with a cancer cell-specific aptamer, we have shown delivery of the drugs to cancer cells without significant damage to regular cells," Lu said, "making it possible to maximize the drug potency while mi...

More than half of Texas physicians do not always recommend HPV vaccine to girls

...tudy points to the need to further educate physicians about the HPV vaccine. "Physicians are the gatekeepers for this vaccine and the studies have shown that one of the most important predictors of health behavior is what your physician recommends," said Vernon, who is also an editorial board member of...

Abnormal brain circuits may prevent movement disorder

...n additional lesion that evens the score. Dystonia is marked by uncontrolled movements, particularly twisting and abnormal postures. Studies have shown that muscles contract abnormally and patients can't stop the involuntary movements. The identification of a specific abnormality in people with the ge...

Hormone levels contribute to stress resilience

...n is a task that relies on an area of the brain called the hippocampus that is very sensitive to the negative effects of stress. "Animal studies have shown that DHEA buffers against stress, in part, by modulating receptors in this region of the brain," explained Dr. Morgan. "These findings are important i...

Lead-based consumer paint remains a global public health threat

...-lead level of concern was much higher than at present. Modern research has shown that children are affected at very low exposure levels and that there is no... them up for life-threatening problems later in life. "Our studies have shown that when comparing the prices of the same size can of paint produced by se...

Pitt researchers find promising candidate protein for cancer prevention vaccines

...example, look very much like tumor cells because they, too, overproduce cyclin B1. The virus actually packages the host protein, which ultimately gets shown to the immune system as a marker of infected cells that must be destroyed. "Because cyclin B1 is a 'self' protein, there have been concerns that bo...

The way you eat may affect your risk for breast cancer

...in tumor development would possibly provide a way to identify at risk individuals and target interventions to these people." Previous studies have shown that intermittent calorie restriction provided greater protection from mammary tumor development than did the same overall degree of restriction, whic...

Stem cell 'daughters' lead to breast cancer

...nt years that breast stem cells gave rise to BRCA1 tumours. "However, research carried out at the institute by Drs Elgene Lim and Franois Vaillant has shown that breast tissue from women with BRCA1 mutations has unexpectedly high numbers of luminal progenitor cells," she said. "Further, our gene expres...

August 2009 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

...SO4) to sulfide, sulfide -- and the pyrite that it forms -- tends to be lighter, on average, than the original sulfate. Additionally, experiments have shown that the more sulfate there is in seawater, the greater the isotopic offset between the sulfate and sulfide will be. In modern seawater, which has rel...

Got zinc? New zinc research suggests novel therapeutic targets

...ly supports healthy immune function, but increases activation of the cells (T cells) responsible for destroying viruses and bacteria. "It has been shown that zinc supplementation significantly reduces the duration and severity of childhood diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, and incidence of malari...

K-State researcher, collaborators study virulence of pandemic H1N1 virus

...at this pandemic H1N1 is already resistant to the M2 inhibitors but still is sensitive to Tamiflu. "Some pandemic flu isolates from humans have now shown resistance to the Tamiflu," Richt said. "So the big issue now is if these Tamiflu-resistant strains take over, we have no drug to treat infected patie...

Leicester research paves way for first use in Europe of an insect to fight invasive plant

...rch for Biocontrol agents in the area where the plants evolved. Cytological, morphological and historical work previously carried out at Leicester had shown that the European Japanese Knotweed was probably introduced from Japan as a garden plant by PF von Siebold from his nursery in Leiden in the 1850s. Th...

A crystal ball for brain cancer?

...lf lucky. When his aggressive brain cancer returned after chemotherapy and radiation, his UCLA doctor prescribed the off-label use of Avastin, a drug shown to quell cancers in the breast, colon and lung. One month later, McNabb's tumors had shrunk by 95 percent. Subsequent brain scans show no trace ...

Humans 'damaging the oceans'

...se require far more research to be sure. "It may already be too late to avoid major irreversible changes to many marine ecosystems. As history has shown us, these marine-based changes could have major earth-system consequences," the scientists conclude. ...

Stem cell research: From molecular physiology to therapeutic applications

...alfunctioning or damaged cells and tissues in patients. Recent studies have shown that pluripotent stem cells derived from adult bone marrow, the umbilical c...d growth factors. The potential use of MSCs in tissue regeneration has been shown in several models, including skin, muscle, lung, heart and the small intest...

Test helps in fight against lung infections and for treating other life-threatening infections

... resistant to antibiotics than conventional infections. Now, for the first time ever, the breakthrough test developed by Innovotech™ Inc. has shown very positive results in selecting proper antibiotic treatment for serious lung infections in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), a population recogni...

Maternal, paternal genes' tug-of-war may last well into childhood

... research has offered evidence of a genetic struggle for supremacy only during fetal development: In the womb, some genes of paternal origin have been shown to promote increased demands on mothers, leading to fetal overgrowth, while genes of maternal origin tend to have the opposite effect. This new work s...

After dinosaurs, mammals rise but their genomes get smaller

...sizes make natural selection more efficient," said IU Bloomington evolutionary biologist Michael Lynch, who led the study. "If we are correct, we have shown how to bring ancient genomic information together with the paleontological record to learn more about the past." And the present. Lynch says the d...

Nanodiamonds deliver insulin for wound healing

...their particle form, Ho's group has developed devices that harness the slow drug-release capabilities of the nanodiamonds. More recently, his team has shown that nanodiamonds are effective in dispersing insoluble drugs in water, boosting their potential for broader applications in medicine. ...

Discovery to aid in future treatments of third-world parasites

...d Gabriele Schramm of the Research Centre Borstel in Germany had previously shown that a protein called alpha-1 can support Th2 responses but is unable to in...anbaksh of the Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands have now shown that omega-1, a single protein secreted from schistosome eggs, recapitulate...

In vitro antibody production enables HIV infection detection in window period -- key to safer blood

...-07/sfeb-iva072409.php ">Chinese . Researchers in Israel and Kenya have shown that the contribution of variable degrees of immune suppression, either due...o enhancement of antibody production, made simple by the SMARTube, has been shown to enable the earlier detection of HIV infection. This is critical for savi...
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