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Future for clean energy lies in 'big bang' of evolution

Amid mounting agreement that future clean, "carbon-neutral", energy will rely on efficient conversion of the sun's light energy into fuels and electric power, attention is focusing on one of the most ancient groups of organism, the cyanobacteria. Dramatic progress has been made over the last decad...

Protein's strength lies in h-bond cooperation

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. Researchers in Civil and Environmental Engineering at MIT reveal that the strength of a biological material like spider silk lies in the specific geometric configuration of structural proteins, which have small clusters of weak hydrogen bonds that work cooperatively to resist for...

The origin of the brain lies in a worm

The rise of the central nervous system (CNS) in animal evolution has puzzled scientists for centuries. Vertebrates, insects and worms evolved from the same ancestor, but their CNSs are different and were thought to have evolved only after their lineages had split during evolution. Researchers from ...

Key to acute lung injury lies in Ang2 protein

Acute lung injury caused by cell death, high and potentially toxic concentrations of oxygen (hyperoxia), and the resulting excess fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), may be controlled by modulating levels of the angiopoietin2 (Ang2) protein, researchers at Yale School of Medicine report in the No...

Navigating in the ocean of molecules

...original 'child' scaffold. This generates innumerable parent-child relationships - structurally related molecules of varying complexity. The advantage lies in the fact that chemically similar compounds are very likely to display similar biological activity. "These structurally-based lineages form the b...

New computer simulation helps explain folding in important cellular protein

...ow similar systems work. That's why the new simulation may open doors in many other areas of inquiry. "The main advantage of this two-step approach lies in its flexibility as well as its generality," said Landau. "This method is widely applicable to any study of biological systems, such as the folding ...

The sound of light: Innovative technology shatters the barriers of modern light microscopy

... laser pulse gives rise to an ultrasound wave that the researchers pick up with an ultrasound microphone. The real power of the technique, however, lies in specially developed mathematical formulas used to analyze the resulting acoustic patterns. An attached computer uses these formulas to evaluate and...

UT San Antonio researcher wins $917,000 from NIH to study memory

...te, has won $917,000 in funding from the National Institutes of Health to research these and other related questions. According to Derrick, the key lies in the difference between learning and memory. "Learning is the acquisition of new knowledge," he notes. "Memory is the persistence of learning ov...

Coral face 'a stormy future'

...s our modelling studies on the fringing reefs of Jamaica, and on the Meso-American Barrier reef off the coast of Belize", says Prof. Crabbe. Tobago lies outside the main Caribbean hurricane belt and therefore is more typical of the circumstances of most coral reefs around the world. Nevertheless its c...

Research vessel Polarstern starts 24th Arctic season

... numerous European research projects by now, because just a few comparable multidisciplinary long-term examinations exist. The Hakon-Mosby mud volcano lies in 1.250 m water depth at the Norwegian continental shelf of the south-western Barent Sea and has regularly been explored in the past by Polarstern ex...

Researchers from around the globe coming to K-State June 21 for workshop on Fusarium fungus

...he simplest rule is that if it is green, there is a Fusarium that will be able to attack it," he said. Leslie said that the potency of the fungus lies in the diseases that it causes and because it produces mycotoxins, a couple of which are on the U.S. federal government's select agent list. "Mycot...

Broecker: 'What we need are tougher measures against climate change'

...nough", Broecker concedes. "It may take another 50 years before they really take off, so we need a stop-gap solution". For Broecker, the best hope lies with a technology still at the experimental stage: carbon sequestration and storage. "The idea is to find a supplement to renewable energies, not an a...

Genetically corrected blood cells obtained from skin cells from Fanconi anemia patients

...se affected with these genetic diseases. This observation is particularly important in diseases such as Fanconi anemia, where one of the main problems lies in the lack of blood cell in the bone marrow of those affected. However, according to researchers, this new therapeutic strategy can be applied to man...

Scholar unconvinced new lie-detection methods better than old ones

... what some say is 'the organ of deceit' where the lies are happening." But according to Littlefield, t... same three assumptions. "The first one is that lies are somehow measurable that you can see them in t...k at the cultural ideologies those three stories: lies are measurable, the body seems so obvious, and dec...

MicroRNAs grease the cell's circadian clockwork

...n liver cells. MicroRNAs were among the potential factors likely to be involved in clock gene regulation. The common property of these small molecules lies in their ability to inhibit the synthesis of specific proteins, thus allowing cells to reduce the activity of certain genes at a given time. "We ha...

Healing wounds with lasers, vehicles that drive themselves, other cutting-edge optics

...suddenly picks up? If the technology is to work at all, it will have to be completely safe on all roads, under all speeds, and in all weather. Therein lies the challenge: if cars and trucks are to drive autonomously, they will need futuristic sensors and advanced computing capabilities to respond to ever-...

A big lesson from the reef

...ll as for all our industries and activities that depend upon the Reef," he says. Prof. Connolly says his research shows that that species diversity lies at the heart of stable ecosystems. Since ecosystems help to support humanity in many ways with food, clean air and water as well as livelihoods, ...

True grit

...s spanning more than a decade, Profs. Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi of Weizmann's Structural Biology Department have discovered that the urchins' secret lies in a combination of ingenious design strategies. The latest of these studies, conduc ted with postdoctoral fellow Yurong Ma and graduate student Yael ...

Snakes and how they helped our big brains evolve

...n so few of us have firsthand experience? The surprising answer, University of California, Davis, anthropology professor Lynne A. Isbell suggests, lies in the singular impact of snakes on primate evolution. In "The Fruit, the Tree, and the Serpent: Why We See So Well" (Harvard University Press; Ap...

NASA study says climate adds fuel to Asian wildfire emissions

...r food ingredient. Ancient peatlands have been drained and lush tropical forests have been cut down. As a result, the landscape of equatorial Asia now lies vulnerable to fires, which are growing more frequent and having a serious impact on the air as well as the land. A team of NASA-sponsored researche...

New study overturns orthodoxy on how macrophages kill bacteria

... the macrophage into the bacterial cytoplasm, Slauch said. "We conclude from all this data that the most sensitive target of ROS in the macrophages lies outside the cytoplasm," Slauch said. "We don't know what that target is, but it's clearly not in the cytoplasm." ...

Early brain activity sheds new light on the neural basis of reading

... Most people are expert readers, but it is something of an enigma that our brain can achieve expertise in such a recent cultural invention, which lies at the interface between vision and language. Given that the first alphabetic scripts are thought to have been invented only around four to five thous...

Details of bacterial 'injection' system revealed

...the type III secretion system have revealed that it is composed of some 25 different kinds of proteins assembled into three major parts: a "bulb" that lies within the bacterial cell, a region spanning the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and a hollow, largely extracellular "needle." But to understand ...

Laughing hyenas, wailing levees, the sound of cheese and blaring bagpipes

... OF THE RIGHT WHALE The North Atlantic right whale, with only about 300-350 animals known to exist, used to inhabit the Cape Farewell Ground, which lies between southwest Iceland and Greenland. In the 1800s they were heavily hunted in this area and haven't been seen much there since. Recently acoustic ...

When every photon counts

... heterochromatin: Because of its denser packing it has a higher optical refraction index than euchromatin. This has no effect when the heterochromatin lies in the periphery of the nucleus. However when it is lumped in the nuclear core, the heterochromatin acts as a minute collecting lens. As the rod nucle...

New therapeutic strategy could target toxic protein in most patients with Huntington's disease

...ne makes a toxic protein that contains excess amounts of the amino acid glutamine. The key to whether the Huntingtin gene is normal or defective lies in a kind of genetic stutter: a repetitive sequence of the DNA triplet CAG, which codes for the amino acid glutamine. Stretches of CAG "repeats" appea...

Gene therapy appears safe to regenerate gum tissue

...cal trial at the University of Pennsylvania. The U-M therapy also uses the adenovirus, Giannobile said, but the big difference in the U-M approach lies in the local application and much lower dose. Instead of injecting the genes into the blood vessels, where they can then travel through the bloodstrea...

Great Basin's Bear Lake reveals records of past climate

... of the Bear River, the largest river in the Great Basin of the western United States. One of the oldest existing lakes in North America, Bear Lake lies within an asymmetric, tectonically active basin that contains hundreds of meters of sediment accumulated over the past several million years. This vol...

Mountain on Mars may answer big question

...ing almost 15 miles high, and slopes gently from the foothills to the caldera, a distance of more than 150 miles. That shallow slope is a clue to what lies beneath, said the researchers. They suspect if they were able to stand on the northwest side of Olympus Mons and start digging, they'd eventually find...

World's top minds to celebrate 'the birth and life of beginnings'

...tal discoveries in science, religion, philosophy, history and the arts have shaped our understanding of life and civilization -- and our grasp of what lies ahead. Titled "Origins '09: Celebrating the Birth & Life of Beginnings," this one-of-a-kind program was organized by the Office of Research at The ...

'Fattysaurus' or 'thinnysaurus'? How dinosaurs measure up with laser imaging

... birds, we can nevertheless see a small forwards movement in the position of the centre of mass from Acrocanthosaurus atokensis to the T. rex , which lies closer to modern birds on the evolutionary lines." ...

MacArthur Foundation awards planning grant to improve decision-making in energy policy

... carbon tax) on the global economy. Understanding the relationship between the earth's physical systems and human economies as well as social behavior lies at the heart of the need for this kind of modeling tool. According to Foster, this is because policy decisions impact, and in turn, are impacted by...

McMaster researchers discover new mode of how diseases evolve

...nes, but only a fraction of them are used at any given time," Coombes said. "The difference between being able to cause disease, or not cause disease, lies in where, when and what genes in this collection are turned on. We've discovered how bacteria evolve to turn on just the right combination of genes in...

Food counterfeiting, contamination outpace international regulatory systems

...want stuff in the winter when we can't grow it." Between the extremes of accidentally contaminated food and terrorism via intentional contamination lies the counterfeiter, seeking not to harm but to hide the act for profit. The melamine incidents are such examples. As an industrial chemical that mimics...

Study says 'middle class' coral reef fish feel the economic squeeze

...o shows the importance of combining ecology with social science for conservation planning on a regional scale." The explanation, said researchers, lies in the interplay between traditional customs and how growth influences the social fabric of communities. In poor communities, many of which rely heavi...

Defectors take the car, cooperators go by bus

..., Szilagyi has used a computer simulation to help answer the transport dilemma of facing large cities. The received wisdom suggests that the answer lies with public transportation. "If there were no cars but reliable trains and buses, everyone could get anywhere quickly and without traffic jams," says ...

Deceiving cell walls

...tes of the CBP. The dendrimer frameworks are flexible enough to meet the spatial demands of the application. The required dosage of this CBP inhibitor lies within the range that is acceptable for pharmaceuticals. ...

Texas Medical Center researchers win collaborative grants

...d of Texas Children's Hospital and Edward Graviss of The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, who received a grant of $197,500. They say the answer lies in their differing immune response. Studies of mice provide a clue that a signaling molecule, interferon-gamma, triggers the immune system to respond ...

Biologist enhances use of bioinformatic tools and achieves precision in genetic annotation

...enmark, in 2006, Jos Luis Lavn learnt the use of a new bioinformatic tool (HMM software), which he now uses in his research. The novelty, he explains, lies in that all the trials were carried out by computer. He used existing techniques but in such a way that he achieved the aim sought with the least poss...

Samuel Stupp to receive honorary doctorate from TU/e

...ature and Science testify to the diversity and value of his work. Multiple Disciplines In the words of nominator Meijer, Stupp's great strength lies in "his ability to discover the interfaces between a range of disciplines, so that researchers in those disciplines feel truly motivated to help solve...
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