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Environmental cleaning intervention reduces transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms in ICUs

San Diego, CA (March 20, 2009) A rigorous environmental cleaning intervention can reduce the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other multidrug-resistant organisms in hospital intensive care units (ICUs), according to a new study released today at the annual m...

Automated microfluidic device reduces time to screen small organisms for genetic studies

Genetic studies on small organisms such as worms and flies can now be done more quickly using a new microfluidic device developed by engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The new "lab-on-a-chip" can automatically position, image, determine the phenotype of and sort small animals, su...

Ancient organisms discovered in Canadian gold mine

Scientists have suspected that the three known domains of life -- eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea -- branched off and went their separate ways around three billion years ago. But pinning down the time of that split has been an elusive task. Now, a team of scientists present direct evidence th...

DNA replication behavior in complex organisms may foreshadow leaps in genomic discoveries

For the first time, findings by scientists at the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) may be paving the way for more efficient analyses and tests related to the replication of cells, and ultimately, to the better understanding of human biology, such as in stem cell research. Faithful duplicatio...

Powe Award supports research on how enzymes enable the pathogenicity of 2 human disease organisms

Blacksburg, Va. -- Pablo Sobrado, assistant professor of biochemistry ( http://www.biochem.vt.edu/faculty.php?lname=Sobrado&view=yes ) with the infectious disease research group at Virginia Tech, has received a Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award for his research on enzymes that are ess...

Press statement on new CDC MMWR on Klebseilla pneumonia Carbapenemase-producing organisms

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today released new infection control recommendations on Klebseilla pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing Organisms, one of the most treatment-resistant gram-negative bacterium. Recent studies have shown that infections with these highl...

Transporting broiler chickens could spread antibiotic-resistant organisms

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have found evidence of a novel pathway for potential human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria from intensively raised poultrydriving behind the trucks transporting broiler chickens from farm to slaughterhouse. A study by the...

Gene regulation in humans is closer than expected to simple organisms

Gene networks are some of the most basic features of a living organism. An external or internal stimulus activates some genes, which in turn control others genes whose activity turns on or off various biological processes (such as the cell cycle, energy production, DNA repair, cellular suicide etc...

Biologists call for better choice of model organisms in 'evo-devo'

Research in evolutionary developmental biology, known as ‘evo-devo? is being held back because the dominant model organisms used by scientists are unable to illustrate key questions about evolution, argue biologists in the latest issue of Nature Reviews Genetics. The subject of evo-devo, which be...

Researchers link ocean organisms with increased cloud cover and potential climate change

Atmospheric scientists have reported a new and potentially important mechanism by which chemical emissions from ocean phytoplankton may influence the formation of clouds that reflect sunlight away from our planet. Discovery of the new link between clouds and the biosphere grew out of efforts to...

New research finds surveys of larval-stage organisms effective for measuring marine biodiversity

There is a push to document the biodiversity of the world within 25 years. However, the magnitude of this challenge is not well known, especially when it comes to vast and often inaccessible marine environments. To date, surveys of species diversity in the world's oceans have focused on adult organ...

NHGRI Selects 13 More Organisms for Genome Sequencing

The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced today that the Large-Scale Sequencing Research Network will target 13 more organisms as part of its ongoing effort to produce genomic data that will expand biological knowledge and improv...

NHGRI targets 12 more organisms for genome sequencing

The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced today that the Large-Scale Sequencing Research Network will begin sequencing 12 more strategically selected organisms, including the marmoset, a skate and several important insects, as pa...

Marine microbes creating green waves in industry

... are using biology in our chemical processes to come up with improved manufacturing routes. We are taking advantage of the natural diversity of marine organisms that has arisen through evolution in different environments and coupling that with high-tech screening systems. We are looking to find naturally occur...

'Green' energy from algae

... from microalgae, KIT scientists are developing closed photo-bioreactors and novel cell disruption methods. Microalgae are monocellular, plant-like organisms engaged in photosynthesis and converting carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into biomass. From this biomass, both potential resources and active substances as wel...

Protecting cells from their neighbors

... Almost all organisms evolve from a single cell, a fertilised egg. In the first hours after ferti...scriptional repression in germ cells is a general characteristic of all the organisms in which it has been studied, we propose that the antagonistic mechanism th...

August 2009 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

...e climate at this time. The acidification events, which dissolved carbonate organisms on the seafloor, probably resulted from the accumulation of dead organic ma...ore nutrients such as sulphates to the ocean. Large extinctions in deep-sea organisms (benthic foraminifera) associated with this time interval imply that increa...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

...e scientific community is quite fascinated by DNA and they tend to forget that DNA is rarely present in its naked double-stranded helix form in higher organisms like humans, but that it is always associated with proteins in this complex aggregate we call chromatin," he added. "Undoubtedly, DNA codes for nearly...

Iron isotopes as a tool in oceanography

...ate and silicate. This is due a shortage of the essential micro-nutrient iron, which is needed for the growth of phytoplankton. These tiny, plant-like organisms sit at the base of the marine food chain and collectively draw vast amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide down from the atmosphere through the ...

Leicester research paves way for first use in Europe of an insect to fight invasive plant

...the purpose of which is to be as sure as possible that potential biocontrol organisms are restricted to Japanese Knotweed and cannot be tempted to stray onto rel...ese Knotweed originated. "A number of Japanese invertebrates and micro organisms have been subjected to a rigorous testing regime. The aim of biological con...

Douglas-fir, geoducks make strange bedfellows in studying climate change

...e and its most iconic tree for clues to how living organisms may have responded to changes in climate. Analy...s , showed that climate synchronized the growth of organisms from the continental shelf to alpine forests. "The next step was to use the longest-lived organisms trees and the geoduck to tell us about climate p...

New computer simulation helps explain folding in important cellular protein

... Athens, Ga. Most parts of living organisms come packaged with ribbons. The ribbons are proteinschains of amino acids that must fold into three-dimensional structures to work properly. But when ...

Jet-propelled imaging for an ultrafast light source

...mps and crannies and distribution of electrical charges determine how they act individually or fit together to form complex molecular machines. Simple organisms like viruses often consist of a few proteins fitted together to enclose a thread of DNA or RNA. Proteins are usually large molecules containing ma...

Scientists discover Amazon river is 11 million years old

...th and Ocean Sciences "This new research has large implications for our understanding of South American paleogeography and the evolution of aquatic organisms in Amazonia and on the Atlantic coast. The origin of the Amazon river is a defining moment: a new ecosystem came into being at the same time as the ...

Sex in the Caribbean: Environmental change drives evolutionary change -- eventually

... Hungry, sexual organisms replaced well-fed, clonal organisms in the Caribbean Sea as the Isthmus of Panama aros...istinguish between ecological extinctionwhen these organisms stopped being important players in the gameand act...

Stress signals link pre-existing sickness with susceptibility to bacterial infection

...fluence the ability of bacteria to replicate inside of the single-celled organism, Dictyostelium . Striking similarities that exist between simple organisms like Dictyostelium and humans allow scientists to use them to understand human disease. Dictyostelium is a free-living amoeba whose rapid movemen...

Earliest animals lived in a lake environment, research shows

...r life on Earth stretches back billions of years, with simple single-celled organisms like bacteria dominating the record. When multi-celled animal life appeared...ediments," Kennedy said. "It is possible, too, that similarly aged or older organisms also existed in marine environments and we have not found them. But at the...

Warmer environment means shorter lives for cold-blooded animals

...Brook, N.Y., July 27, 2009 - Temperature explains much of why cold-blooded organisms such as fish, amphibians, crustaceans, and lizards live longer at higher la...species from terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments. They studied organisms with different average longevities--from the copepod Arcartia tonsa, which ...

Scientists track impact of DNA damage in the developing brain

...oblems in the DNA-repair system," explained McKinnon, the paper's senior author. DNA is the double-stranded molecule found in nearly every cell. In organisms both simple and complex, it serves as the biochemical blueprint for assembling and sustaining life. Diseases like cancer have long been associated wit...

Researchers capture bacterial infection on film

...e cells are removed from this complex environment and cultured in a petri dish these signals are lost. Therefore it is really important to study whole organisms to fully understand how bacteria interact with their host." Dr Nick Waterfield, co-author on the study and Research Officer at the University of Ba...

Noise pollution negatively affects woodland bird communities, says CU-Boulder study

... woodland areas, a decrease in scrub jays in such areas could result in the decreased establishment of pinyon pine. This would potentially affect many organisms and alter the dynamics of the ecological community, said Francis. The team determined that 97 percent of mourning dove nests and 100 percent of bl...

Spring cold snap helps with stream ecosystem research

...e importance of sunlight on the growth of algae, bacteria, snails and other organisms in forest streams. Compared to typical conditions, the post-freeze condi... on the stream ecosystem during the critical spring period when many stream organisms are dependent on algae for food." Although canopy cover in the spring le...

University of Miami receives stimulus funds for study of hurricane impacts on structures, ecosystems

...duct fisheries and biological oceanography research to generate models of the biological and physical processes that affect the distribution of marine organisms and their connectivity. The Center will also offer opportunities for collaborations in understanding the connections between the oceans and human hea...

A global model for the origin of species independent of geographical isolation

...s a glacier, mountain or body of water to separate organisms enabling groups to diverge until they become separ... diverse species can arise from the arrangement of organisms across an area, without any influence from geograp...on. Over generations, the genetic distance between organisms in different regions increases, the study noted....

Reviews of microbial gene language published in special issue of Trends in Microbiology

...in 1998 by a consortium of three databases for the organisms yeast, fruit fly, and mouse. The Plant-Associated ...cs efforts the sequencing of mixtures of multiple organisms from environmental samples in helping define the ...es the work of biologists interested in looking at organisms across kingdoms, from molecules all the way up to ...

Munich researchers discover new target for tailored antibiotics

...s from the small isoprene building blocks dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). Mammals and a large number of other organisms generate these essential metabolites via the so-called mevalonate pathway. But most human pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum , have developed...

Mystery E. coli genes essential for survival of many species

... Scientists have shown that E. coli one of the best known and extensively studied organisms in the world remains an enigma that may hold the key to human diseases, such as cancer. The team, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Scie...

Down Under dinosaur burrow discovery provides climate change clues

... Cretaceous Period, when some dinosaurs lived in polar environments. "This research helps us to better understand long-term geologic change, and how organisms may have adapted as the Earth has undergone periods of global cooling and warming," says Martin, a senior lecturer in environmental studies at Emory. ...

Exploring standards to advance microbial genomics

...ics research in the decade ahead. For example, the list of microbial genomes for potential sequencing, limited to the approximately one percent of the organisms that can be cultured in the lab, has been further biased by a focus on a few groups of particular impact on human health or activities. Thus, vast rea...

Methane-eating microbes can use iron and manganese oxides to 'breathe'

...s responsible for consuming methane. It might be one bacteria or archaea species, or it may be a consortium of microbes. She is trying to identify the organisms responsible. ...
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