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Dolphins maintain round-the-clock visual vigilance

Dolphins have a clever trick for overcoming sleep deprivation. Sam Ridgway from the US Navy Marine Mammal Program explains that they are able to send half of their brains to sleep while the other half remains conscious. What is more, the mammals seem to be able to remain continually vigilant for s...

Astronauts may need more intense workouts to maintain muscle fitness in space

MUNCIE, Ind. A new study in the The Journal of Applied Physiology , suggests that astronauts need to modify their workouts to avoid extensive muscle loss during missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The latest NASA-sponsored research from Ball State University's Human Perfor...

UCR plant cell biologist to study how plant stem cells maintain and change their identity

RIVERSIDE, Calif. A plant cell biologist at UC Riverside has received a $1 million grant from the National Science Foundation to investigate how plant stem-cells maintain their identity and how they eventually get specialized into different cell types. According to G. Venugopala Reddy, the pri...

NASA snow data helps maintain nation's largest, oldest bison herd

Grainy photographs of America's Old West recall a time when large bison herds migrated across wide prairie lands, 30 million strong, with the changing seasons determining their path and destination. Now, NASA satellite data and computer modeling and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) information...

Neuroscientists discover new cell type that may help brain maintain memories of smells

Neuroscientists at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have discovered a new cell type in the part of the brain that processes our sense of smell. This new cell type, the Blanes cell, is a member of a group of previously unstudied brain cells described by the Spanish neuroanatomist B...

Weizmann Institute suggests that immune cells help to maintain cognition and brain cell renewal

A team of scientists at the Weizmann Institute of Science, led by Prof. Michal Schwartz of the Neurobiology Department, has come up with new findings that may have implications in delaying and slowing down cognitive deterioration in old age. The basis for these developments is Schwartz's team's obs...

Gray wolves maintain the food chain in winter

Climate change has already had dramatic effects on individual species, with disruptions in range, reproductive success, and seasonal phenomena like migration. But, in a new study from the open-access online journal PLoS Biology (www.plosbiology.org), Christopher Wilmers and Wayne Getz show that the...

UCSD researchers maintain stem cells without contaminated animal feeder layers

The growth and maintenance of human embryonic stem cells in the absence of contaminated animal products has been demonstrated by University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine researchers in the Whittier Institute, La Jolla, California. Published in the April 2005 issue of the jour...

Climbing to new heights in the forest canopy

... Many anatomical traits of vines, such as the significant development of parenchyma and high frequency of wide water transport vessels, allow them to maintain this flexibility and withstand breakage while still effectively transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. Recent research in Amazon...

Obama administration announces more than $327 million in Recovery Act funding for science research

...h researchers at institutions of higher learning across the nation. "These new initiatives will help to create new jobs while allowing the U.S. to maintain its scientific leadership and economic competitiveness ," said Secretary Steven Chu. "The projects provide vital funding and new tools for research a...

Sustainable agriculture at the ESA Annual Meeting

...igher levels of dissolved carbon and nitrogen in the soil. All these findings, says Glover, suggest that the perennial field soil is healthy enough to maintain high levels of organic nutrients. In addition to being more ecologically sustainable, Glover's team found that the perennial fields were more energ...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

...n axis such that adjacent nucleosomes along the chain lie side by side on the chromatin fiber also and thus the linker DNA connecting the two needs to maintain a highly bent conformation. Other researchers suggest that chromatin has a zigzag structure where the nucleosome chain follows a zigzag path along the...

Jet-propelled imaging for an ultrafast light source

...beam has to be in a high vacuum, but a protein or virus in its natural state is usually wet. As in T. S. Eliot's Wasteland , water is life. How do we maintain the protein or virus in an aqueous environment inside the vacuum?" Shot from a microcannon The answer was what Spence calls a "particle gun, ...

Microbes and their hosts -- exploring the complexity of symbiosis in DNA and cell biology

...he example of mutualism between Blochmannia and their ant hosts to illustrate how the bacteria rely on genetic, ecological, and physiological means to maintain the functional flexibility that allows them to meet the needs of an ant colony rather than the individual ants that make up the colony. Their thought-...

DOE-funded research projects win 46 R&D 100 Awards for 2009

...d integrity of the power line systems, researchers can develop more durable and reliable systems for the electric power grid. Power grid operators can maintain power flow and prevent potential grid failures, and effectively reroute power distribution during emergency or natural disasters. (Jointly with Electr...

Spring cold snap helps with stream ecosystem research

...Sciences Division. In this case, a freeze caused the Walker Branch stream to prosper, but an ecosystem cannot count on unexpected weather events to maintain productivity. "The stream ecosystem cannot depend on an Arctic air mass moving in every year, killing the leaves and exposing the stream to sunligh...

High construction cost for cycads

... leaf form are substantial." Green leaves must pay back their own construction costs, but each leaf is also required to supply the energy needed to maintain its live tissues throughout its lifespan. Additionally, large plants like Guam's Cycas have an abundance of non-green tissue that requires energy to...

IOS Press announces launch of Journal of Berry Research

...quarterly journal is to contribute to and improve knowledge regarding the quality and production of berries to benefit the health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems. It is our vision that the Journal will serve as a vehicle for increased collaboration and consequentl...

Promising new treatment for Alzheimer's suggested based on Hebrew University research

...t of the gene) breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at a slower rate than in those who have the normal gene. The result is that the carriers maintain higher levels of this neurotransmitter, so they should in principle be protected from Alzheimer's disease, in which acetylcholine levels decrease. ...

UK bioscience sparkles with new Diamond fellowship

...e for Science and Innovation, Lord Drayson, said: "The UK is already a world leader in biosciences research. These fellowships from BBSRC will help us maintain our lead and give some of our most outstanding bioscientists an extra boost. "It is vital that we nurture scientists throughout their careers, as t...

A 'heart healthy' diet and ongoing, moderate physical activity may protect against cognitive decline

...uals should be encouraged to engage in physical activity at least occasionally," Barnes said. "People who are currently active should be encouraged to maintain or increase their activity levels." Moderate Long-Term Physical Activity May Improve Late Life Cognition; Long-Term Strenuous Activity May Increas...

NOAA bans commercial harvesting of krill

...A's Fisheries Service Southwest Assistant Regional Administrator for Sustainable Fisheries. "Protecting this vital food resource will help protect and maintain marine resources and put federal regulations in line with West-Coast states." While the States of California, Oregon and Washington currently have ...

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC scientists identify enzyme important in aging

...be able to delay or even prevent the degeneration of the thymus in order to maintain our immune defenses throughout life," said Dr. de Vallejo. The mouse mo...ty of IGF in the thymus by targeted manipulation of PAPPA could be a way to maintain immune protection throughout life," Dr. de Vallejo said. "This study has pr...

Spontaneous assembly

...tions are probably sufficient to generate the observed complex, ordered patterns. This simple stochastic self-assembly mechanism, which can create and maintain periodic structures in biological membranes without direct cytoskeletal involvement or active transport, may prove to be widespread in both prokaryoti...

Army study improves ability to predict drinking water needs

...on, developed more than 25 years ago, is expressed as (msw (gm-2h-1) = 27.9 Ereq (Emax)-0.455, where: Ereq is evaporative heat loss required to maintain proper body temperature Emax is the evaporative potential of the environment msw represents sweat loss gm-2 is grams of sweat multiplied by the bod...

Study finds role for parasites in evolution of sex

...different parasite vulnerabilities. So a parasite that can destroy some can't necessarily destroy all. That, in theory, should help sexual populations maintain stability, while asexual populations face extinction at the hands of parasites. The scenario works on mathematical models, but there have been few ...

Key to evolutionary fitness: Cut the calories

...is is due to active control of maternal investment in offspring in order to maintain long-term reproductive fitness. The research, to be presented by Dr Ter...ctively limiting the rate of energy turnover, a mother can prevent this and maintain a higher level of reproductive success over her lifetime. ...

Single thawed embryo transfer after PGD does not affect pregnancy rates

...rch suggests that responsible clinical decisions do not have to come at the expense of reducing effectiveness of treatment. You can be responsible and maintain the chances of success for your patients by good clinical judgment and using the appropriate techniques. "For patients, this provides reassurance ...

Ecological Society of America announces 2009 award recipients

...his year's George Mercer Award is given to Richard Lankau of the University of Illinois and coauthor Sharon Strauss for their paper, "Mutual feedbacks maintain both genetic and species diversity in a plant community," published in Science in 2007. The Mercer Award is given for an outstanding recently-publishe...

New, less invasive genetic test greatly improves pregnancy rates in older women with poor prognosis

...nerated by women with a very poor reproductive history and with an average age of 42 who were undergoing IVF because of being unable to conceive or to maintain a pregnancy. They found that more than half of all the eggs produced by these women had chromosomal abnormalities, and therefore the resulting embryos...

First riser-drilling research operations undertaken

...ell. Drilling fluid is pumped up and down between the riser pipe and the drill pipe. Fluid circulation and use of the blow-out preventer (BOP) help to maintain pressure balance within the borehole and prevent it from collapsing, enabling safer and deeper drilling. CHIKYU is the world's first scientific drill...

Super-sleepers could help super-sizers!

...he other hand, are believed to remain deeply asleep during the entire period of dormancy. Furthermore, being cold-blooded, they don't have the need to maintain a basal level of heat production, minimizing their energy needs. ...

The faster they come

...that, indeed, aggressive behaviours tend to decline as fin damage sustained in fights accumulates. In other words: if a male has to fight too often to maintain his dominant status, he will probably end up losing it in the end. These results will be presented by Elektra Sinclair at the Society of Experimental ...

Corals stay close to home

...d by the mobile juvenile stage of corals so that the natural processes that maintain healthy populations can be encouraged. A recent study by Australian biol... restore degraded local populations. In these regions, marine reserves that maintain high local genetic diversity should be favoured. ...

New nanoparticles could revolutionize therapeutic drug discovery

...mer - styrene maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs), the researchers solubilised a pair of membrane proteins. They found that not only did the proteins maintain their folded structure, binding and enzyme activities in the SMALPs, but also that using the nanoparticles allowed them to be simply and rapidly used ...

Nematode courting caught on camera

...n two nematodes of the species Caenorhabditis elegans . As the hermaphrodite does not actively co-operate in mating, it is up to the male to make and maintain the necessary contact. He presses the front side of his tail against the hermaphrodite while he backs along and searches for the vulva. If not found a...

Engineering innovative solutions for 21st century medicine

...fiting millions of people with tools such as implants and prosthetic limbs, devices to monitor the physiological state of patients, and instruments to maintain bodily functions, such as the implantable pacemaker. As both medicine and engineering continue to advance at great pace, it is crucial that the links ...

New research shows dinosaurs may have been smaller than we thought

... FAIRFAX, Va., June 24, 2009 For millions of years, dinosaurs have been considered the largest creatures ever to walk on land. While they still maintain this status, a new study suggests that some dinosaurs may actually have weighed as little as half as much as previously thought. In the study, pu...

Targeting helpers of heat shock proteins could help treat cancer, cardiovascular disease

...chinery, by targeting it directly or its helpers, is a good thing." While every cell needs heat shock proteins, cancer cells need them even more to maintain their mutated, unstable and extremely busy proteins, he says. "The terminology we use is that the Hsp90 machinery is hijacked by cancer," says Dr. Ch...

Carnegie Mellon's Kris Matyjaszewski recieves EPA's Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award

...ies on a specialized copper catalyst to form a polymer chain. In the early stages of ATRP development, high levels of copper catalyst were required to maintain the process. This problem persisted even after more active catalysts were developed. As a result, the materials manufactured using ATRP contained hig...
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