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pores in Biological News

Researchers solve mystery of how nuclear pores duplicate before cell division

Researchers have long wondered how nuclear pores ?the all-important channels that control the flow of information in and out of a cell's nucleus ?double in number to prepare for the split to come when a cell divides. Now, for the first time, scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies w...

Carnegie donates landmark clones to biology

... membrane surface in plants. In this study they focused on the underlying mechanism of the pore activity by using mutant proteins that cannot shut the pores off with their C-terminus to see how they work in yeast and immature eggs of the frog Xenopus in the presence of ammonium. The researchers were ...

Ozone, nitrogen change the way rising CO2 affects Earth's water

...increased. Other studies have shown that increasing CO2 is changing how plant "pores," or stomata, discharge water. With elevated CO2 levels, leaf pores contract and sometimes close to conserve internal water reserves. This "stomatal conductance" response increases water use efficiency and reduces the ...

How mitochondria get their membranes bent

...e c, for example, an important signaling protein in programmed cell death (apoptosis), is stored in this compartment. When apoptosis is triggered, the pores enlarge and cytochrome c is released into the cytosol. Thus, understanding of how the pore diameter and the shape of the inner membrane are regulated ...

Salt block unexpectedly stretches in Sandia experiments

...ck of salt can stretch rather than remain inert might affect world desalination efforts, which involve choosing particular sizes of nanometer-diameter pores to strain salts from brackish water. Understanding unexpected salt deformations also may lead to better understanding of sea salt aerosols, implicated...

Protein that triggers plant cell division revealed by researchers

...iology Department, tracked BASL in epidermal cells of Arabidopsis, a small plant used for genetic studies. The epidermis of Arabidopsis contains small pores called stomata that allow the plant to breathe and these stomata are generated by asymmetric cell divisions. The three researchers have written a pap...

NIST issues first reference material for tissue engineering

...mber of physical requirements. Porosity or pore size is one key factor. The pores in the scaffold must be large enough to permit cells to infuse the structur...ealthy cell growth also depends on the cells immediate surroundings. If the pores are too large or spaced too far apart, cells will be unable to build the pr...

Visualizing virus replication in three dimensions

...us genome and its encapsulation in new virus particles are directly linked," said Professor Bartenschlager. The new virus genomes are secreted through pores into the intracellular space where they are incorporated into pre-stages of viruses and then penetrate the endoplasmic reticulum a second time. There ...

Impact of floods on soils

...he released chemicals and the chemistry of the soil-water system will not return to the original state. The disintegrated aggregates may clog the soil pores and further degrade the soil structure. However, reducing conditions only occur for short periods of time during the wet season in upland soils, wh...

Ancient diatoms lead to new technology for solar energy

...s from sunlight and transfer it to titanium dioxide, creating electricity," Rorrer said. "But in this system the photons bounce around more inside the pores of the diatom shell, making it more efficient." The physics of this process, Rorrer said, are not fully understood but it clearly works. More so t...

Impact of floods on soils

...he released chemicals and the chemistry of the soil-water system will not return to the original state. The disintegrated aggregates may clog the soil pores and further degrade the soil structure. However, reducing conditions only occur for short periods of time during the wet season in upland soils, wh...

First tri-continuous mesoporous Silica complex structure developed in Singapore

...ew class of mesoporous materials, which consist of pores of 2-50 nanometers in size. Mesoporous silica ...e chemical reactions. Their uniform nanometersized pores allow them to separate molecules by size difference. Their pores may also be used to trap drug molecules for contro...

Scientists at CSHL discover mobile small RNAs that set up leaf patterning in plants

...elops a flattened blade that is optimized for photosynthesis, with a top surface specialized for light harvesting and a bottom surface containing tiny pores that serve as locales for gas exchange. For years, plant biologists have known that this top/bottom axis analogous to the front/back or "dorso-ve...

Mountain on Mars may answer big question

...eath the red dust last year, scientists now know there's water on Mars. So Morgan and McGovern feel it's reasonable to suspect water may be trapped in pores in the sediment underneath the mountain. "This deep reservoir, warmed by geothermal gradients and magmatic heat and protected from adverse surface ...

MIT student develops new innovations to selectively kill cancer cells

...re designed to be injected intravenously, where they circulate through the bloodstream and progressively concentrate at the tumor site by infiltrating pores in rapidly growing tumor blood vessels. Once in the tumor, the antennas can be precisely heated with a non-invasive, near-infrared light to specifical...

Scientists at CSHL discover mobile small RNAs that set up leaf patterning in plants

...elops a flattened blade that is optimized for photosynthesis, with a top surface specialized for light harvesting and a bottom surface containing tiny pores that serve as locales for gas exchange. For years, plant biologists have known that this top/bottom axis analogous to the front/back or "dorso-ve...

Spun-sugar fibers spawn sweet technique for nerve repair

...d nerves. The researchers also discovered that the polymer tubes contain pores that are ideal for supplying nutrients to growing nerve cells and removing ... atomic force microscope, was used to obtain images of the hollow tubes and pores in the walls of the tubules. Other images using fluorescent dyes revealed t...

Scientists can predict nano drug outcome

...ed target. The remaining drug circulates in the bloodstream and can cause side effects. Liposomes carrying drugs infiltrate leaky tumors that have pores up to eight times the size of these miniaturized drug carriers. If a liposome with contrast agents can penetrate a tumor and be detected by X-rays, th...

To climate-change worries, add 1 more: Extended mercury threat

...collect rainwater, and with it mercury; trees drop mercury-laden leaves on the ground, and trees take in the metal through their stomata, or breathing pores on leaves. Scientists also have shown repeatedly that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to increased plant and tree growth. Natali said sh...

Biomedical researchers create artificial human bone marrow in a test tube

...ttice had to have a high number of precisely-sized pores to stimulate cellular interaction. The scaffol...olved the spheres to leave the perfect geometry of pores in the scaffold. The scaffolds were then seeded...these scaffolds due to the close similarity of the pores in the scaffold and the...

MIT researchers explain mystery of gravity fingers

...he surface tension of the entire finger of water, which may be several centimeters in width, as opposed to the tension existing at the micron-scale of pores between soil particles. And that phrase will sound like music to the ears of physicists and engineers. ...

Key link in how plants adapt to climate discovered by Stanford researchers

...routs. Stanford researchers have found that the formation of microscopic pores called stomata (derived from the Greek word stoma, meaning mouth) is contro...o cope with environmental conditions. For example, a leaf contains fewer pores when carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is in abundance and more when it is l...

New filtering technology has environmental, industrial applications

...orous" filters. Filters containing extremely small pores require the water to be pushed through at high pre...s that if you are forcing stuff through very small pores it takes a lot of pressure," Youngblood said. "As the pores go down in size, the pressure goes way up. So, ide...

MIT: Safe storage of greenhouse-gas carbon dioxide

... of the Earth, is trapped as small blobs in the briny water (picture bubbles of oil in vinegar). The CO 2 dispersed throughout the basin's structural pores eventually dissolves and reacts with reservoir rocks to precipitate out into harmless carbonate minerals. CO 2 has been sequestered in small pilot...

Mitochondria could be a target for therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease patients

... Brain at Columbia University Medical Center, who led the multi-center research. This paper strengthens the concept that mitochondrial permeability pores may be central in mitochondrial and neuronal malfunction relevant to Alzheimer disease. Dr. Yan and her colleagues offer new insights into the mechani...

National Science Foundation grants Clemson professors award to develop nanoprobes

...who often experience painful dry mouth as a side effect of their treatment. Other possible applications include extracting sweat from individual human pores or inserting new genes into cells. This research is part of an ongoing project to develop fiber-based medical devices in Clemson's School of Materi...

Penn biophysicists create new model for protein-cholesterol interactions in brain and muscle tissue

...face sites and deeply buried sites within the protein require cholesterol, which directly supports contacts between the agonist-binding domain and the pores that are thought to be essential for activation of the receptor. "The result was surprising because, according to most traditional biological model...

Expanding cell girth indicates seriousness of breast cancer

..., an assistant professor of agricultural and biological engineering. When cells were put through the electrical field that Lu and his colleagues used, pores opened in the cell membrane, allowing fluid from the microchannel into the cell itself. Just like a person gaining a lot of weight, the cells ballo...

Pores open the door to death

...stitute of Neurobiology have now shown that minute pores on the cell surface open the door to the granzymes...were believed to gain entry into a cell either via pores or by membrane transport. T-cells and killer cells...nd formation of small vesicles. Since the membrane pores created by perforin holes are fairly small and are...

Slipping through cell walls, nanotubes deliver high-potency punch to cancer tumors in mice

...ll be long enough to deliver a highly effective dose inside the tumor cells. All blood vessel walls are slightly porous, but in healthy vessels the pores are relatively small. By tinkering with the length of the nanotubes, the researchers were able to tailor the nanotubes so that they were too large to ...

Mitochondrial cholesterol makes response to chemotherapy difficult in hepatic cancer

...ity and response to several stimuli. The mitochondrion contains indispensable molecules so that the cell initiates apoptosis, vut it is necessary that pores are formed in the membrane in order to release these molecules into the cell and then initiate cell death mechanisms. This process requires an appropr...

Researchers catch ion channels in their opening act

... from the University of Illinois measures movements smaller than one-billionth of a meter in ion channels. This movement is critical to how these tiny pores in the cell membrane open and close in response to changes in voltage across the membrane. The findings appear this week in the journal Neuron . I...

Livermore researchers use carbon nanotubes for molecular transport

...ized protein channels of sub-nanometer size. These pores regulate cellular traffic, allowing some of the sm...with manmade carbon nanotube membranes, which have pores that are 100,000 times smaller than a human hair, ... find out if the membranes with 1.6 nanometer (nm) pores reject ions that make up common salts. In fact, th...

Researchers discover how stealthy HIV protein gets into cells

...t seen inside a doughnut hole. The newly formed pores in the membrane were 6 nanometers wide, large enou...e proteins or other molecules to slip through. The pores would also make it easier for other biological pro...ing on the saddle splay curvature that allowed the pores to form. When another positively charged amino ...

Media highlights for February in Biophysical Journal

...terestingly, one encounters translocation more frequently as a serious bottleneck: the prospect of polymeric molecules passing through nanometer-sized pores in inter/intra-cellular membranes hinders efficient delivery of drug molecules to their activation sites, and of healthy gene fragments to their targe...

Skewered pumpkins

...of a good nanoscopic packaging agent is a tiny sphere of porous silica. Its pores can be filled with the drug and closed with tiny controllable valves. Th...stem-shaped molecules onto the surface of the porous spheres and filled the pores with guest molecules. At neutral to acidic pH values, they stacked cucurbit...

Mechanisms of plant-fungi symbiosis characterized by DOE Joint Genome Institute

...fungal development. They report that fungi play a critical role in plant nutrient use efficiency by translocating nutrients and water captured in soil pores inaccessible to roots of the host plant. "The Laccaria genome sequence, its analysis, associated genomics, and bioinformatics tools provide an unp...

Breakthrough in plant research

...ht-tolerant crops. The article is published online ahead of print in Natures Advance Online Publication (AOP) on 27 February 2008. Stomata are tiny pores on the plant leaf surface, through which the leaves absorb carbon dioxide necessary for photosynthesis and release moisture into the air. The plasma m...

Gene that controls ozone resistance of plants could lead to drought-resistant crops

...ing and closing of their stomatathe tiny breathing pores in leaves through which gases and water vapor flow...hemselves and they do that by closing the stomatal pores when concentrations of ozone increase. While th...e when ozone levels are high, because the stomatal pores are also the breathing holes in leaves through whi...

Creation of a new material capable of eliminating pollutants by the hydrocarbon industry

...llutants, it is necessary to use materials with a high concentration of micropores, which is where the absorption of pollutants takes place, but these pores must be the correct size and properly arranged. Thus, we achieve a high level of efficiency when eliminating and retrieving BTX after the saturation o...
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