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Understanding how weeds are resistant to herbicides

URBANA - In a little over seven hours, University of Illinois weed scientist Patrick Tranel got more genetic information about waterhemp than in two years time in a lab. The genetic information was obtained using pyrosequencing technology in the Keck Center at the U of I. The genetic sequence will...

Disease threat may change how frogs mate

Dr Amber Teacher, studying a post-doctorate at Royal Holloway, University of London, has discovered evidence that a disease may be causing a behavioural change in frogs. The research, published in the August edition of Molecular Ecology, has unearthed a surprising fact about our long-tongued fri...

Grant supports LSUHSC research on how like cell receptor systems determine very different functions

New Orleans, LA Andy Catling, PhD, Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacology and the Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans, has been awarded a $177, 500 supplement to his RO1 grant by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences to support his ...

Nitrogen research shows how some plants invade, take over others

Biologists know that when plants battle for space, often the actual battle is for getting the nitrogen. Now, research at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln gives important new information on how plants can change "nitrogen cycling" to gain nitrogen and how this allows plant species to invade an...

Gene predicts how brain responds to fatigue, human study shows

New imaging research in the June 24 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience helps explain why sleep deprivation affects some people more than others. After staying awake all night, those who are genetically vulnerable to sleep loss showed reduced brain activity, while those who are genetically resi...

The battle for CRTC2: How obesity increases the risk for diabetes

La Jolla, CAObesity is probably the most important factor in the development of insulin resistance, but science's understanding of the chain of events is still spotty. Now, researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have filled in the gap and identified the missing link between the t...

Caltech researchers explore how cells reconcile mixed messages in decisions about growth

PASADENA, Calif.The cells in our body are constantly receiving mixed messages. For instance, an epithelial cell might be exposed to one signal telling it to divide and, simultaneously, another telling it to stop dividing. Understanding the process by which these competing environmental cues are re...

Mate selection: How does she know he'll take care of the kids?

New Haven, Conn. Throughout the animal kingdom brilliant colors or elaborate behavioral displays serve as "advertisements" for attracting mates. But, what do the ads promise, and is there truth in advertizing? Researchers at Yale theorize that when males must provide care for the survival of thei...

Powe Award supports research on how enzymes enable the pathogenicity of 2 human disease organisms

Blacksburg, Va. -- Pablo Sobrado, assistant professor of biochemistry ( http://www.biochem.vt.edu/faculty.php?lname=Sobrado&view=yes ) with the infectious disease research group at Virginia Tech, has received a Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award for his research on enzymes that are ess...

Scientists explain how 'death receptors' designed to kill our cells may make them stronger

It turns out that from the perspective of cell biology, Nietzsche may have been right after all: that which does not kill us does make us stronger. In a review article published in the June 2009 print issue of The FASEB Journal ( http://www.fasebj.org ), scientists from the Mayo Clinic explain h...

Caltech scientists reveal how neuronal activity is timed in brain's memory-making circuits

PASADENA, Calif.Theta oscillations are a type of prominent brain rhythm that orchestrates neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for the formation of new memories. For several decades these oscillations were believed to be "in sync" across the hippocampus, timing the firing of...

Report updates guidelines on how much weight women should gain during pregnancy

WASHINGTON -- A growing amount of scientific evidence indicates that how much weight women gain during pregnancy and their starting weight at conception can affect their health and that of their babies, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council. The report...

MSU discoveries upend traditional thinking about how plants make certain compounds

EAST LANSING, Mich. Michigan State University plant scientists have identified two new genes and two new enzymes in tomato plants; those findings led them to discover that the plants were making monoterpenes, compounds that help give tomato leaves their distinctive smell, in a way that flies in t...

New research helps explain how connexin hemichannels are kept closed

Hemichannels are connexin channels that can dock with each other to create a gap junction across two plasma membranes. In the June 2009 issue of the Journal of General Physiology ( JGP ), Andrew Harris (University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey) discusses new research that provides insigh...

Opposites attract -- how genetics influences humans to choose their mates

Vienna, Austria: New light has been thrown on how humans choose their partners, a scientist will tell the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics today (Monday May 25). Professor Maria da Graa Bicalho, head of the Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility Laboratory at the Univers...

New evidence of how high glucose damages blood vessels could lead to new treatments

AUGUSTA, Ga. New evidence of how the elevated glucose levels that occur in diabetes damage blood vessels may lead to novel strategies for blocking the destruction, Medical College of Georgia researchers say. They found a decreased ability of blood vessels to relax resulted from increased acti...

Preclinical work shows how one gene causes severe mental retardation

Durham, N.C., and Chapel Hill, N.C. -- Researchers at Duke University Medical Center and the University of North Carolina have discovered in mice how a single disrupted gene can cause a form of severe mental retardation known as Angelman syndrome. In a study published in the journal Nature N...

Snakes and how they helped our big brains evolve

From the temptation of Eve to the venomous murder of the mighty Thor, the serpent appears throughout time and cultures as a figure of mischief and misery. The worldwide prominence of snakes in religion, myth, and folklore underscores our deep connection to the serpentbut why, when so few of us...

New study overturns orthodoxy on how macrophages kill bacteria

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. For decades, microbiologists assumed that macrophages, immune cells that can engulf and poison bacteria and other pathogens, killed microbes by damaging their DNA. A new study from the University of Illinois disproves that. The study, published in the journal PLoS ONE , shows ...

Remembrance of things past influences how female field crickets select mates

RIVERSIDE, Calif. UC Riverside biologists researching the behavior of field crickets have found for the first time that female crickets remember attractive males based on the latter's song, and use this information when choosing mates. The researchers found that female crickets compare the inf...

Major international study challenges notions of how genes are controlled in mammals

This release is available in French . Scientists at the Omics Science Center (OSC) of the RIKEN Yokohama Institute in Japan along with researchers from McGill University and other institutions worldwide are challenging current notions of how genes are controlled in mammals. Three years ...

Learning how the pieces responsible for interpreting the human genome work

The human genome complete sequencing project in 2003 revealed the enormous instruction manual necessary to define a human being. However, there are still many unanswered questions. There are few indications on where the functional elements are found in this manual. To explain how we develop, scien...

Satellites show how Earth moved during Italy quake

Studying satellite radar data from ESA's Envisat and the Italian Space Agency's COSMO-SkyMed, scientists have begun analysing the movement of Earth during and after the 6.3 earthquake that shook the medieval town of L'Aquila in central Italy on 6 April 2009. Scientists from Italy's Istituto per...

UC Riverside biochemist to study how crops can increase protein production

RIVERSIDE, Calif. The small flowering plant Arabidopsis is widely used in laboratories as a model organism in plant biology. A member of the mustard family, Arabidopsis offers researchers several advantages such as a completely sequenced genome, a compact size, a life-cycle of about only ...

Penn biologists discover how 'silent' mutations influence protein production

PHILADELPHIA - Biologists at the University of Pennsylvania have revealed a hidden code that determines the expression level of a gene, providing a way to distinguish efficient genes from inefficient ones. The new research, which involved creating hundreds of synthetic green-glowing genes, provid...

MIT: How you feel the world impacts how you see it

In the classic waterfall illusion, if you stare at the downward motion of a waterfall for some period of time, stationary objects like rocks appear to drift upward. MIT neuroscientists have found that this phenomenon, called motion aftereffect, occurs not only in our visual perception but also i...

West Nile virus studies show how star-shaped brain cells cope with infection

A new study published as the cover article for the April 2009 issue of The FASEB Journal ( http://www.fasebj.org ) promises to give physicians new ways to reduce deadly responses to viral infections of the brain and spinal cord. In the report, scientists from Columbia University, NY, detail for...

Inhaling a heart attack: How air pollution can cause heart disease

BETHESDA, Md. (March 23, 2009) We are used to thinking of heart disease as a product of genetic factors or lifestyle choices, such as what we eat and how much we exercise. There is another road to heart disease: breathing. Accumulating evidence indicates that an increase in particulate air poll...

Brown-led team offers first look at how bats land

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] People have always been fascinated by bats, but the scope of that interest generally is limited to how bats fly and their bizarre habit of sleeping upside down. Until now, no one had studied how bats arrive at their daytime perches. A Brown University-led re...

Lab-on-a-chip homes in on how cancer cells break free

Johns Hopkins engineers have invented a method that could be used to help figure out how cancer cells break free from neighboring tissue, an "escape" that can spread the disease to other parts of the body. The new lab-on-a-chip, described in the March issue of the journal Nature Methods , could l...

Microscope reveals how bacteria 'breathe' toxic metals

COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Researchers are studying some common soil bacteria that "inhale" toxic metals and "exhale" them in a non-toxic form. The bacteria might one day be used to clean up toxic chemicals left over from nuclear weapons production decades ago. Using a unique combination of microscop...

Dancing 'adatoms' help chemists understand how water molecules split

RICHLAND, Wash. -- Single oxygen atoms dancing on a metal oxide slab, glowing brighter here and dimmer there, have helped chemists better understand how water splits into oxygen and hydrogen. In the process, the scientists have visualized a chemical reaction that had previously only been talked ab...

A sticky business -- how cancer cells become more 'gloopy' as they die

The viscosity, or 'gloopiness', of different parts of cancer cells increases dramatically when they are blasted with light-activated cancer drugs, according to new images that provide fundamental insights into how cancer cells die, published in Nature Chemistry today (15 March). The images...

ChemoBrain: How cancer therapies can affect your mind

While surviving cancer should be an occasion for rejoicing, many people who have undergone the standard or high-dose chemotherapy to defeat the disease unfortunately suffer from a physical and mental ailment known as "chemobrain." This cognitively dysfunctional symptom ranges from fatigue and memo...

New and unexpected mechanism identified how the brain responds to stress

Calgary, AB -- Chronic stress takes a physical and emotional toll on our bodies and scientists are working on piecing together a medical puzzle to understand how we respond to stress at the cellular level in the brain. Being able to quickly and successfully respond to stress is essential for surv...

'It takes a genome: How a clash between our genes and modern life is making us sick'

It's not just the climate that is struggling with what humans have done to the modern world, our genes are feeling the pressure as well, according to Professor Greg Gibson's recently published book. In It Takes a Genome: How a Clash Between Our Genes and Modern Life Is Making Us Sick , Profess...

New models question old assumptions about how many molecules it takes to control cell division

Blacksburg, Va. -- A single cell whether a yeast cell or one of your cells is exquisitely sensitive to its surroundings. It receives input signals, processes the information, makes decisions, and issues commands for making the proper response. As with any control system, noise errors, slip-ups,...

Caltech and UCSD researchers shed light on how proteins find their shapes

PASADENA, Calif.--Researchers from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) have brought together UCSD theoretical modeling and Caltech experimental data to show just how amino-acid chains might fold up into unique, three-dimensional fun...

'Experiment of nature' examines how mother's diet may impact on child's health

Could our mother's diet at the time we are conceived set the course for our future health? This intriguing question is at the heart of a new study based on an "experiment of nature" being conducted by Wellcome Trust-funded researchers. We inherit our DNA the genetic blueprint that determines o...

'Fattysaurus' or 'thinnysaurus'? How dinosaurs measure up with laser imaging

Karl Bates and his colleagues in the palaeontology and biomechanics research group have reconstructed the bodies of five dinosaurs, two T. rex (Stan at the Manchester Museum and the Museum of the Rockies cast MOR555), an Acrocanthosaurus atokensis , a Strutiomimum sedens and an Edmontosaurus...
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