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Waste from gut bacteria helps host control weight, UT Southwestern researchers report

DALLAS Oct. 17, 2008 A single molecule in the intestinal wall, activated by the waste products from gut bacteria, plays a large role in controlling whether the host animals are lean or fatty, a research team, including scientists from UT Southwestern Medical Center, has found in a mouse study. ...

Form of Crohn's disease traced to disabled gut cells

St. Louis, Oct. 5, 2008 Scientists report online this week in Nature that they have linked the health of specialized gut immune cells to a gene associated with Crohn's disease, an often debilitating and increasingly prevalent inflammatory bowel disorder. The link to immune cells intrigued re...

Cancer-causing gut bacteria exposed

Normal gut bacteria are thought to be involved in colon cancer but the exact mechanisms have remained unknown. Now, scientists from the USA have discovered that a molecule produced by a common gut bacterium activates signalling pathways that are associated with cancer cells. The research, publishe...

Insect gut detects unhealthy meal

Plant leaves and surfaces are teeming with microbial life, yet the insects that feed on plants lack adaptive immune systems to fend off any intruding microorganisms they eat along with their greens. Now research published in the online open access journal, BMC Biology shows how food-borne bacteria...

Your gut has taste receptors

Researchers in the Department of Neuroscience at Mount Sinai School of Medicine have identified taste receptors in the human intestines. The taste receptor T1R3 and the taste G protein gustducin are critical to sweet taste in the tongue. Research now shows these two sweet-sensing proteins are als...

Antibiotics take toll on beneficial microbes in gut

ANN ARBOR, Mich. It's common knowledge that a protective navy of bacteria normally floats in our intestinal tracts. Antibiotics at least temporarily disturb the normal balance. But it's unclear which antibiotics are the most disruptive, and if the full array of "good bacteria" return promptly or ...

Dissecting the genetic components of adaptation of E. coli to the mouse gut

New insights into the evolutionary mechanisms that facilitate the remarkably fast adaptation of intestinal bacteria within their natural environment are provided in the January issue of PLoS Genetics by researchers from INSERM and INRA at University Paris Descartes. Using germ-free mice a simp...

Natural gut hormone offers hope for new obesity drug

A hormone found naturally in the gut is the basis of a new drug to tackle obesity, one of three inaugural awards under the Wellcome Trust's Seeding Drug Discovery initiative. The drug is being developed by one of the world's leading obesity experts, Professor Steve Bloom at Imperial College London'...

HIV-1 kills immune cells in the gut that may never bounce back

People with HIV have been living longer, healthier lives since the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (or HAART) in 1995. In fact, most patients on the drug regimen do so well that, according to blood tests, their immune cells appear to return to pre-HIV levels. But two new studies...

The biggest bug in gut discomfort

In spite of our long and painful relationship with Campylobacter jejuni, we are just starting to answer basic questions about the bug that is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne illness in the United States, and one of the most common causes of diarrhea worldwide. The Centers for Disease Cont...

Bone marrow cells can become functional gut lining cells

Researchers report the discovery that cells used in bone marrow transplantation can develop into new cells lining the gut, according to a study by Yale School of Medicine in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study showed that bone marrow derived cells can differentiate into...

Learning and memory stimulated by gut hormone

Researchers at Yale School of Medicine have found evidence that a hormone produced in the stomach directly stimulates the higher brain functions of spatial learning and memory development, and further suggests that we may learn best on an empty stomach. Published in the February 19 online issue o...

Stanford gut check shows diversity of intestinal ecosystem

The universe of microbes that lives in your stomach may be nearly as unique as your fingerprint, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine who have embarked on the early stages of exploring the intestinal ecosystem. Using molecular techniques that detect all known typ...

Highly adaptable genome in gut bacterium key to intestinal health

A bacterium that lives in the human gut adaptively shifts more than a quarter of its genes into high gear when its host's diet changes from sugar to complex carbohydrates. This adaptive mechanism not only allows the bacterial species to survive rapidly changing nutrient conditions but also helps...

C. difficile spores spread superbug

...f C. difficile infection for some time. The bacterium can live inside the gut of healthy human beings, existing as part of a natural, diverse and potenti...e bacterium was able to exploit the opportunity and proliferate where other gut bacteria had succumbed to the antibiotics. This allowed the C. difficile ...

NIH expands Human Microbiome Project; funds sequencing centers and disease projects

...-Liggett, Ph.D., University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (two grants) Digestive tract: Obesity $1 million This study will sample the gut microbiome from obese and non-obese subjects from the Amish population to uncover associations with metabolism, inflammation, and other traits related...

Chemical in blood may explain susceptibility to bladder pain

...e, but it may be that there is some kind of primary central nervous system disorder that results in problems in the bladder in some people, and in the gut or other organs in others," Buffington said. "It is possible that this is a biomarker for the underlying vulnerability or susceptibility." Buffingt...

Fatty foods -- not empty stomach -- fire up hunger hormone

...tly reduces appetite and improves metabolism before substantial weight loss occurs. Intriguingly, this procedure causes food to bypass the stomach and gut sections that contain GOAT/ghrelin cells, which, based on this newly described model, would prevent ghrelin activation." ...

Diuscovery in amber reveals ancient biology of termites

..., mostly from the dead wood they chew, but they depend on protozoa in their gut to provide the enzymes that can digest the wood," Poinar said. "These proto...d the chemical and physical conditions inside the alimentary tract, use the gut contents as a food source, cause no damage to the host and be carried throu...

Bacteria play role in preventing spread of malaria

... Bacteria in the gut of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito inhibit infection of the insect with P...he Johns Hopkins researcher treated mosquitoes with antibiotics to kill the gut bacteria. Treated mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection by Plasmod...

Stem cell focus for IBD wound healing

...rgery. Professor Ilyas added: "The power of the gut to heal the damage caused by acute episodes of inflammation is remarkable and frequently the gut lining reverts to normal. Anti-inflammatory drugs...k on CD24 in seeking a better understanding of the gut healing process and how it may be enhanced in infl...

Review of probiotic trial research finds only Bifantis able to claim efficacy for IBS symptoms

...Gastroenterology and Department of Internal Medicine, at Northwestern University and lead investigator of this study, hypothesized that alterations in gut microflora may contribute to the development of IBS symptoms, and believed these symptoms could be improved by probiotics. "Probiotics are gaining pop...

Malaria immunity trigger found for multiple mosquito species

...ar gene through the manipulation of gene expression resulted in mosquitoes that successfully blocked the development of Plasmodium falciparum in the gut tissue. Silencing the gene known as cactus, which is part of another pathway called Toll, was shown to have similar effect in controlling the developm...

Scientists unlock the secrets of C. difficile's protective shell

...alyse the areas where the two proteins link together in the layer. Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen that is present naturally in the gut of about three percent of adults, and 66 percent of children. It does not cause problems in healthy people, but antibiotics used to treat other health...

Reversing ecology reveals ancient environments

...a species to entire communities. In particular, Borenstein hopes to explore large collections of host-dwelling bacteria like those living in the human gut or mouth or the communities found in soils. The complicated and intricate ecology of these systems should now be accessible given the genomic data tha...

UC San Diego senior named Churchill Scholar for extraordinary undergraduate research

... Department of Mechanical Aerospace Engineering, on the mechanics of hexagonal lattices and the underlying structure of carbon nanotubes. "I had a gut feeling about coming to UC San Diego," Juneja said. "I am from the Bay Area and I looked at UC Berkeley, but knew UC San Diego was a hot up-and-coming...

Our microbes, ourselves

...nd sheer numbers, the microbes occupying the human gut easily dwarf the billions of people inhabiting the...ggests that the composition of microbes within the gut may hold a key to one cause of obesityand the pros...tween differing microbial populations in the human gut and body weight among three distinct groups: norma...

Fish guts explain marine carbon cycle mystery

...sh, which drives all their biological processes to run faster. Secondly, increasing CO2 in their blood directly stimulates carbonate production by the gut specifically. Dr Rod Wilson continues: "We have really only just scratched the surface of knowing the chemistry and fate of fish carbonates. Given ...

Understanding extinct microbes may influence the state of modern human health

...our bodies." Interestingly, ancient microbiome studies provide a view of these ecosystems prior to the modern world economy. In living people, the gut microbiome is frequently studied using fecal samples. This gave Lewis and his colleagues an idea. To understand the state of microbiomes before the gl...

New movement models tested at the Smithsonian in Panama

...ology in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , researchers present integrative models for movement of organisms as diverse as gut bacteria, tree seeds, ants, marine larvae and cheetahs. "Our goal is to develop and test a general theoretical framework for movement that will inte...

Iron-moving malfunction may underlie neurodegenerative diseases, aging

...gh TRPML1 had never been shown to be involved in iron transport. The only protein with that distinction was DMT1, which facilitates iron uptake in the gut and in cells that will become red blood cells, but not in most other cell types. "Essentially all cells, including nerve cells and muscle cells, ne...

'Friendly' bacteria protect against type 1 diabetes, Yale researchers find

...ed in a germ-free environment, lacking "friendly'' gut bacteria, the mice developed severe diabetes. NOD ...lop diabetes, they reported. "Understanding how gut bacteria work on the immune system to influence wh...ne system through altering the balance of friendly gut bacteria and protect against diabetes." ...

Anti-tumor therapy with endoscopic ultrasound may fight cancer more safely and effectively

...ve tract and the surrounding tissue and organs. A more advanced form of EUS, called curvilinear EUS, allows doctors to operate within the lumen of the gut while at the same time detect, biopsy and treat lesions and tumors that lie outside the intestinal wall. This technique is particularly useful in pati...

New once-a-week treatment for type 2 diabetes developed by Mount Sinai researcher

...ucagon-like peptide), a naturally occurring hormone that is produced in the gut after eating. The report compared outcomes for patients self-injecting Exen... sugars) and saw reductions in body weight. Dr. Drucker has studied the gut hormone GLP-1 for over 20 years. Multiple drugs based on GLP-1 action are u...

ETH Zurich study on salmonella self-destruction

...a forms two groups that engage in job-sharing. A first group invades the tissue, triggers an inflammation, then dies. A sec-ond group waits inside the gut until the inactivation of the normal intestinal flora gives them an opportunity to strike.This second group then multiplies unhindered. Random pro...

Novel fungus helps beetles to digest hard wood

...k, Pa. -- A little known fungus tucked away in the gut of Asian longhorned beetles helps the insect munch...iomass for generating biofuels. Microbes in the gut of insects are known to break down cellulose, but ...ed wood before and after it had passed through the gut of two wood-eating insects. To measure the degree ...

Brown tree snake could mean Guam will lose more than its birds

... coats removed, a factor that could speed seedling germination and the growth of new trees and something that likely could only be accomplished in the gut of a bird. None of the seeds found on Guam had seed coats removed. In addition, the scientists randomly selected points in native forests on Guam,...

UT Health Science Center researchers study diet and autism

...iatry and behavioral sciences, pediatrics and biomedical sciences at the health science center. "There are neurotransmitters and neuroreceptors in the gut that correspond with those in the brain. There are some scientific reasons to think that some kids may benefit from this diet." For the dou...

Sesame seed extract and konjac gum may help ward off Salmonella and E. coli

...acteria. The bacteria attach themselves to the fibrous foods instead of the gut cells of the host. Dr Becker says that eating a diet full of these foods...ce of fibre, particularly from certain foodstuffs, in maintaining a healthy gut and digestion cannot be underestimated. The study shows that these foods bi...

Weill Cornell science briefs June/July 2008

...y Help Restore Immune System to Normal Function for Crohn's Disease Stem cells are being studied at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell to heal the gut in subjects suffering from Crohn's disease. Physician-scientists believe that these cells might help to restore the ability of the immune system to co...
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