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fold in Biological News

Beyond genes: Lipid helps cell wall protein fold into proper shape

A protein that provides a vital passage through a bacterium's outer cell wall will misfold and malfunction if that wall is built of the 'wrong' material, scientists at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston report in a finding that has long-term implications for understanding diseases ca...

Protein handlers should be effective treatment target for cancer and Alzheimer's

... Biology/Radiobiology and Cancer Virology. Everyone needs molecular chaperones which prompt genes to make proteins, move proteins around the body, fold them up into the proper shape to function properly and even haul them off when they no longer work. Cancer needs them even more for the endless cell r...

Structure of protective protein in the eye lens revealed

...ional structure. In the first instance, proteins are long chains of amino acids, like a long piece of woolen thread. So-called chaperones help them to fold in the desired three-dimensional form after their production. If this folding process fails, the protein thread becomes an inextricable, useless tangl...

New computer simulation helps explain folding in important cellular protein

...ibbons are proteinschains of amino acids that must fold into three-dimensional structures to work properly. But when for any reason the ribbons fold incorrectly, bad things can happen, and in humans ...ee decades tried to understand what makes proteins fold into functional units and why it happens, and seve...

Jet-propelled imaging for an ultrafast light source

...right pulses offer a novel approach to the problem of protein structure. Unfolding the origami Proteins begin as strings of amino acids that fold themselves into an amazing variety of origami-like structures, whose bumps and crannies and distribution of electrical charges determine how they act ...

Structural biology scores with protein snapshot

...tions that resulted in non-functional DAGK. One set altered the active site so that it no longer did its job, and the second set caused the protein to fold incorrectly (misfolding). Sanders said the team was surprised to find that nearly all of the mutations that caused misfolding were in the active sit...

Targeting helpers of heat shock proteins could help treat cancer, cardiovascular disease

...e most common of the ubiquitous heat shock proteins. These proteins are essential in the body, necessary to even digesting food. In healthy times they fold proteins properly so they'll do the right job, sometimes even delivering them where needed. During stress, heat shock proteins, such as Hsp90, work to...

New genomic technique uncovers coral transcriptome

...e new method requires as little as 1 microgram of total RNA, eliminates the need for a strand-selection step prior to emulsion PCR, and results in 2-5 fold greater 454 sequence output than in any previously reported attempts. Meyer said, "These tools allow for the rapid development of sequence resources ...

Flow of potassium into cells implicated in schizophrenia

... revealed a potential molecular target for new treatments. Expression of a previously unknown form of a key such potassium channel was found to be 2.5 fold higher than normal in the brain memory hub of people with the chronic mental illness and linked to a hotspot of genetic variation. An extensive se...

6 young ASU faculty earn NSF Career awards

...olding process. "When these proteins bind to their target sites, they undergo massive changes in molecular shape," says van der Vaart. "They often fold and bend or kink the DNA. It is not understood how the folding, bending and binding are coupled, and it is not understood what interactions trigger th...

Genetic switch potential key to new class of antibiotics

... of bases in a typical aptamer domain of the riboswitch causes the chain to fold back and bind to itself to form a double helix that ends in a loop like a l... be discovered. The relative complexity and economy of the preQ1 riboswitch fold also forces us to reevaluate the numerous, small non-protein-coding RNAs pr...

Scripps research scientists 'watch' as individual alpha-synuclein proteins change shape

... dramatic shape transitions, and that the whole process is reversible." In the past, scientists believed that proteins, as directed by their genes, fold themselves into defined three-dimensional structures that dictate their function. But more recently, a class of proteins known as "intrinsically disor...

Synthetic biology can help extend anti-malaria drug effectiveness

... "Initially production was low, but we have used gene re-synthesis and other techniques to improve the yield of amorphadiene in E. coli by a million fold from where started," Keasling said. In 2004, Keasling received a $42.6 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, through the Instit...

Unfolding 'nature's origami'

...known as "nature's origami", the way that proteins fold is vital to ensuring they function correctly. But ...w these chains of amino acids are preprogrammed to fold into their correct protein structure is one of th... the known evolutionary pressure on the protein to fold correctly to enable the bacteria to survive." T...

Caltech and UCSD researchers shed light on how proteins find their shapes

...ling and Caltech experimental data to show just how amino-acid chains might fold up into unique, three-dimensional functional proteins. Their insights we...itute). The Winkler-Gray method of watching proteins as they crumple and fold involves the use of a picosecond camera that captures fluorescent flashes a...

Decline of shorebird linked to bait use of horseshoe crabs

... in Delaware Bay of harvesting horseshoe crabs for use as bait in various fisheries. In the years from 1992 to 1997, reported harvest of crabs grew 20 fold from about 100,000 individuals harvested to more than 2 million. This newly released study shows that this increase in horseshoe crab harvest has led ...

Complete Genomics releases proof-of-concept data for its sequencing technology for the first time

...nducted on data generated by Complete Genomics' research and development sequencers; the company's production throughput is expected to increase three fold (up to 200 Gb per run) following its commercial launch in June 2009. "We were able to make high-confidence base calls for 92 percent of the genome...

Microscopic morphology adds to the scorpion family tree

...nd document what is nearly invisible. Looking at tiny morphological features like the sculpting of the hair-like outgrowths on lamellaestructures that fold like the leaves of a book and give the scorpion respiratory system its name, the book lungKamenz and Prendini found a wealth of new variation that giv...

New technique is quantum leap forward in understanding proteins

... research raritiesan unmitigated success. The group has devised a computational method that, with remarkable accuracy, predicts how bacterial proteins fold and interact. In the short term, this new capability, described in this week's Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science...

A simple fusion to jump-start evolution

...imple way for RNA to overcome initial barriers to growth and reach a biologically important size; at around 100 bases long, RNA molecules can begin to fold into functional, 3D shapes. ...

First trimester smoking linked to oral clefts

...for cleft lip (with or without cleft palate), there was an increased risk, almost two-fold when the mother smoked over 10 cigarettes per day and a 1.6 fold risk from passive smoking (defined as being within 2 metres of a smoker for 2 hours a day). The researchers estimate that 19 % of cases of cleft lip i...

Nuclear science for food security

...nerated economic returns of nearly US$ 62 billion against US$ 69 million invested during the period 1959 - 2001. That translates into a remarkable 900 fold return on investment, and this in the public sector. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact ...

Protein folding researcher David Baker to receive Sackler Prize in Biophysics

... company. Baker is being honored for his seminal contributions to computer-based studies of the manner and the speed in which chains of amino acids fold into protein molecules. Anyone who has tried to put together a cardboard box knows the importance of proper folding to get a useful product. The same ...

Urban trees enhance water infiltration

...upport pavement loads and simultaneously provide rooting space for trees. In this study, green ash trees increased the average infiltration rate by 27 fold compared with unplanted controls. In the experiment, a structural soil reservoir (CUSoil, Amereq Corp., New York) was separated from compacted clay lo...

Growing fuel and medicine: Advancing biofuels and plant-produced therapeutics

...s indicates that the gene is present at one copy per genome, simplifying breeding and regulatory issues. Protein accumulation can be increased several fold over multiple generations through breeding (Hood et al., 2003), thus it is our expectation that cellulase accumulation can be improved to 3-5 percent ...

Columbia to award 2008 Horwitz Prize to Arthur Horwich & Ulrich Hartl for cellular protein folding

...icantly expanded the understanding of how proteins fold into their final shapes within human cells. It is ...esemble a line of beads on a string, spontaneously fold themselves into their final, three-dimensional str...s chaperones, to guide the process and ensure they fold into the proper shape. In independent and often co...

Researchers study acoustic communication in deep-sea fish

...an females, said Fine. The research team obtained the fish during the summer mating season and found that intermediate muscle weight increased four fold and had become heavier in males than in females. "Our findings suggest that the intermediate muscle likely assumes a prominent role in sound produ...

Low sperm count may be associated with prenatal testosterone excess

...hat may conduct to a low sperm count," said Dr. Recabarren. Low sperm counts are also associated with testicular cancer, with an incidence rate 20 fold higher than men with normal sperm analysis, said Dr. Recabarren. The findings from this study highlight growing concerns of the detrimental effects of...

NYU, American Museum of Natural History receive $1.6 million NSF grant

...t how the proteins that are encoded by those genes fold into 3D shapes they hope to glean critical insight...rg and downloading the grid agent, which will then fold proteins when you are not using your computer). Th...ins are synthesized in cells as long polymers that fold to form three-dimensional shapes critical for thei...

Exploding chromosomes fuel research about evolution of genetic storage

...said. "Did dinoflagellates once have histones and then lost them? Or did dinoflagellates never have histones and just 'figured out' a different way to fold large amounts of DNA into chromosomes?" Rizzo asked. The images were produced using a high-resolution scanning ion microprobe, an instrument that L...

Water is 'designer fluid' that helps proteins change shape, scientists say

... about 75 percent of body volume. When bound to proteins, water molecules participate in a carefully choreographed ballet that permits the proteins to fold into their functional, native states. This delicate dance is essential to life. "While it is well known that water plays an important role in the fol...

Various species' genes evolve to minimize protein production errors

...ts that another force may be equally important: the need to avoid misfolded proteins resulting from errors in translation." Protein molecules must fold to become biologically active, and mistakes can cause misfolding, which can be toxic. Yet the protein-producing factories in our cells are estimated t...

Synthetic molecules emulate enzyme behavior for the first time

...hemists have created a synthetic catalyst that can fold its molecular structure into a specific shape for ... used to transform fats in the food industry -- to fold itself into a specific shape, or into its mirror i...r of chemistry at Ohio State. The nature of the fold in a molecule determines its shape and function, h...

Tufts to develop morphing 'chemical robots'

...ty of Manduca, including its flexibility, climbing ability and scalability from hatching to the end of its larval stage, the caterpillar grows 10,000 fold in mass using the same number of muscles and motor neurons. Trimmer has been studying the nervous system and behavior of this caterpillar for almost t...

Tracking prions

...differ markedly in their molecular structure. The word prion is derived from the term Proteinaceous Infectious Particle. These are proteins that can fold in different ways. Pathogenic prions are dangerous because they can convert physiological, non-pathogenic molecules into the diseased form. Often, pri...

Researchers reveal insights into hidden world of protein folding

... "If we could re-engineer the chaperonin to either fold better misfolded proteins or alternatively to remo... known to require a molecule called a chaperone to fold them. Frydman estimates that perhaps 10 percent of...he chaperonin long enough, it may not have time to fold properly. Conversely, if it lingers too long, it m...

Scientists discover small RNAs that regulate gene expression and protect the genome

...iscovery of a new source of regulatory RNA in mice. Many RNA sequences, such as microRNAs, are flagged as regulatory molecules because they physically fold on themselves. Special proteins recognize the resulting double-stranded RNA, and chemically slice it to release regulatory RNA snippets. The CSHL ...

Seeing Alzheimer's amyloids

...ucture of A-beta fibrils is that the same peptide will exasperatingly assemble differently from fibril to fibrilunlike normal proteins, which reliably fold up the same way every time. Grigorieff and his colleagues overcame this barrier by generating fibrils in a test tube under conditions that reduce ...

Ancient protein offers clues to killer condition

... range, defined by how much joints can move. Professor Knight says: We were puzzled to find that the scallops myosin 2 had retained its ability to fold and unfold, as they dont need to accommodate a large range of movement. After all, the scallop only moves its shell a little when it swims. In evolu...

Micro-origami: USC folds up micrometer-scale 'voxels' for drug delivery

...n the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, is a two-step process. Part one is the creation of flat patterns, origami, of exactly the fold up shapes familiar to kindergarten children making paper pyramids, cubes or other solids, except that these are as small 40 micrometers (m) on a side...
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