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root in Biological News

Restoring a natural root signal helps to fight a major corn pest

A longstanding and fruitful collaboration between researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology and the University of Neuchtel in Switzerland, together with contributions from colleagues in Munich and the US, has produced another first: the successful manipulation of a crop plant to...

Hormone clue to root growth

Plant roots provide the crops we eat with water, nutrients and anchorage. Understanding how roots grow and how hormones control that growth is crucial to improving crop yields, which will be necessary to address food security and produce better biofuels. Now an international group of scientist...

Getting to the root of science in a nutty way

COLLEGE STATION - Dr. Leo Lombardini has gone underground to get the most top secret information in his field. Lombardini is watching roots grow in his experimental orchards, and it is sort of nuts - he's a pecan researcher. His study is part of a national specialty crop research project fun...

Origin of root offshoots revealed

Ghent, Belgium VIB researchers at Ghent University have discovered the substance that governs the formation of root offshoots in plants, and how it works. Root offshoots are vitally important for plants and for farmers. Plants draw the necessary nutrients from the soil through their roots. Becau...

NC State researchers get to root of parasite genome

North Carolina State University scientists and colleagues have completed the genome sequence and genetic map of one of the world's most common and destructive plant parasites - Meloidogyne hapla , a microscopic, soil-dwelling worm known more commonly as the northern root-knot nematode. The res...

US Air Force technology helps scientists understand plant root function

MADISON, WI SEPTEMBER 8, 2008-- The McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (MNRC) in Sacramento, CA was developed by the U.S. Air Force to detect corrosion and defects in aircraft structure using an imaging technique called neutron radiography. This technique is currently helping soil scientists under...

Getting to the root of the matter

Madison, WI, August 18, 2008 -- Like most things that exist underground, plant roots are out-of-sight and easily forgotten, but while flowers, leaves, and other aboveground plant parts are more familiar, plant roots are equally deserving of our appreciation. Beneath every towering tree, tasty crop...

Tel Aviv University researchers root out new and efficient crop plants

A part of the global food crisis is the inefficiency of current irrigation methods. More irrigated water evaporates than reaches the roots of crops, amounting to an enormous waste of water and energy. Tel Aviv University researchers, however, are investigating a new solution that turns the prob...

Evolution of root nodule symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Nitrogen is essential for all plants and animals, but despite being surrounded by itthe element constitutes 79% of air on earthonly a few bacteria can absorb it directly from the environment. All other species are ultimately dependent on these microbes as a source. A new paper published this week ...

Dartmouth researchers find the root of the evolutionary emergence of vertebrates

HANOVER, N.H. Dartmouth College researchers and colleagues from the University of Bristol in the U.K. have traced the beginnings of complex life, i.e. vertebrates, to microRNA. The researchers argue that the evolution of microRNAs, which regulate gene expression, are behind the origin of early ve...

At the root of nutrient limitation, ecosystems are not as different as they seem

TEMPE, Ariz. -- Anyone who has thrown a backyard barbecue knows that hot dogs are inexplicably packaged in different numbers than buns eight hot dogs per pack versus 10 hot dog buns. Put in ecological terms, this means that weenie roasts are hot-dog limited the extra buns are worthless without h...

Salk scientists get to the root of plant cell fate

When Robert Burns compared his love to a red, red rose, he definitely wasn't referring to a topless mutant. That's because rather than being topped by a lovely, fragrant bloom, a rose mutant in the gene known as TOPLESS would be crowned by a homely second root. Researchers at the Salk Institute f...

MUHC investigators search for the root of sexual pain in women

A multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers from McGill/MUHC and the CHUM have been awarded a grant of nearly $700,000 by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) to continue their groundbreaking research on pain suffered by some women during sexual intercourse. The new funding will...

Unique library of plant genes germinates, takes root at UNC

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's newest "library" is not the kind that will entice an average book lover, but it eventually will please thousands of plant scientists around the world. Through such researchers' work, it will undoubtedly contribute to improving crops that humans arou...

Researchers find gene that may be at root of potato blight

Researchers have found a gene they suspect plays an important role in triggering the blight that wiped out Ireland's potato crops a century-and-a-half ago. And the pathogen that contains this gene still causes massive amounts of agricultural damage throughout the modern world?on the order of bil...

Sustainable agriculture at the ESA Annual Meeting

...s. In each test, the researchers found perennial fields to be healthier and more sustainable ecosystems. In the perennial fields, the plants' total root mass was more than seven times that of the annuals, and the roots infiltrated about a foot deeper into the ground. The perennial fields also had highe...

Key OSU water research receives national funding

...d water loss through vegetation canopy interception. Another important aspect will be to determine more exactly how redcedar encroachment increases root depth and alters seasonal water-use patterns. "For example, it is known that redcedar trees use water year-round," Zou said. "However, the degree o...

Common allergy drug reduces obesity and diabetes in mice

...icine . Molecular garbage Type 1 and type 2 diabetes both involve abnormalities in the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, but their root causes are completely different. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the pancreas, destroying its ability to p...

Newly discovered gene fusion may lead to improved prostate cancer diagnosis

...d new targets for potential treatments. Experts believe that gene fusions -- a hybrid gene formed from two previously separated genes -- may be at the root of what causes cancer cells to grow more quickly than normal cells. The new findings, published in the August issue of the journal Neoplasia , are...

Life on Earth came from other planets

...he conditions of this world. Microbes are preadapted for traveling through space and they inherited these abilities from the microbes which first took root on Earth and whose ancestry can be traced back to the solar system of the parent star. Because the parent star lost 40 percent to 80 percent of ...

New research finds possible genetic link to cause of pregnancy loss and disorders

...e University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have published new findings about a cause of a condition at the root of genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome, pregnancy loss and infertility. Called aneuploidy, the condition is an abnormal number of chromosomes, ...

UK bioscience sparkles with new Diamond fellowship

...r developing new and innovative directions of research. This year's recipient will deploy the power of systems biology to answer questions about plant root development which could help deliver increased crop yields and improved food security. Dr Celia Caulcott, Director, Innovation and Skills for BBSR...

Finding the constant in bacterial communication

...ngineering and a member of Duke's Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy and Center for Systems Biology, have discovered what they believe is a common root among the different forms of quorum sensing. In an article in the July 2009 issue of the journal Molecular Systems Biology , they term this process "...

Desert rhubarb -- a self-irrigating plant

...the plant artificially, they observed how the water flows along the course of the leave's depressed veins to the ground surrounding the plant's single root and then penetrates the ground to a depth of 10 cm or more. Under the experimental conditions, water penetrated the ground only as deep as 1 cm. "...

New trigger for chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis discovered

... currently available, and even these can become less successful over time. The researchers behind the new study say stopping the disease closer to the root of the problem could be the best way to treat it, and their results suggest a new target for therapies. When a microbe infects the body, the body r...

UCLA cancer researchers develop model that may help identify cancer stem cells

...on a quest to find lung cancer stem cells, have developed a unique model to allow further investigation into the cells that many believe may be at the root of all lung cancers. If researchers could find a way to isolate and grow lung cancer stem cells, they could study their biologic mechanisms and pe...

Newly discovered snow roots are 'evolutionary phenomenon'

...he Russian mountains a previously unknown and entirely unique form of plant root has been discovered. Lead Scientist Professor Hans Cornelissen and his Russian-Dutch team describe this finding today in Ecology Letters . The root belongs to the small alpine plant Corydalis conorhiza and unlike normal roo...

Investigating the development of mechanosensitivity

...pathways. ( EMBO Journal , 2009, doi:10.1038/emboj.2009.73).* The sensory neurons, which are sensitive to touch and pain, are located in the dorsal root ganglia between the intervertebral discs. The neurons receive the stimulus and convert it into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain. ...

Managing Douglas-fir forests for diversity

...nderstory for nesting and foraging. Douglas-fir mortality from black stain root disease was greater where all hardwoods were removed than where some hardwo...nagers may also want to retain some hardwoods in areas prone to black stain root disease, since the hardwoods may reduce mortality of planted Douglas-fir fo...

Apple enthusiasts welcome WineCrisp

...kes time for growers to incorporate new apple varieties into their orchards, Korban noted that when WineCrisp cuttings are grafted into a fast-growing root stock, growers could see fruit on the tree in as little as 3 years. ...

Tree survival skills

...es are dug prior to transport, the majority of the root system is often separated from the tree. After thi...l shock and vibration that can further disrupt the root system and cause considerable injury. As if thes...al", the scientists said. Effects of water stress, root severance, and root-ball disruption on twig elonga...

Princeton geoscientist offers new evidence that meteorite did not wipe out dinosaurs

...t evidence as sufficiently convincing and compelling to allow her to move on and investigate further the evidence for Deccan volcanism as being at the root of dinosaur extinction. But she does not expect her teams' present work will stop the raging debate at the heart of this controversy. "The decades-...

Drug prevents seizure progression in model of epilepsy

... abnormal brain activity that they induce might one day be used as a way to prevent the progression of seizure disorders over time, thus attacking the root cause of epilepsy. According to Barth, the next steps will be to further investigate paxilline to see whether it is an effective anticonvulsant ...

Chemical found in medical devices impairs heart function

...fter surgery, but they are troubling and sometimes hinder recovery. His personal experience with coronary bypass surgery propelled his search for a root cause for the loss of taste phenomenon, reports principal investigator Artin Shoukas, Ph.D., professor of biomedical engineering, physiology and anest...

Just in time for spring: Scientists find the cellular on and off switch for allergies and asthma

...es that prevent this switch from working properly. Taken together, this information is an important first step toward new medications that address the root causes of allergies, asthma and other similar diseases. "This study uncovers some of the basic mechanisms that control whether or not people have ...

Limping rat provides sciatica insights

...nts." For their experiments, the researchers compressed a specific nerve root known as the dorsal root ganglia in the lumbar region of the spine, which simulated sciatica in one ...

2009 ASPB Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship award announcement

...ity Mentor: Gloria Muday Auxin-Induced Flavonoid Gene Expression and root Architecture I am both honored and excited to receive this fellowship and...rsity Mentor: Chris Wolverton The effects of phosphate availability on root architecture and gravity responsiveness in Arabidopsis I'm eager to carry...

Scaling the wall of deafness

...-laws, may soon be over. A new, landmark study by a world-renowned geneticist and hearing loss expert at Tel Aviv University has uncovered one of the root causes of deafness. Prof. Karen Avraham of the Department of Human Molecular Genetics, Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University, has disc...

Bad mix of bacterial remnants and genetics leads to arthritis

...gon Veteran's Affairs Medical Center and one of the researchers involved in the study. "Our work with MDP and NOD2 is a step toward understanding the root cause of arthritis which one day may allow certain forms of arthritis to be prevented altogether." Davey and colleagues made this discovery through e...

Uvalde Center water research could have national, international applications

...and said new program research will be expanded to include enhancements on weather data gathering capabilities, improved technology for taking seasonal root measurements and using sap flow to determine water use by different crop plants. "There's also a real opportunity for growers to learn more about a...
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