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Some like it hot: Worms at deep-sea vents favor a fiery 45-55°C

Scientists have found that worms dwelling at deep-sea hydrothermal vents opt for temperatures of 45-55 degrees Celsius (113-131 degrees Fahrenheit) when given a choice of conditions, giving them the highest thermal preference of any animal studied to date. This unique preference for extreme tempera...

Study finds evolution doesn't always favor bigger animals

Biologists have long believed that bigger is better when it comes to body size, since many lineages of animals, from horses to dinosaurs, have evolved into larger species over time. But a study published this week by two biologists at the University of California, San Diego in an early online ed...

Low-cost drug gaining favor for use in HIV-infected children in poor countries

A new systematic review highlights strong results from a single study at the center of mounting support for worldwide use of the low-cost drug Bactrim to help HIV-infected children in poor countries. The reviewers surveyed medical literature on the preventive use of Bactrim -- one of several bran...

Climate change poker: The barriers which are preventing a global agreement

...ree on mitigation, is that what some countries see as barriers, others perceive as bargaining chips. While many developed countries, including the UK, favor extending mitigation actions to some developing countries, many developing countries will be using finance and technology transfer as a deal breaker f...

Improved air quality during Beijing Olympics could inform pollution-curbing policies

...s. As a result, close to 2 million vehicles were pulled from the roads. Other mandates involved halting construction and decreasing the use of coal in favor of natural gas for electricity. In 2007 and 2008, the researchers collected air quality data from equipment installed at two elevations on a buildi...

Parasitic worms make sex worthwhile

...BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- The coevolutionary struggle between a New Zealand snail and its worm parasite makes sex advantageous for the snail, whose females favor asexual reproduction in the absence of parasites, say Indiana University Bloomington and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology biologists in this week...

Colorectal cancer

...in or shows other symptoms, the tumor is frequently not discovered until it has already formed metastases. To investigate which genetic mutations favor the formation of metastases, the researchers analyzed 150 tissue samples of colorectal cancer patients with and without metastases. The researchers id...

Researchers to reveal aging's origins on global stage

...s, which are also composed of complex molecules," he explained, "eventually suffer the same molecular dysfunction. The time when the balance shifts in favor of the accumulation of dysfunctional molecules is determined by natural selection and leads to the manifestation of age changes that we recognize are...

Humans related to orangutans, not chimps, says new Pitt, Buffalo Museum of Science study

...not involved in the project but is familiar with it. "Palaeoanthropology is based solely on morphology, and there is no scientific justification to favor DNA over morphological data. Yet the human-chimp relationship, generated by molecular data, has been accepted without any scrutiny. Grehan and Schwart...

The evolution of gene regulation

...es of mechanisms that regulate gene activity, and they are functionally equivalent. "The question was raised long ago as to whether nature's choice in favor of one of the two mechanisms is only random, or whether there are specific criteria," reports Gerland. "Studies have shown that the demand for a gene ...

100 reasons to change the way we think about genetics

... and the result is what we see in giraffes today. With the advent of Mendelian genetics and the later discovery of DNA, Lamarck's ideas fell out of favor entirely. Research on epigenetics, while yet to uncover anything as dramatic as Lamarck's giraffes, does suggest that acquired traits can be heritable...

Crop models help increase yield per unit of water used

...evaporation or transpiration measurements in addition to total crop water use measurements. In doing so, management methods that reduce evaporation in favor of transpiration can be studied and models of WUE can be tested and improved." This examination of WUE estimation by multiple models helps close th...

Scientists give a hand(edness) to the search for alien life

...t their chemical behavior differs. Because many substances critical to life favor a particular handedness, Thom Germer and his colleagues think chirality mig...orizes, the landscape will eventually have a large amount of molecules that favor one handedness. If the surface had just a collection of random chiral m...

Queen's researchers shine light on compact fluorescent bulb problems

...ed benefits to the global power grid. Many countries, including Australia and the European Union, have already begun phasing out incandescent bulbs in favor of the compact fluorescents. (Europe and Asia have established minimum standards for power factor for CFLs over 25 watts, but Canada and the U.S., whi...

Biodiversity itself begets a species cascade, researchers say

...sequence with an emerging host insect in western Michigan apple trees. A new species of fruit fly has evolved after changing its mating behavior to favor laying eggs on apples instead of its characteristic hawthorn tree fruit host, MSU entomologist James J. Smith and colleagues reported. As those flies ...

NSF-funded workshops help young researchers teach science

...n State University and partners. As enrollment in science majors grows, college-level science teaching must forego the straight lecture approach in favor of inquiry-based learning, according to MSU plant biology professor Diane Ebert-May, a passionate researcher and advocate of learner-based instruction...

Entrust Announces Financial Results for Fourth-Quarter and Fiscal 2008

...utive leadership, and strategic market dynamics and market penetration. Societe Generale displaced high-priced, third-party hardware tokens in favor of Entrust IdentityGuard versatile authentication platform. Facilitated by technology partner Digital People, Societe Generale, one of the largest ban...

Tree deaths have doubled across the western US

...summer drought." The lengthening summer drought could be stressing trees, leading to higher death rates, he said. Warmer temperatures also might favor insects and diseases that attack trees. Some recent outbreaks of tree-killing bark beetles in the West have already been linked to warming temperatur...

As super-predators, humans reshape their prey at super-natural speeds

...trait changes likely represent underlying genetic changes passed on from one generation to the next. In gill net fisheries, for example, evolution can favor smaller fish that pass through the mesh. Those smaller individuals are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on genes for smaller offspring, exp...

Preventing soil erosion in continuous corn

...tion is likely in the future. This may be especially true in fields where corn is grown continuously, in part because perennially high residue amounts favor annual harvests, and also because corn residue left on the soil surface is a source of inoculum for corn diseases. Removal of corn residue, however...

Nearly a century later, new findings support Warburg theory of cancer

...emical basis for his theory remained elusive. His theory that cancer starts from irreversible injury to cellular respiration eventually fell out of favor amid research pointing to genomic mutations as the cause of uncontrolled cell growth. Seventy-eight years after Warburg received science's highest ...

AGU journal highlights -- Dec. 31, 2008

...ical Research Letters ( GRL ) paper 10.1029/2008GL036118, 2008; http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036118 2. Simulations suggest big raindrops favor tornado formation One of the largest sources of uncertainty in weather prediction involves how microscale structures influence larger-scale phenom...

In lung cancer, silencing one crucial gene disrupts normal functioning of genome

...ncing of MTHFR is likely to contribute to global hypomethylation, a phenomenon almost universally observed in human cancer that has been overlooked in favor of gene promoter-associated hypermethylation," Herceg said. Both global hypomethylation and hypermethylation "coexist in all tumors and can contri...

Neural mechanisms of value bias in the human visual cortex

...in the process of anticipating and tracking rewards. "These findings suggest that these brain regions may provide signals to bias visual processing in favor of more valuable stimuli, perhaps so that valuable objects are processed more efficiently and have more of an impact on decision making and behavior,"...

Italy's geologic history becomes a personal tale in Walter Alvarez's new book

...he groundbreaking work of Italian geologists, often neglected in America in favor of English-speaking geologists. During his early career, Alvarez was one of...re they collide. Alvarez acknowledges that most people overlook rocks in favor of ever-changing trees, flowers and wildlife, but the unchanging nature of ...

'Hobbit' fossils represent a new species, concludes University of Minnesota anthropologist

...critical step toward eventually understanding the place of the Flores "hobbits" in human evolutionary history. "I think the majority of researchers favor recognizing this as a new species," McNulty said about the categorization of Homo floresiensis. "The evidence is becoming overwhelming, and this study...

VCU survey: US public supports genetic research, testing and government spending on research

...es survey shows that eight in 10 adults nationwide favor making genetic testing easily available to all who...andscape of stem cell research. Seven-in-10 adults favor stem cell research when it does not involve human ...rch is similar to past years: 57 percent of adults favor embryonic stem cell research, while 36 percent opp...

The birds of Spain, in a digital ornithological encyclopedia

...as the recreational and learning side of the bird-watching world, the encyclopedia describes the campaigns being conducted by environmentalist NGOs in favor of their conservation, and informs citizens wishing to get involved on how they can best contribute to this effort. The first edition of this DVD-b...

Attitudes towards assisted reproduction and preimplantation genetic diagnosis

...y childless. In all countries, a majority chose either adoption or the use of assisted reproduction techniques, with only a small percentage most in favor of them accepting the situation. However, we can observe highly significant differences between the countries surveyed as regards the first two opt...

Why the 'perfect' body isn't always perfect

...al with stressful situations, also increases fat carried around the waist. "The hormonal profile associated with high WHR (waist-to-hip ratio) may favor success in resource competition, particularly under stressful circumstances," writes Cashdan. "The androgenic effectsstamina, initiative, risk-pronene...

Two from one: Pitt research maps out evolution of genders from hermaphroditic ancestors

... hermaphroditic plants and pass on the mutation, which can result in single-sex offspring. (Sterile plants also can result, but plants with genes that favor the production of fertile offspring will be more successful.) When inbreeding depression in hermaphrodites is also considered, Ashman said, a gradual ...

MIT analysis shows how cap-and-trade plans can cut greenhouse emissions

...cal acceptance, as it has been in U.S. systems. Over time, the clearly established trend in the E.U. is to phase out the free allocation of permits in favor of auctioning them. The second part of the report looked at mechanisms that can be used to control the costs that will be imposed on power producer...

Survey highlights support for nanotech in health fields but disapproval elsewhere

...hancement. The survey found significant support for enhancements that promise to improve human health. For example, 88 percent of participants were in favor of research for a video-to-brain link that would amount to artificial eyesight for the blind. However, there was little support for non-health researc...

Ecologists say metabolism accounts for why natural selection favors only some species

... RIVERSIDE, Calif. Why are some species of plants and animals favored by natural selection? And why does natural selection not favor other species similarly? According to a UC Riverside-led research team, the answer lies in the rate of metabolism of a species how fast a species ...

Red-eyed treefrog embryos actively avoid asphyxiation inside their eggs

...n't typically think of eggs as "doing" much. However, early development is a crucial time when death is a common occurance, and natural selection will favor any ability the embryo may have that increases its chances of survival. ...

Exposing chicks to maternal stress leads to long-term reproductive success

... compared to "mis-matched" mothers (low-quality mothers that raised "normal'" offspring). In the long-term, natural selection therefore appears to favor low-quality mothers that expose offspring to quality-mediated stress. ...

New book rethinks the relationship between sulfur and crops

... MADISON, WI, October 1, 2008 - As a nutrient, sulfur is often overlooked in favor of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, but a new book explains its crucial role in soil condition, plant growth and nutrition. For agricultural profes...

University professor stresses links between US Navy sonar and whale strandings

...dia, China and the Caribbean as well as the United Kingdom. Though Parsons believes that there is a good chance the U.S. Supreme Court will rule in favor of the Navy, he thinks there is a chance for a win-win situation on both sides. "If the Navy uses proper mitigation efforts, it can still perform i...

Consumers influence christmas tree styles

... RALEIGH, NC - The Fraser fir is gaining popularity among American consumers looking for beautiful, long-lasting Christmas trees. Consumers favor Fraser fir for its conical shape, dark green foliage, pleasant aroma, and excellent needle retention. Consumer surveys indicate that the shape of a...

New giant clam species offers window into human past

...cent of giant clams living there. The researchers said they cannot say for sure which factors contributed to the loss of this giant clam species in favor of others, but the overall decline in giant clam stocks and the striking loss of large specimens is a "smoking gun" for overharvesting by humans many ...
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