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Einstein and Pitt researchers develop new TB test that will dramatically cut diagnosis time

March 19, 2009 (BRONX, NY) Researchers from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and The University of Pittsburgh have developed an onsite method to quickly diagnose tuberculosis (TB) and expose the deadly drug-resistant strains that can mingle undetected with treatable TB strains. This stud...

Duke software dramatically speeds enzyme design

DURHAM, N.C. -- A Duke University-led team has brought powerful software to the never-ending arms race between antibiotics and germs. Working together, computer scientists and biochemists have developed and laboratory-tested a computer program that can show experimentalists how to change the machi...

World fertilizer prices drop dramatically after soaring to all-time highs

World fertilizer prices began dropping dramatically in late 2008 after reaching all-time highs around April. The price of urea, the world's most common nitrogen fertilizer, rose from about $280 to $405 per ton in 2007 and reached $452 in April 2008. The price then soared to $815 per ton in Aug...

New UGA biomass technology dramatically increases ethanol yield from grasses and yard waste

University of Georgia researchers have developed a new technology that promises to dramatically increase the yield of ethanol from readily available non-food crops, such as Bermudagrass, switchgrass, Napiergrassand even yard waste. "Producing ethanol from renewable biomass sources such as gra...

Bangladesh to dramatically expand technology that doubles efficiency of urea fertilizer use

The Government of Bangladesh has announced that it will expand urea deep placement (UDP)a technology that doubles the efficiency of urea fertilizer useto almost 1 million hectares (ha) of rice land, reaching about 1.6 million farm families, in the coming boro or dry season. UDP is the insertio...

New technique could dramatically lower costs of DNA sequencing

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. Using computer simulations, researchers at the University of Illinois have demonstrated a strategy for sequencing DNA by driving the molecule back and forth through a nanopore capacitor in a semiconductor chip. The technique could lead to a device that would read human genomes qui...

Drug commonly used to treat bipolar disorder dramatically increases lifespan in worms

Nematode worms treated with lithium show a 46 percent increase in lifespan, raising the tantalizing question of whether humans taking the mood affecting drug are also taking an anti-aging medication. Results of the Buck Institute study, led by faculty member Gordon J. Lithgow, PhD, are currently p...

Fireproofing homes dramatically reduces forest fire size, according to new study

A new study involving the University of Colorado at Boulder that modeled the spread of forest fires in Colorado and other western states indicates the size and intensity of fires is directly linked with the density and flammability of houses built in the so-called wildland-urban interface. Th...

Growing nerve cells in 3-D dramatically affects gene expression

When it comes to growing cells in a lab, technique matters. A new Brown University study shows that nerve cells grown in three-dimensional cultures use 1,766 genes differently compared to nerve cells grown in standard two-dimensional petri dishes. The study, published in the May issue of Tiss...

Smoking ban dramatically reduces air pollution in Irish pubs

A national workplace ban on smoking in Ireland resulted in an 83 percent reduction in air pollution in pubs, an 80 percent decrease in airborne carcinogens for patrons and staff, and an improvement in the respiratory health of bar workers, according to a one-year follow-up study. The research app...

Lack of a key enzyme dramatically increases resistance to sepsis

According to the new study, the presence of caspase-12, which appears to modulate inflammation and innate immunity in humans, increases the body's "vulnerability to bacterial infection and septic shock" while a deficiency confers strong resistance to sepsis. This new discovery suggests that caspase...

Simple idea to dramatically improve dengue vaccinations

An innovative new study explains, for the first time, the failure of previous attempts to vaccinate against the four known Dengue viruses, and it suggests a very simple solution ?injecting the four vaccines simultaneously at different locations on the body. A mosquito-born disease, Dengue kills t...

Hospitalizations because of chicken pox down dramatically since implementation of vaccine

Since the introduction of the varicella (chicken pox) vaccine in 1995, hospitalizations and doctor visits because of chicken pox have dropped dramatically, according to a study in the August 17 issue of JAMA. Varicella vaccine is recommended for routine immunization of children aged 12 to 18 mont...

Caloric restriction won't dramatically extend life span in humans: UCLA research

Severely restricting calories over decades may add a few years to a human life span, but will not enable humans to live to 125 and beyond, as many have speculated, evolutionary biologists report. "Our message is that suffering years of misery to remain super-skinny is not going to have a big payo...

New miniaturised chip dramatically reduces time taken for DNA analysis

A team of researchers at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona has developed new miniature sensors for analysing DNA. The sensors have the same size and thickness as a fingernail and reduce the time needed to identify DNA chains to several minutes or a few hours, depending on each chain. These sens...

Protein handlers should be effective treatment target for cancer and Alzheimer's

...ed therapies. With the VA-funded study, for example, when they remove a specific molecular chaperone they find Alzheimer's-like disease accelerates dramatically in their animal model. They want to expand these studies to look at traumatic brain injury as well as other neurodegenerative diseases. ...

Drug-proof zebrafish reveal secrets of addiction

... these are domains where neurons are generated from neural stem cells during adulthood. According to the researchers, " These factors, which are also dramatically down-regulated by amphetamine, can serve as valuable new entry points into studying the link between adult neurogenesis and addiction". These resu...

Family planning a major environmental impact

...h mileage car, recycling, or using energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs. The research also makes it clear that potential carbon impacts vary dramatically across countries. The average long-term carbon impact of a child born in the U.S. along with all of its descendants is more than 160 times the impac...

New computer simulation helps explain folding in important cellular protein

...stand what makes proteins fold into functional units and why it happens, and several breakthroughs have occurred through computer modelinga field that dramatically increases analytical speed. Now, scientists at the University of Georgia have created a two-step computer simulation (using an important process c...

DOE-funded research projects win 46 R&D 100 Awards for 2009

...d Second Sight Medical Products LLC.) FemtoScope This time microscope dramatically improves the performance of traditional recording devices in the same way a...oncept of software-defined radio into space, where it can be used to extend dramatically the lifetimes of electronic systems aboard satellites and in space payloads...

New drug may reduce heart attack damage

... A novel drug that targets a master disease-causing gene can dramatically reduce heart muscle damage after a heart attack and may lead to significant...gs. Significantly, the heart's pumping action is protected by the drug, dramatically improving the patient's chances of a full recovery after a heart attack. ...

Scientists discover gene mutation responsible for hereditary neuroendocrine tumor

...sting an inheritance pattern that is specific to the parent of origin. The researchers also discovered that, as in yeast, the inactivation of hSDH5 dramatically impaired the activity of the SDH complex, which was decreased by approximately 95% in tumors from three patients with PGL2. Implications on Genet...

Spring cold snap helps with stream ecosystem research

...y titled "Unexpected effect of climate change: Stream ecosystem responses to the 2007 spring freeze" describes how a small change in canopy cover can dramatically impact a stream. "The study implies that the algal productivity pulse in the stream that drives the ecosystem during the spring months could be sh...

Tires made from trees -- better, cheaper, more fuel efficient

...ficant discoveries in Li's research program at OSU in recent years. He developed a non-toxic adhesive for production of wood composite panels that has dramatically changed that industry, and in 2007 received a Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award at the National Academy of Sciences for his work on new, su...

22nd Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Sept. 12-16, 2009, Turkey

...depression, and over 5 million people have dementia (about 1.1𔂿.3% of the population). The prevalence of Alzheimers disease is expected to rise dramatically with an ageing population, because it affects about 2% amongst 65󈞱 years olds and about 22% amongst those 85󈟅 years. In addition, olde...

Possible drug target found for one of the most aggressive breast cancers

... at the National Cancer Institute demonstrated that inappropriate levels of Met occur in human tumors, and that cells with inappropriate Met signaling dramatically impact the spread of cancer. This signaling is implicated in most types of human cancers and high Met expression often correlates with poor prognosis....

US-Mexico border wall could threaten wildlife species

...gists say, and the animals' potential isolation is a threat to populations of some species. However, technology and alterations to the design could dramatically improve the potential for animals to move more freely between the two countries, the scientists added. Results of their study are being published i...

Pitt team first to profile genes in acutely ill idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients

...ion or, as Dr. Kaminski puts it, acceleration, the researchers compared the gene activity profile of the lungs of eight IPF patients whose disease was dramatically worsening when they died with those of 23 stable IPF patients and 15 people with healthy lungs. In the first analysis of its kind, "gene activity p...

Study finds role for parasites in evolution of sex

...ful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As parasite infections increased, the once plentiful clones dwindled dramatically in number. Some clonal types disappeared entirely. Meanwhile, sexual snail populations remained much more stable over time. This, the authors say, is ...

Harvard scientists solve mystery about why HIV patients are more susceptible to TB infection

...esent two of the most significant health challenges in human history and the combination of the two infections is particularly devastating because HIV dramatically increases the severity of TB infection," said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology , "There are still many unknowns ...

American Chemical Society's Weekly Presspac -- June 17, 2009

...es. The briquettes consist of coal powder and clay and are molded into multihole columns. They found that burning briquettes in well-ventilated stoves dramatically reduced black carbon emissions by 98 percent and other emissions by more than 60 percent. The study concludes that this approach can bring about "expl...

Researchers observe single protein dimers wavering between two symmetrically opposed structures

...g energy landscape theory combined with these experiments shed light on how symmetry can result in proteins being able to populate structures that are dramatically different, a feature very important in cellular regulation and function." A deeper understanding of how living systems use protein shape shifting ...

The SIB recognizes the next generation of bioinformaticians

...rrectly for an animal to survive, changes in evolution are constrained according to their effects on development. Changes that disrupt development too dramatically are thus rare in evolution." While this has been long observed at the morphological level, it has been more difficult to characterise the impact o...

Green tea may affect prostate cancer progression

...ong patients with breast cancer. They also plan to conduct further studies to identify the factors that could explain why some patients responded more dramatically to Polyphenon E than others. Cardelli suggested that additional controlled clinical trials should be done to see if combinations of different plant po...

Study highlights massive imbalances in global fertilizer use

... Synthetic fertilizers have dramatically increased food production worldwide. But the unintended costs to the environment and human health have been substantial. Nitrogen runoff from farms ha...

UBC researchers develop new method to study gambling addictions

...t profits. The study found that rodents treated with drugs that reduced their levels of serotonin levels associated with impulse control in humans dramatically reduced their ability to play the odds. A drug that reduced dopamine levels associated with pleasure in humans improved their ability to optimize pr...

Discovery of the cell's water gate may lead to new cancer drugs

...isms, and are believed to be involved in several diseases, including cancer. Research on mice has shown that inhibiting the function of aquaporins can dramatically reduce the spread and growth of tumours. Important for research It is therefore extremely important for cancer research to increase our knowled...

Test detects molecular marker of aging in humans

...crucial discovery in the understanding of cellular aging. They found that as cells and tissues age, the expression of a key protein, called p16INK4a, dramatically increases in most mammalian organs. Because p16INK4a is a tumor suppressor protein, cancer researchers are interested in its role in cellular aging a...

Recruitment of reproductive features into other cell types may underlie extended lifespan in animals

...thways conserved throughout evolution can double or triple the lifespan of C. elegans , and that similar mutations in the corresponding pathways also dramatically extend mammalian lifespan. Longevity-associated mutations have been shown to lead to enhanced immune response including increased control of gene...

Elevated water temperature and acidity boost growth of key sea star species: UBC researchers

...rch by zoologists at the University of British Columbia indicates that elevated water temperatures and heightened concentrations of carbon dioxide can dramatically increase the growth rate of a keystone species of sea star. The study is one of the first to look at the impact of ocean acidification on marine in...
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