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Study reveals a reprogrammed role for the androgen receptor

BOSTONThe androgen receptor a protein ignition switch for prostate cancer cell growth and division is a master of adaptability. When drug therapy deprives the receptor of androgen hormones, thereby halting cell proliferation, the receptor manages to find an alternate growth route. A new study by...

Scripps-led study shows ocean health plays vital role in coral reef recovery

The new research study led by scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego suggests that by improving overall ocean health, corals are better able to recover from bleaching events, which occur when rising sea temperatures force corals to expel their symbiotic algae, known as z...

Stuff of stink bombs investigated for role in pregnancy

Scientists at the University of Leicester are investigating how the stuff of stink bombs and flatulence could play a critical role in the human reproductive system. Hydrogen sulphide partially responsible for the foul odour of stink bombs- is also a toxic gas and has been used for chemical warf...

Study finds role for parasites in evolution of sex

What's so great about sex? From an evolutionary perspective, the answer is not as obvious as one might think. An article published in the July issue of the American Naturalist suggests that sex may have evolved in part as a defense against parasites. Despite its central role in biology, sex i...

Chemicals in common consumer products may play a role in pre-term births

ANN ARBOR, Mich.---A new study of expectant mothers suggests that a group of common environmental contaminants called phthalates, which are present in many industrial and consumer products including everyday personal care items, may contribute to the country's alarming rise in premature births. ...

Dual role in breast tissue for a protein involved in leukemia

Washington, DC - A protein known to play a role in growth of some types of leukemia appears to have a mixed function in breast cancer development, say researchers from the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center at Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC). The findings, presented at the annual ...

Penn Medicine honored for its historic role in the history of microbiology

(PHILADELPHIA) The University of Pennsylvania was honored by The American Society for Microbiology last Friday with a plaque dedication ceremony celebrating the designation of its third Milestones in Microbiology site. Formally known as the Laboratory of Hygiene, the current Vagelos Laboratorie...

U of Minnesota research reveals critical role of evolutionary processes in species coexistence

A team of researchers, led by the University of Minnesota, addressing long-standing conflicts in ecology and evolutionary science, has provided key directions for the future of community ecology. The team comprehensively synthesized emerging work that applies knowledge of evolutionary relationshi...

Research team finds important role for junk DNA

Scientists have called it "junk DNA." They have long been perplexed by these extensive strands of genetic material that dominate the genome but seem to lack specific functions. Why would nature force the genome to carry so much excess baggage? Now researchers from Princeton University and Indi...

Human role in Indonesian polluting forest fires -- Guido van der Werf in Nature Geoscience

The large forest fires that sweep through Indonesia in dry periods are not only the result of severe drought. A team of researchers, including Veni grant winner Guido van der Werf, has analyzed the density of smog during forest fires. They have now established that the intensity of the forest fire...

Bacteria play role in preventing spread of malaria

Bacteria in the gut of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito inhibit infection of the insect with Plasmodium falciparum , the parasite that causes malaria in humans, according to researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Scientists with the Bloomberg School's Malaria Research...

Genetic study confirms the immune system's role in narcolepsy

Scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health have identified a gene associated with narcolepsy, a disorder that causes disabling daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, irresistible bouts of sleep that can strike at any time, and disturbed sleep at night. The gene has a known role in the immu...

Vanderbilt engineers play key role in new DOE energy frontier research center

A team of Vanderbilt engineers will play a key role in a new federal effort to significantly improve our understanding of how gases and liquids interact with solid surfaces basic studies that have potential applications ranging from better batteries to more efficient methods for converting solar ...

Genes from tiny algae shed light on big role managing carbon in world's oceans

WALNUT CREEK, Calif. Scientists from two-dozen research organizations led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have decoded genomes of two algal strains, highlighting the genes enabling them to capture carbon a...

Exposure to insecticide may play role in obesity epidemic among some women

EAST LANSING, Mich. Prenatal exposure to an insecticide commonly used up until the 1970s may play a role in the obesity epidemic in women, according to a new study involving several Michigan State University researchers. More than 250 mothers who live along and eat fish from Lake Michigan were...

CSHL researchers pinpoint structure-building role for 2 non-coding RNAs

Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. Most of the DNA in the nucleus of each of our cells is converted into RNA, but only a small fraction of these RNA molecules serve as coding templates for the synthesis of proteins. Of the remaining RNAs, known as "non-coding" RNAs (ncRNA), the functions of a scant few are...

Newly discovered gene plays vital role in cancer

[PRESS RELEASE, 27 February 2009] Gene p53 protects against cancer and is usually described as the most important gene in cancer research. However, scientists at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have now shown that a previously unknown gene, Wrap53, controls the activity of p53...

Study examining role of genetics and environment in type 1 diabetes

AUGUSTA, Ga. Another 200 newborns in Georgia and Florida with high-risk genes for type 1 diabetes will be enrolled over the next year in a long-term study to determine how genetics and environment cause the disease. A $10 million, five-year grant renewal from the National Institutes of Health ...

Atmospheric scientists trace the human role in Indonesian forest fires

TORONTO, ON Severe fires in Indonesia responsible for some of the worst air quality conditions worldwide are linked not only to drought, but also to changes in land use and population density, according to a new study in Nature Geoscience led by Robert Field of the University of Toronto. "...

A budding role for a cellular dynamo

Waltham, MAActin, a globular protein found in all eukaryotic cells, is a workhorse that varies remarkably little from baker's yeast to the human body. Part of the cytoskeleton, actin assembles into networks of filaments that give the cell structural plasticity while driving many essential function...

Forget the antioxidants? McGill researchers cast doubt on role of free radicals in aging

This release is available in French . For more than 40 years, the prevailing explanation of why we get old has been tied to what is called oxidative stress. This theory postulates that when molecules like free radicals, oxygen ions and peroxides build up in cells, they overwhelm the cells'...

New data suggest 'jumping genes' play a significant role in gene regulatory networks

CHICAGO, IL--Research performed in the Center for Biomolecular Science & Engineering (CBSE) at the University of California, Santa Cruz, suggests that mobile repetitive elements--also known as transposons or "jumping genes"--do indeed affect the evolution of gene regulatory networks. David Haus...

NYU Langone Medical Center researchers find micro RNA plays a key role in melanoma metastasis

NEW YORK CITY (February 5, 2009)Scientists have long wondered how melanoma cells travel from primary tumors on the surface of the skin to the brain, liver and lungs, where they become more aggressive, resistant to therapy, and deadly. Now, scientists from NYU Langone Medical Center have identifi...

Researchers examine role of climate change in disease spread

GALVESTON, Texas Ever since scientists first proposed that our planet might be experiencing widespread climate change, concerns have been raised about its implications for the spread of arboviruses viruses carried by arthropods such as mosquitoes, midges and ticks. However, while alterations in ...

Researchers iron out new role for serotonin

Vanderbilt University Medical Center investigators have found a surprising link between brain iron levels and serotonin, a neurotransmitter involved in neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from autism to major depression. Appearing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences this week...

Compromised skin barrier function plays a role in psorasis development

Researchers at the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) and the Anhui Medical University, China, have identified genes that play an important role in the development of psoriasis, a common chronic skin disease. The research, led by GIS Human Genetics Group Leader and Associate Prof. Liu Jianjun,...

Lockheed Martin Team Wins Role on Key Department of Defense Biometrics Contract Vehicle

Corporation One of 12 Industry Leaders Chosen for BOSS-U ROCKVILLE, Md., Jan. 8 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- The U.S. Department of Defense Biometrics Task Force (BTF) has named Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT ) an industry leader capable of being awarded task orders under the Biometrics Operations...

International copper industry defines role in the fight against hospital infections

NEW YORK, NY (January 5, 2009) The copper industry is working together to answer one very important question: Can copper and copper alloys (brass and bronze) help curb the spread of bacteria that cause hospital infection? Results of laboratory testing and clinical trials indicate that they can. S...

Newly found enzymes may play early role in cancer

SALT LAKE CITYResearchers have discovered two enzymes that, when combined, could be involved in the earliest stages of cancer. Manipulating these enzymes genetically might lead to targeted therapies aimed at slowing or preventing the onset of tumors. "We could conceivably reactivate a complet...

Brain enzyme may play key role in controlling appetite and weight gain

December 10, 2008 - (BRONX, NY) - Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have found that overactivity of a brain enzyme may play a role in preventing weight gain and obesity. The findings were reported in Cell Metabolism . To understand what drives hunger and...

Queen's University Belfast plays leading role in Europe-wide tests for safer food

A top food scientist at Queen's University Belfast is playing a major role in a 4m European project to develop new techniques to detect chemical contaminants in food and animal feed. Professor Chris Elliott, Director of the Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use at Queen's, will lead a team of...

Rare disease provides clues about enzyme role in arrhythmias

A University of Iowa study provides insight into a calcium-sensing enzyme already known to play a role in irregular heartbeats and other critical functions. The researchers showed that the enzyme, calmodulin kinase II (CaM kinase II), contributes to arrhythmia in an extremely rare disease called T...

Researchers examine role of soil patterns in dam restoration

MADISON Looking at the site today, it's easy to forget that a dam and pond stood for 43 years on the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Franbrook Farm Research Station in southwestern Wisconsin. All traces of the structure are gone, and acres of plants, both native and weedy, now carpet the floor ...

Master gene plays key role in blood sugar levels

When mice that lack steroid receptor-2 (SRC-2) a master regulator gene called a coactivator fast for a day, their blood sugar levels plummet. If they go another day without food, they will die. The severity of the hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) was unexpected, said Dr. Bert W. O'Malley, chai...

Mysterious microbe plays important role in ocean ecology

An unusual microorganism discovered in the open ocean may force scientists to rethink their understanding of how carbon and nitrogen cycle through ocean ecosystems. A paper describing the new findings appears in the November 14 issue of the journal Science . A research team led by Jonathan ...

Mysterious microbe may play important role in ocean ecology

SANTA CRUZ, CA--An unusual microorganism discovered in the open ocean may force scientists to rethink their understanding of how carbon and nitrogen cycle through ocean ecosystems. A research team led by Jonathan Zehr, professor of ocean sciences at the University of California, Santa Cruz, charac...

Study helps clarify role of soil microbes in global warming

Athens, Ga. Current models of global climate change predict warmer temperatures will increase the rate that bacteria and other microbes decompose soil organic matter, a scenario that pumps even more heat-trapping carbon into the atmosphere. But a new study led by a University of Georgia researche...

Making flies sick reveals new role for growth factors in immunity

A Salmonella infection is not a positive experience. However, by infecting the common laboratory fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with a Salmonella strain known for causing humans intestinal grief, researchers in the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University have shed light on some ke...

Wake Forest plays integral role in effort to revolutionize vehicle safety

WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. From stiff plastic limbs and metal rods to complex virtual humans made of muscle, tendon and bone, the crash test dummies of yesteryear are evolving and researchers at Wake Forest University School of Medicine are among those bringing them to life. This new generation of h...

Gene with probable role in human susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis identified

A new gene that may confer susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis has been identified by Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) researchers and their collaborators in The Netherlands, Indonesia, United Kingdom, and the Russian Federation. In the current j PLoS Genetics , the scientists report ...
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