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Building blocks of life formed on Mars

Washington, DCOrganic compounds contain carbon and hydrogen and form the building blocks of all life on Earth. By analyzing organic material and minerals in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001, scientists at the Carnegie Institution's Geophysical Laboratory have shown for the first time that b...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

...s's Shalbatana Vallis. The sub-meter-scale images show clear, unambiguous evidence of shorelines of a lake more than 450 meters (1,476 feet) deep that formed about 3.4 billion years ago. The study indicates that conditions favorable for flowing water and lake formation may have existed for thousands of year...

University of Hawaii at Manoa researchers reveal ocean acidification at Station ALOHA

...olleagues attribute these strata of elevated acidification rates to increases in biological activity and to the intrusion at Station ALOHA of remotely formed water masses with different chemical histories. ...

Holding breath for several minutes elevates marker for brain damage

...men and one woman) took part in this study, along with six individuals who had limited experience with breath-hold diving. The nine competitive divers formed the experimental group, while the non-divers acted as the controls. The researchers told the participants to lie on their backs on a cot and hold t...

August 2009 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

...310-km-long canyon that has no surface outlet, was formed by collapse and draining of brines and entrained s...rmal systems, suggests that the arsenic-rich vapor formed at high and possibly magmatic temperatures, whereas the copper-rich vapor formed at lower temperatures, possibly during migration o...

Scientists discover Amazon river is 11 million years old

... on the Atlantic coast. The origin of the Amazon river is a defining moment: a new ecosystem came into being at the same time as the uplifting Andes formed a geographic divide." The study was published in the scientific journal, Geology , in July 2009. ...

Researchers team up to provide new hope for childhood hunger

...titution brings unique strengths and world-class leadership within their respective fields to bear on this global challenge. The focus of the newly formed Alliance will be to create low-cost, nutritionally complete foods to prevent and treat all forms of under-nutrition. These foods will incorporate crop...

Newly discovered gene fusion may lead to improved prostate cancer diagnosis

...results may lead to more accurate prostate cancer testing and new targets for potential treatments. Experts believe that gene fusions -- a hybrid gene formed from two previously separated genes -- may be at the root of what causes cancer cells to grow more quickly than normal cells. The new findings, pub...

When children have breathing problems

...rgentina's largest oil refinery, an area with heavy traffic in the centre of La Plata, a suburban area and a rural area." The children whose health formed the basis of the third course of analysis were selected from the same four areas. Around 1200 girls and boys aged between six and twelve were involved...

A global model for the origin of species independent of geographical isolation

...sity arises without specific physical barriers," the study states. The computer simulations, the authors, note showed the distribution of species formed patterns similar to those that have occurred with real organisms all around the world. "The model we put forward in the paper lays the groundwork f...

Early initiation of Arctic sea-ice formation

...ecially exciting because they suggest that sea ice formed in the Arctic before it did in Antarctica, which g...ebris at this time. "It is likely that sea ice formed in autumn and winter and melted in spring and summ.... Furthermore, their data indicate that sea ice formed in the Arctic before it did in Antarctica. Atmosph...

Methane-eating microbes can use iron and manganese oxides to 'breathe'

... of rocks," said Beal. "Oxygen is needed for this to occur." While manganese and iron oxides are made in today's oxygen atmosphere, they where also formed by photochemical reactions in a low oxygen atmosphere. These oxides were probably more abundant in the early Earth's oceans than sulfates. While Be...

Seals quickly respond to gain and loss of habitat under climate change

...der to understand how biodiversity is generated and maintained over time, the team has set out to understand the process by which the seal populations formed and diverged. They analysed data from ancient DNA to show how elephant seal populations responded when new breeding habitat was gained and then lost o...

Explosive growth of life on Earth fueled by early greening of planet

...ed data on thousands of analyses of carbon isotopes found in limestone that formed in the Neoproterozoic period, the time interval just prior to the Cambrian ...me ago, researchers have studied the isotopic composition of limestone that formed during that period. Researchers have long studied these rocks, but Knauth s...

Pitt team finds molecule that regulates heart size by using zebrafish screening model

...e try to create treatments that restore normal function to damaged or diseased tissues, it will help us to know the biologic pathways and signals that formed these organs whole and healthy in the first place. This information can be gained by studying developmental biology." Zebrafish are vertebrate anim...

Colorectal cancer

...ngs, or lymph nodes. Since the affected patient seldom feels pain or shows other symptoms, the tumor is frequently not discovered until it has already formed metastases. To investigate which genetic mutations favor the formation of metastases, the researchers analyzed 150 tissue samples of colorectal c...

Reading the brain without poking it

... the arm to reach to the right or left, based on differences such as the power or amplitude of the brain waves. The microelectrodes were formed in grid-like arrays embedded in rubbery clear silicone. The arrays were over parts of the brain controlling one arm and hand. The first p...

The faster they come

...vantages, but it becomes useless if your authority is continuously being challenged. In many animal species, however, stable hierarchies are routinely formed in which some individuals seem to slip naturally into their dominant role whereas others resign themselves to play the part of lowly subordinates. But...

Taxpayer Alliance applauds bill to broaden access to federal research results

...ral agencies. The proposed bill is welcomed by the Alliance for Taxpayer Access, a coalition of research institutions, consumers, patients, and others formed to support open public access to publicly funded research. FRPAA would require those agencies with annual extramural research budgets of $100 milli...

Salt block unexpectedly stretches in Sandia experiments

...ging to a special microscope's nanometer-sized tip as it left the surface of the salt. More intense examination showed that surface salt molecules formed a kind of bubble a ductile meniscus with the exploratory tip as it withdrew from penetrating the cube. In this, it resembled the behavior of the sur...

Carnegie Mellon's Kris Matyjaszewski recieves EPA's Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award

...hese papers have been cited more than 30,000 times, making Matyjaszewski one of the most cited researchers in the field of chemistry. In 2006, ATRP formed the basis for a Carnegie Mellon spin-off company called ATRP Solutions that uses the technology to develop next generation materials for evaluation by...

Scientists capture the first image of memories being made

...specifically protein translation, which underlies long-term memory formation. The finding provides the first visual evidence that when a new memory is formed new proteins are made locally at the synapse - the connection between nerve cells - increasing the strength of the synaptic connection and reinforcing...

When palm trees gave way to spruce trees

.... Globally, carbon dioxide levels were falling and the hothouse warmth of the dinosaur age and Eocene Period was waning. In Antarctica, ice sheets had formed and covered much of the southern polar continent. But what exactly was happening on land, in northern latitudes? When and how did Northern glaciati...

UC Davis researchers visualize formation of a new synapse

...pse formation once the connections are locked in place by neuroligin. "Synapses are basically specialized sites of cell adhesion that are initially formed during development of the nervous system. Formation of viable synapses is crucial for establishing neuronal circuits that underlie behavior and cognit...

Shape matters in the case of cobalt nanoparticles

...anoparticles from spherical to cubic can fundamentally change their behavior. Building on a previous paper** that examined the properties of cobalt formed into spheres just a few nanometers in diameter, the new work explores what happens when the cobalt is synthesized instead as nanocubes. Nanoparticles ...

Peripheral nerve repair with fat precursor cells led to wider nerves and less muscle atrophy

...erived APCs survived for up to 12 weeks in the injured peripheral nerve and formed a more robust nerve with nerve cells more than double the size of those formed using the conduit alone. "The versatility of adult precursor cells, such...

University of Leicester geologists demonstrate extent of ancient ice age

...y Palaeozoic Icehouse. Page commented: "These fossil fuel-rich deposits formed during relatively warmer episodes during the Early Palaeozoic Icehouse when...rvation of fragile, carbonaceous planktonic fossils. The deglacial outwash formed a less dense, low salinity 'lid' on the oceans preventing atmospheric oxyge...

Fossil bone bed helps reconstruct life along California's ancient coastline

...sity of Utah, and Lawrence G. Barnes, Edward D. Mitchell Jr. and Samuel A. McLeod of NHM's Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. When the bone bed formed between 15,900,000 and 15,200,000 years ago, the climate was warming, sea level was at a peak, California's Central Valley was an inland sea dubbed th...

Capturing the birth of a synapse

...transmitting information from one neuron to the next," said Washbourne, who is a member of the UO's Institute of Neuroscience. "Synapses are initially formed during development of the nervous system, and formation of appropriate synapses is crucial for establishing neuronal circuits that underlie behavior a...

Validus and HierStar Form Strategic Alliance to Offer the First Complete Range of Authentication Products

... SAN FRANCISCO and BEIJING, May 20 /PRNewswire/ -- Validus Technologies Corporation and HierStar Limited are pleased to announce that they have formed a strategic manufacturing, marketing and distribution alliance to offer the first complete range of One Time Password (OTP) authentication products to...

Microfossils challenge prevailing views of the effects of 'Snowball Earth' glaciations on life

..."when we rode through the rapids and descended into 'Powell's bowels' where the oldest rocks in the Grand Canyon frame the river passage. These rocks formed deep in the Earth approximately 1.8 billion years ago, and are very different in appearance from the overlying rocks." The scientists braved extrem...

Stanford scientists find heat-tolerant coral reefs that may resist climate change

... heat-resistant algae symbionts. Ofu also has pools of varying temperatures that allowed the research team to test under what conditions the symbionts formed associations with corals. In cooler lagoons, Oliver found only a handful of corals that host heat-resistant algae exclusively. But in hotter ...

Public lecture at UC Riverside to discuss origin and fate of universe

...her , a professor in UCR's Department of Physics and Astronomy , will present results from the search for the first generation of stars and galaxies, formed 13 billion years ago when the universe was one percent of its present age. His talk, titled "Let There Be Light: The First Billion Years," will be...

Focus on the formation of bones, teeth and shells

...d that an organic surface introduced by the researchers allowed these nanoparticles to grow into larger particles, in which crystalline areas could be formed later, through structuring of the ions. The TU/e researchers demonstrated a second role for the organic layer: it directed quite precisely the directi...

Major funding to help cut CO2 emissions

... fourth consortium, led by the University of Edinburgh, on improving the economics of large-scale carbon capture and storage and how to separate CO 2 formed by emissions from fossil fuel power stations. ...

NIST issues first reference material for tissue engineering

...unable to build the proper connections. The three new NIST reference materials are disks approximately 20 millimeters across and 5 millimeters high formed of crisscrossed layers polyester struts approximately 200 micrometers in diameter. Varying the spacing of the struts in each layer resulted in three d...

Wind, salt and water are leading indicators of land degradation in Abu Dhabi

...storms, nebkha features, reduction of waterways capacity due to deposition of sand, exposure of hardpans at the surface, and gravel lag. Nebkha dunes, formed from sediment accumulations around shrubs, have been considered a reliable indicator of rapid dryland degradation. As a preventive action, afforestati...

Princeton geoscientist offers new evidence that meteorite did not wipe out dinosaurs

...nts that remained undisturbed and showed signs of active life, with burrows formed by creatures colonizing the ocean floor. This would quash a theory advanced...act layer from the sandstone complex and the overlying mass extinction were formed by normal processes. There is evidence of erosion and transportation of sed...

DOE funds bio-inspired solar fuel center at Arizona State

...each funded at $2 to $5 million per year for an initial five-year period, were selected from a pool of some 260 applications. Researchers at the newly formed EFRCs will take advantage of new capabilities in nanotechnology, high-intensity light sources, neutron-scattering sources, supercomputing and other ad...

Avian flu research sheds light on swine flu outbreak

...z, program director of the University of Maryland-based Prevention and Control of Avian Influenza Coordinated Agricultural Project, AICAP. "The virus formed when avian, swine, and human-like viruses combined in a pig to make a new virus. After mutating to be able to spread by respiratory droplets and infe...
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