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New discovery suggests trees evolved camouflage defense against long extinct predator

Many animal species such as snakes, insects and fish have evolved camouflage defences to deter attack from their predators. However research published in New Phytologist has discovered that trees in New Zealand have evolved a similar defence to protect themselves from extinct giant birds, provi...

American carnivores evolved to avoid each other, new study suggests

How do the many carnivorous animals of the Americas avoid competing for the same lunch, or becoming each other's meal? A possible answer comes from a new study by a pair of researchers at the University of California, Davis. Their large-scale analysis shows that it's not just chance that's at p...

From seed to nuts: human ancestor's face evolved to eat survival foods

TALLAHASSEE, Fla. -- The facial structure of an ancient relative of modern humans may have evolved to allow them to eat large, hard nuts and seeds as part of a survival strategy, according to a new study by an international team of researchers that includes Florida State University's Dennis E. Sli...

Study says eyes evolved for X-Ray vision

Troy, N.Y. The advantage of using two eyes to see the world around us has long been associated solely with our capacity to see in 3-D. Now, a new study from a scientist at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has uncovered a truly eye-opening advantage to binocular vision: our ability to see through ...

From humming fish to Puccini: Vocal communication evolved with ancient species

It's a long way from the dull hums of the amorous midshipman fish to the strains of a Puccini aria or, alas, even to the simplest Celine Dion melody. But the neural circuitry that led to the human love song not to mention birdsongs, frog thrums and mating calls of all manner of vertebrates was ...

New study shows shallow water corals evolved from deep sea ancestors

New research shows that the second most diverse group of hard corals first evolved in the deep sea, and not in shallow waters. Stylasterids, or lace corals, diversified in deep waters before launching at least three successful invasions of shallow water tropical habitats in the past 40 million yea...

Decoding the dictionary: Study suggests lexicon evolved to fit in the brain

Troy, N.Y. The latest edition of the Oxford English Dictionary boasts 22,000 pages of definitions. While that may seem far from succinct, new research suggests the reference manual is meticulously organized to be as concise as possible a format that mirrors the way our brains make sense of and c...

Insects evolved radically different strategy to smell

Darwin's tree of life represents the path and estimates the time evolution took to get to the current diversity of life. Now, new findings suggest that this tree, an icon of evolution, may need to be redrawn. In research to be published in the April 13 advance online issue of Nature, researchers a...

UF botanists: Flowering plants evolved very quickly into 5 groups

GAINESVILLE, Fla. --- University of Florida and University of Texas at Austin scientists have shed light on what Charles Darwin called the abominable mystery of early plant evolution. In two papers set to be published next week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the scienti...

Wasp genetics study suggests altruism evolved from maternal behavior

Researchers at the University of Illinois have used an innovative approach to reveal the molecular basis of altruistic behavior in wasps. The research team focused on the expression of behavior-related genes in Polistes metricus paper wasps, a species for which little genetic data was available wh...

New molecular clock from LLNL and CDC indicates smallpox evolved earlier than believed

Smallpox is older than thought, according to results of a new technique reported in the Sept. 24 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The researchers created a molecular...

Ancient amphibians evolved a bite before migrating to dry land

Ancient aquatic amphibians developed the ability to feed on land before completing the transition to terrestrial life, researchers from Harvard University report this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Their work is based on analysis of the skulls of the first amphibians...

World's largest flower evolved from family of much tinier blooms

The plant with the world's largest flower -- typically a full meter across, with a bud the size of a basketball -- evolved from a family of plants whose blossoms are nearly all tiny, botanists write this week in the journal Science. Their genetic analysis of rafflesia reveals that it is closely rel...

Sociality of sweat bees evolved simultaneously during climate change

In the first study to link social evolution to climate change, Cornell University entomologists show that the social behavior of many species of sweat bees evolved simultaneously during a period of global warming. This social evolution occurred much more recently than scientists ever thought -- ...

Fitting in: Newly evolved genes adopt a variety of strategies to remain in the gene pool

The largest-ever experimental analysis of duplicated genes provides insight into mechanisms of evolution When Mother Nature creates an identical copy of a gene in an organism's genome, the duplicated copy is usually deleted, inactivated, or otherwise rendered nonfunctional in order to prevent ge...

Immune system has evolved to prevent autoimmune disease

Study suggests chronic infections may create autoimmune response New research finds the human immune system has foregone evolutionary changes that would allow it to produce better antibodies in less time because the improved antibodies would be far more likely to attack the body's own tissues. T...

Scientists discover how fish evolved to float at different sea depths

Scientists at the University of Liverpool have discovered how fish have evolved over the last 400 million years to stay motionless at different water depths. A research team led by Dr Michael Berenbrink, a Comparative Physiologist at the School of Biological Sciences, has revealed how modern fis...

Carnegie donates landmark clones to biology

...hers were totally surprised that the mechanism in which three subunits regulate each other was found in the primitive archaebacteria. It means that it evolved billions of years ago. The fact that the C-terminus is found in all other bacteria, fungi, and plants demonstrates that it was necessary in the atmosp...

Understanding how weeds are resistant to herbicides

...red has implications for weed management. "If it's evolving multiple times, you need to pay attention to what you're doing in your field whereas if it evolved once and is moving around then you've got to pay attention to what your neighbors are doing. It's important to know how it's evolving, how it's spread...

Scientists decoding genomic sequences of H1N1 using isolates from outbreak in Argentina

...The complete sequencing of these virus specimens will allow the team to both characterize severe versus mild cases, as well as determine how the virus evolved at different points in time. Swine flu has killed 165 people in Argentina, more than any nation with the exception of the U.S. Any significant changes...

Parasites ready to jump

...s. They can replicate and the new copies can insert at novel sites in the genome. Because this threatens the whole organism, molecular mechanisms have evolved which can repress transposon activity. Professor Klaus Frstemann of the Gene Center of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt (LMU) in Munich and a team of res...

Bizarre walking bat has ancient heritage

...lesser short-tailed bat - Mystacina tuberculata evolved in the absence of any ground-dwelling mammal compe...s, there is currently no evidence that any bat has evolved a reduced capacity for flight as a result of isola...ment in which the ancestors of the mystacinid bats evolved in ancient Australia was teeming with ground-based...

Freshwater fish at the top of the food chain evolve more slowly

...shwater fish with an appetite for minnows. A new study finds that once they evolved to eat other fish, largemouth bass and fellow fish-feeders have remained re... primarily on fish have remained relatively unchanged over time. Once they evolved the optimal size and shape for catching fish roughly 20 million years ago ...

Airway cells use 'tasting' mechanism to detect and clear harmful substances

...Internal Medicine and Physiology and Biophysics. Welsh also is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. "These findings suggest that we have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to guard ourselves from harmful environmental stimuli," Ben-Shahar said. "Our work also suggests that losing cilia in the lun...

Life on Earth came from other planets

... can easily survive an interplanetary journey. Many species of microbe have evolved the ability to survive a violent impact and ejection into space; the frigid... crash landing onto the surface of a planet. Obviously, they would not have evolved these capabilities if their entire ancestral and genetic history had been c...

New theory on why male, female lemurs same size

... same size? In most primate species, males have evolved to be much larger than females. Size is an advanta...lutionary biologists have long wondered why lemurs evolved differently. Some theories have suggested that env...t for mating rights with females, male lemurs have evolved to passively guard their mates. They do this by...

Sex involved in plant defense

...ike caterpillars better than plant relatives that reproduce by themselves. The findings are important steps to learning more about how plants have evolved defenses against insect herbivores, says Dr. Marc Johnson, assistant professor of plant biology at NC State and the lead author of the research paper....

Landmark project to map genomics of complex ant systems

... single organism," says Nicole Gerardo, assistant professor of biology and lead investigator of the project. "If we can understand how these ants have evolved to process huge amounts of organic material over 50 million years, we might discover more efficient ways to process our own waste materials, produce b...

Research shows that 'invisible hand' guides evolution of cooperative turn-taking

...f Psychology sought to explain how turn-taking has evolved across a range of species. The conclusion is that ...their children to school. But turn-taking has also evolved in many other species without language or the capa...hicks. "It is far from obvious how turn-taking evolved without language or insight in animals shaped by n...

Our 'caveman logic' embraces ESP over evolution

...is not the problem but "an inevitable by-product of how our minds misperform." "Caveman Logic is a whirlwind tour through the deeper recesses of our evolved mind. Hank Davis brings to bear cutting edge research from the cognitive sciences to reveal how mental tools designed to serve the needs of our ancien...

Study finds role for parasites in evolution of sex

...ctive, the answer is not as obvious as one might think. An article published in the July issue of the American Naturalist suggests that sex may have evolved in part as a defense against parasites. Despite its central role in biology, sex is a bit of an evolutionary mystery. Reproducing without sexlike m...

Battle of the sexes benefits offspring, says research

...so we wanted to understand how and why animals like birds and primates have evolved the tendency to share their parental duties." The researchers analysed d...t this work could help scientists better understand how biparental care has evolved in humans. ...

Evolution: Crabs go deep to avoid hot water

...s of the Antarctic (below 1C) are too extreme for their survival. A paper, published 15 years ago in Nature is thought to show that king crabs evolved from shell-bound hermit crabs - similar to the familiar shoreline animals. Soft-bodied, but shell-free intermediate forms are found only in the shall...

Ferns took to the trees and thrived

...veloped and tropical trees and vines clawed past each other to reach heavenward, they took the ferns up along with them. Thousands of new fern species evolved to take advantage of all the new niches being created in the canopy. "In some ways I guess, the epiphytes escaped the battle on the ground," Schuet...

High carbon dioxide levels cause abnormally large fish ear bones

... "Number three is the big one," said Checkley. "If fish can do just fine or better with larger otoliths then there's no great concern. But fish have evolved to have their bodies the way they are. The assumption is that if you tweak them in a certain way it's going to change the dynamics of how the otolith ...

Evolution of a contraceptive for sea lamprey

...roviding a method to control their reproduction in the Great Lakes." The researchers' findings will be published by PloS ONE on June 25. Lampreys evolved about 450 million years ago, before the appearance of sharks. In contrast to sharks, fish and land vertebrates, lampreys have no jaw. They feed on f...

Scripps Research scientists observe human neurodegenerative disorder in fruit flies

... on the planet has these molecules, which probably evolved very early on as life first emerged on Earth. "...nd had already discovered novel functions that had evolved over time in some tRNA synthetases, including this...on is common to both humans and flies, it probably evolved hundreds of millions of years ago before the ancie...

Size did matter

...modern ostracods still produce giant sperm and manoeuvre them with the same organs as 100 million years ago, it's safe to say this distinctive feature evolved only once in this group. It seems to be an evolutionarily successful reproduction strategy, even though it comes at an exceedingly high price for both...

Humans related to orangutans, not chimps, says new Pitt, Buffalo Museum of Science study

...a scenario for how the human-orangutan common ancestor migrated between Southeast Asiawhere modern orangutans are fromand other parts of the world and evolved into now-extinct apes and early humans. The study provides further evidence of the human-orangutan connection that Schwartz first proposed in his book...

Beaked, bird-like dinosaur tells story of finger evolution

...ere more ecologically diverse in the Jurassic period than previously thought, and offers important evidence about how the three-fingered hand of birds evolved from the hand of dinosaurs. The discovery is reported in a paper published in this week's edition of the journal Nature . "This work on dinosau...
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