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shape in Biological News

Geography and history shape genetic differences in humans

New research indicates that natural selection may shape the human genome much more slowly than previously thought. Other factors -- the movements of humans within and among continents, the expansions and contractions of populations, and the vagaries of genetic chance have heavily influenced the d...

Breastfeeding duration and weaning diet may shape child's body composition

Chevy Chase, MDVariations in both milk feeding and in the weaning diet are linked to differences in growth and development, and they have independent influences on body composition in early childhood, according to a new study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical...

Root system architecture arises from coupling cell shape to auxin transport

Plants come in all shapes and sizes, from grand Redwood trees to the common Snowdrop. Although we cannot see them, under the ground plants rely on a complex network of roots. What determines the pattern of root growth has been a mystery, but a new paper published this week in PLoS Biology shows ...

Root system architecture arises from coupling cell shape to auxin transport

Plants come in all shapes and sizes, from grand Redwood trees to the common Snowdrop. Although we cannot see them, under the ground plants rely on a complex network of roots. What determines the pattern of root growth has been a mystery, but a new paper published this week in PLoS Biology shows ...

Apple or pear shape is not main culprit to heart woes -- it's liver fat

For years, pear-shaped people who carry weight in the thighs and backside have been told they are at lower risk for high blood pressure and heart disease than apple-shaped people who carry fat in the abdomen. But new findings from nutrition researchers at Washington University School of Medicine i...

Wistar scientists find key to keeping killer T cells in prime shape for fighting infection, cancer

Like tuning a violin to produce strong, elegant notes, researchers at The Wistar Institute have found multiple receptors on the outside of the body's killer immune system cells which they believe can be selectively targeted to keep the cells in superb infection- and disease-fighting condition. ...

Penn scientists discover cells reorganize shape to fit the situation

PHILADELPHIA - Flip open any biology textbook and you're bound to see a complicated diagram of the inner workings of a cell, with its internal scaffolding, the cytoskeleton, and how it maintains a cell's shape. Yet the fundamental question remains, which came first: the shape, or the skeleton? N...

Parents shape whether their children learn to eat fruits and vegetables

Providing fruits for snacks and serving vegetables at dinner can shape a preschooler's eating patterns for his or her lifetime. To combat the increasing problem of childhood obesity, researchers are studying how to get preschoolers to eat more fruits and vegetables. According to researchers at ...

'Smart' materials get smarter with ability to better control shape and size

AUSTIN, TexasA dynamic way to alter the shape and size of microscopic three-dimensional structures built out of proteins has been developed by biological chemist Jason Shear and his former graduate student Bryan Kaehr at The University of Texas at Austin. Shear and Kaehr fabricated a variety of...

Saving face with a baby-face? Shape of CEO's face affects public perception

When a corporation has a public relations crisis, the news media splash photos of the company's CEO around the world. According to new research in the Journal of Consumer Research the shape of the CEO's face evokes judgments about the person and the situation. "A company can control what face i...

Study links low-frequency hearing to shape of the cochlea

Shape matters, even in hearing. Specifically, it is the shape of the cochlea the snail-shell-shaped organ in the inner ear that converts sound waves into nerve impulses that the brain deciphers which proves to be surprisingly important. A study published online last week in the Proceedings o...

Particle accelerator may reveal shape of alternate dimensions

MADISON - When the world's most powerful particle accelerator starts up later this year, exotic new particles may offer a glimpse of the existence and shapes of extra dimensions. Researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of California-Berkeley say that the telltale...

Secure Services Corp. Achieves Milestone in United States Identity Protection with the Launch of the SSC SHAPE Card Management Solution

DOWNERS GROVE, Ill., Nov. 6 /PRNewswire/ -- Secure Services Corp. (SSC), a leader in developing unique solutions for secure information and communication has achieved a milestone within the United States. SSC has successfully integrated their Secure Health and Privacy Environment (SHAPE) Smart...

World's largest ocean observatory takes shape

Canada is taking the world on a 25-year non-stop research expeditioninto the deep ocean. Over the next two-and-a-half months, a team of scientists and marine engineers are completing the installation off the British Columbia coast of NEPTUNE Canada, the world's largest and most advanced cabled ...

Scripps research scientists 'watch' as individual alpha-synuclein proteins change shape

In an Early Edition publication of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ) this week, the researchers demonstrate the "alpha-synuclein dance" the switching back and forth of the protein between a bent helix and an extended helix as the surface that it is binding to changes....

RNA research strategy for Europe takes shape

Research into RNA, a molecule found in every cell of our bodies, could lead to remarkable advances in the treatment of diseases such as cancer and diabetes, a meeting organised by the European Science Foundation was told. The conference, held the institute of Parasitologa y Biomedicina "Lpez-Ne...

Crop scientists discover gene that controls fruit shape

WOOSTER, Ohio Crop scientists have cloned a gene that controls the shape of tomatoes, a discovery that could help unravel the mystery behind the huge morphological differences among edible fruits and vegetables, as well as provide new insight into mechanisms of plant development. The gene, dub...

How cells keep in shape

Cells in our body come in various shapes and sizes. Each cell is shaped in such a way as to optimise it for a specific function. When things go wrong and a cell does not adopt its dedicated shape, its function can be impaired and the cell can cause problems in the body. Researchers at the European...

The shape of life: research sheds light on how cells take shape

How life takes shape is a mystery. Butterfly or baby, cells organize themselves into tissues, tissues form organs, organs become organisms. Over and over, patterns emerge in all living creatures. Spiders get eight legs. Leopards get spots. Every nautilus is encased in an elegant spiral shell. Th...

FSU biologists uncover mechanisms that shape cells for better or worse

In a landmark study, biologists at Florida State University have uncovered a specific genetic and molecular mechanism that causes cell polarity -- the asymmetric shape or composition critical to a cell's proper functioning. Their findings in fruit fly eggs may help to clarify how muscular dystrophy...

UCSB researchers discover shape matters to macrophages

Researchers at UC Santa Barbara have made a surprising discovery: phagocytosis depends more on particle shape than size. The research, which has far-reaching implications for immunology, vaccine development and drug delivery, is published today online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of S...

The shape of things to come: Morphology database going global

A Florida State University researcher who specializes in the evolutionary history of wasps is now creating a buzz about a new way for scientists to store, share and study plant and animal images. Fredrik Ronquist, a professor in the School of Computational Sciences, is one of the founders of Morp...

Mechanism regulating tooth shape formulation found

One of the remaining challenges for evolutionary developmental studies of mammals, whose evolution is best known from their teeth, is how their tooth shape is altered during development. Researchers of the University of Helsinki together with their Japanese colleagues from the University of Kioto n...

Scientists reveal the shape of a protein that helps retroviruses break into cells

The biggest mass extinction in Earth history some 251 million years ago was preceded by elevated extinction rates before the main event and was followed by a delayed recovery that lasted for millions of years. New research by two University of Washington scientists suggests that a sharp decline in ...

Fibril Shape Is The Basis Of Prion Strains And Cross-species Prion Infection

New research on prions, the infectious proteins behind "mad cow" disease and Creutzfeld-Jakob disease in humans, suggests that the ability of prions in one species to infect other species depends on the shape of the toxic threadlike fibers produced by the prion. Two studies on the topic appear in t...

Discovery of key protein's shape could lead to improved bacterial pneumonia vaccine

Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have discovered that the shape of a protein on the surface of pneumonia bacteria helps these germs invade the human bloodstream. This finding, published Dec. 16 online by the EMBO Journal, could help scientists develop a vaccine that is significan...

Elusive HIV shape change revealed; Key clue to how virus infects cells

Structural biologists at Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School have shown how a key part of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) changes shape, triggering other changes that allow the AIDS virus to enter and infect cells. Their findings, published in the Feb. 24 issue of the journ...

Protein handlers should be effective treatment target for cancer and Alzheimer's

...cer Virology. Everyone needs molecular chaperones which prompt genes to make proteins, move proteins around the body, fold them up into the proper shape to function properly and even haul them off when they no longer work. Cancer needs them even more for the endless cell replication required for tumor ...

Urban water ecology at the ESA annual meeting

...m fish, rely on terrestrial insects as a portion of their food supply. But little is known about their importance to fish in lakes, where the size and shape of a lake can determine how much its fish rely on shoreline food sources. Tessa Francis, a post-doctoral researcher at the National Oceanographic and ...

Rodent size linked to human population and climate change

... You probably hadn't noticed -- but the head shape and overall size of rodents has been changing over the past century. A University of Illinois at Chicago ecologist has tied these changes to human pop...

Jet-propelled imaging for an ultrafast light source

...by subtracting the diffraction "noise" of the liquid jet itself. These capsids are the shells of the virus lacking its RNA genome and have the regular shape of buckyballs. Eventually the LCLS will be able to get a good diffraction pattern from a target like this with a single ultrabright pulse. In this cas...

Scientists discover Amazon river is 11 million years old

... University of Liverpool have discovered that the Amazon river, and its transcontinental drainage, is around 11 million years old and took its present shape about 2.4 million years ago. University of Liverpool researchers, in collaboration with the University of Amsterdam and Petrobras, the national oil...

Freshwater fish at the top of the food chain evolve more slowly

...ow how this feeding strategy affected the pace and shape of evolution. "The question we wanted to ask was: ...archers were able to reconstruct how diet and head shape have changed over time. "It looks as if the variet...over time. Once they evolved the optimal size and shape for catching fish roughly 20 million years ago n...

Researchers team up to provide new hope for childhood hunger

...o a global community," said Lee Fetter, president, St. Louis Children's Hospital. The Global Harvest Alliance has developed several goals that will shape its work. Short Term Goals: 3-5 years Develop an effective supplemental feeding regimen for moderate malnutrition. Develop a more cost-e...

After dinosaurs, mammals rise but their genomes get smaller

...and mouse, Lynch's group observed a hill-shaped curve, with a peak of middle-aged LTRs and drop-offs both in the number of older and younger LTRs. The shape of the curve is consistent with previously published data for other types of so-called "junk" DNA elements. The depressed numbers of very young LT...

Nanophysics: Serving up Buckyballs on a silver platter

... issue of APS's on-line journal Physics ( physics.aps.org ). Ever since the 1985 discovery of C60, this molecule, with its perfect geodesic dome shape has fascinated scientists, physicists, and chemists alike. Like a soccer ball, the molecule consists of 20 carbon hexagons and 12 carbon pentagons. Th...

New discovery suggests trees evolved camouflage defense against long extinct predator

...ight of the largest known moa was approximately 300cm and once P. crassifolius grow above this height they produce leaves that are ordinary in size, shape and colour, lacking any defence. To prove that these defences were linked to the presence of moa the team compared Araliaceae leaves to samples fr...

Scripps-led study shows ocean health plays vital role in coral reef recovery

... Dick Norris, Scripps professor of paleooceanography and co-author of the study. "There are no pristine reefs in the region, but the ones in the best shape clearly are more resilient than those that are long-suffering. It shows that a little improvement in growing conditions goes a long way in recovering ...

Our brain looks at eyes first to identify a face

...of information possible from each face and according to the study the key data for identification come from, in the first place, the eyes and then the shape of the mouth and nose. The objective of this study, undertaken by researcher Matthias S. Keil from the Basic Psychology Department of the UB and pu...

LincRNAs serve as genetic air-traffic controllers

...Assistant Professor of Pathology at BIDMC and Associate Member of the Broad Institute. "It has long been a mystery as to how widely expressed proteins shape the fate of cells. How does the same protein know to regulate one genomic location in a brain cell and regulate a different genomic region in a liver...
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