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Fish guts explain marine carbon cycle mystery

Research published today reveals the major influence of fish on maintaining the delicate pH balance of our oceans, vital for the health of coral reefs and other marine life. The discovery, made by a team of scientists from the UK, US and Canada, could help solve a mystery that has puzzled marin...

Photosynthesizing bacteria with a day-night cycle contain rare chromosome

RICHLAND, Wash. -- Researchers sequencing the DNA of blue-green algae found a linear chromosome harboring genes important for producing biofuels. Simultaneously analyzing the complement of proteins revealed more genes on the linear and the typical circular chromosomes then they'd have found with D...

Fertility treatment in developing countries; a cycle of IVF for less than $200

Barcelona, Spain: After 30 years of IVF, the rewards of treatment are still largely confined to industrialised countries and those who can afford it. Now, a Special Task Force of ESHRE has set about the immeasurable task of making fertility treatment more accessible to developing countries through...

A mechanism to explain biological 'cross-talk' between 24-hour body cycle and metabolism

PHILADELPHIA Its well known that the bodys energy levels cycle on a 24-hour, or circadian, schedule, and that this metabolic process is fueled by oxygen. Now, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have found that a protein called Rev-erb coordinates the daily cycles of ...

First-ever 'State of the Carbon Cycle Report' finds troubling imbalance

The first State of the Carbon Cycle Report for North America, released online this week by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program, finds the continents carbon budget increasingly overwhelmed by human-caused emissions. North American sources release nearly 2 billion tons of carbon into the atmos...

MicroRNAs help control HIV life cycle

LA JOLLA, Calif., June 26, 2009 Scientists at Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham) have discovered that specific microRNAs (non-coding RNAs that interfere with gene expression) reduce HIV replication and infectivity in human T-cells. In particular, miR29 plays a key role in controllin...

Study finds hemlock trees dying rapidly, affecting forest carbon cycle

Otto, NC New research by U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station (SRS) scientists and partners suggests the hemlock woolly adelgid is killing hemlock trees faster than expected in the southern Appalachians and rapidly altering the carbon cycle of these forests. SRS researchers and cooperato...

Corralling the carbon cycle

Stanford, CAScientists may have overcome a major hurdle to calculating how much carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed and released by plants, vital information for understanding how the biosphere responds to stress and for determining the amount of carbon that can be safely emitted by human activities....

Failure of the 1st attempt at assisted reproduction justifies at least 1 additional cycle

This release is also available in Spanish . Barcelona, Spain: Research into the effect of age and the number of times women undergo assisted reproduction technology (ART) shows that for younger women, the overwhelming majority achieve a pregnancy within the first two attempts, whereas wom...

Genetic 'tag team' keeps cells on cycle

DURHAM, N.C. -- By surveying the activity of thousands of genes at several different time points, researchers at the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy have uncovered new evidence that a network of influential genes act as a kind of genetic tag team to orchestrate one of the most fundamen...

Studying rivers for clues to global carbon cycle

EVANSTON, Ill. --- In the science world, in the media, and recently, in our daily lives, the debate continues over how carbon in the atmosphere is affecting global climate change. Studying just how carbon cycles throughout the Earth is an enormous challenge, but one Northwestern University profess...

Stowers Institute's Hawley Lab identifies factors responsible for restart of meiotic cycle

The Stowers Institutes Hawley Lab has identified a pair of proteins that work in concert to restart the meiotic cycle of oocytes following a natural period of dormancy. The Hawley Lab has described the dual actions of these two proteins as the Sleeping Beauty Kiss that awakens the long-dorman...

The influence of the menstrual cycle on the female brain

What influence does the variation in estrogen level have on the activation of the female brain? Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Jean-Claude Dreher, a researcher at the Cognitive Neuroscience Center (CNRS/Université Lyon 1), in collaboration with an American team from the National Insti...

The vicious cycle of rainforest destruction

Rainforests and savannas contain 70% of the world's plants and are critical to the health of our planet. A new £1.6m international project involving researchers from the Leeds Earth and Biosphere Institute is looking at the impact of global warming on these sensitive areas. The researchers think ...

Carbon cycle was already disrupted millions of years ago

Dutch researcher Yvonne van Breugel analysed rocks from seabeds millions of years old. Carbon occurs naturally in two stable forms; atomic mass 12 (99 percent) and atomic mass 13 (1 percent). Episodes in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods were characterised by a relatively strong increase in 12C. ...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

... degrees North on the west coast of India. They find that while sea level shows a seasonal variability, the alongshore current shows no clear seasonal cycle but is dominated by intraseasonal (55-110 day) fluctuations. These current variations, the authors find, arise as a response of the northern Indian Oc...

'Green' energy from algae

...nt and operation costs of photobioreactors and on developing highly efficient processes for the harvesting and decomposition of algae. To close the cycle for the complete use of algae biomass for energy production, KIT researchers even go another step forwards. The biomass remaining after extraction (60...

Pitt researchers find promising candidate protein for cancer prevention vaccines

...against the protein might prevent malignancies in high-risk individuals. Mice that were vaccinated to boost their immune response against this cell cycle protein, called cyclin B1, were able to reject a tumor challenge in which they were exposed to a cancer cell line that overproduced it, explained seni...

Key OSU water research receives national funding

...Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute. OWRRI and USGS officials are funding the division study on eastern redcedar encroachment and the water cycle in the tallgrass prairie, two key elements of ecosystem health for Oklahoma. And with good reason: Water is among the world's most vital resources,...

Scientists track impact of DNA damage in the developing brain

... cycle. "The cells appear to undergo permanent arrest," said McKinnon, noting it is one of the few in vivo examples of the p53 pathway leading to cell cycle arrest rather than apoptosis. In the hippocampus, which plays a role in memory and emotion, investigators reported abnormal gene expression and neu...

DOE-funded research projects win 46 R&D 100 Awards for 2009

...gonne/Envia Systems Lithium-ion Battery Technology - The highest energy and cycle life of all lithiumion systems available today for the plugin hybrid electr...nlike traditional batteries, the PowerPlane UX Microbattery has a long life cycle even if it is frequently and fully discharged. (Jointly with Planar Energy...

Parasitic worms make sex worthwhile

...s in the shallows or at depth, where snails help the worm complete its life cycle by eating the eggs and providing a host for the next generation of worm lar...t. "What matters here is the fact that the parasite can't complete its life cycle in the deeper parts of the lakes because the ducks only forage in the shall...

UC San Diego's $3 million NSF grant to fund science festivals

...d for the purpose of establishing year-round Science Festival Educational Enrichment activities for students of all ages across San Diego. Each annual cycle of enhanced science education programs will both open and close with the week-long celebration of science and technology in conjunction with local sci...

Vaccine blocks malaria transmission in lab experiments

...velopment of the malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium , as it grows within the mosquito. Sexual development is a critical step in the parasite's life cycle and necessary for continued transmission of malaria from mosquitoes to humans. The study is published in the July 22 edition of the journal PLoS ONE ...

C. difficile spores spread superbug

...her settings. A team of scientists have successfully mirrored the infection cycle of C. difficile by generating a 'mouse hospital' with conditions mimickin...stand how this highly infectious pathogen spreads, investigating the entire cycle of transmission is absolutely vital. We looked at mice carrying C. diffici...

LincRNAs serve as genetic air-traffic controllers

...y that has pushed the field forward in understanding the roles of these molecules in many biological processes, including stem cell pluripotency, cell cycle regulation, and the innate immune response. But even as one question was being answered, another was close on its heels: What, exactly, were these...

Methane-eating microbes can use iron and manganese oxides to 'breathe'

...hey are not trivial components," said House, who is director of Penn State's Astrobiology Research Center. "They are probably a big part of the carbon cycle today." One reason they are important is that some of the carbon dioxide produced reacts with both the manganese and iron to form carbonates that p...

Ozone, nitrogen change the way rising CO2 affects Earth's water

...theoretical models to project various future scenarios for the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and what it would mean to the changing water cycle in forests east of the Mississippi River. They found that runoff would increase anywhere from 3 to 6 percent depending on location and the amount of t...

2 reproductive factors are important predictors of death from ovarian cancer

...llow-up of about 17 years, 221 women died; findings showed that overall 15-year survival among the study population was 48 percent. Lifetime ovulatory cycle and age at menarche were two factors that played a key role in predicting death from ovarian cancer. Women with the most lifetime ovulatory cycles...

Double success for Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia scientists working on chromosome segregation

...IGC scientists with this kind of funding. In 2007, Mnica Dias was also awarded an EMBO Installation Grant to pursue her research in regulation of cell cycle progression in normal development and cancer. ...

ADA releases updated position paper on vegetarian diets

...e, Md. The revised position paper incorporates new topics and additional information on key nutrients for vegetarians, vegetarian diets in the life cycle and the use of vegetarian diets in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. "Vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle," ...

Single thawed embryo transfer after PGD does not affect pregnancy rates

...ve little use. Now, these frozen blastocysts offer them the chance of an additional healthy pregnancy without having to go through the whole treatment cycle again." The first author of the paper in Human Reproduction, Dr Tarek El-Toukhy, a consultant in reproductive medicine and PGD at the assisted conc...

Stanford researchers publish comprehensive model for medical device development

...effects that distinguish the capital requirements, product development methods, clinical testing requirements, manufacturing methods, and overall life cycle for products in the two sectors. "Drug-device differences underscore challenges associated with developing combination products, such as drug-elut...

Ovarian transplantation: New technique gives greatly improved results in this delicate operation

... duration of ovarian function of more than four years in five of the seven cases followed up for that long, and all patients regained a normal ovarian cycle within four to five months after the transplant. There was no difference in terms of pregnancy or ovulatory menstrual cycling between fresh and frozen...

ICSI or IVF: Babies born from frozen embryos do just as well

...ed by IVF or ICSI to implant, even after undergoing the stress of cryopreservation. We were unable to confirm a significant benefit of the unmedicated cycle on the neonatal outcome of the cryopreserved embryos; the difference in malformation rates was small. "The original premise of the study was to id...

Who goes abroad for fertility treatment and why?

...ment cycles per year in these countries. It is, however, difficult to derive a number of patients from these numbers as patients receive more than one cycle to obtain a pregnancy, the mean number depending on the type of treatment." Almost two-thirds of the patients surveyed came from four countries, wi...

SMOS and Proba-2 launch rescheduled for November

...ture maps at least every three days and maps of sea-surface salinity at least every thirty days. This will lead to a better understanding of the water cycle and, in particular, the exchange processes between Earth's surfaces and the atmosphere. Data from SMOS will help improve weather and climate models an...

Tumor suppressor gene in flies may provide insights for human brain tumors

...ther to control neural stem cell divisions. "Our discovery suggests that PP2A and Polo, both of which are crucial brain tumor-suppressors and cell cycle regulators, can function in the same pathway to regulate stem cell self-renewal and tumor development," Wang said. The research team plans to uncover...

Caltech researchers explore how cells reconcile mixed messages in decisions about growth

...dled cell division and tumor growth. "This tunability of the threshold amount of EGF," the researchers write, "would seem to be a fragility in cell cycle regulation that is exploited during cancer development." ...

University of Leicester geologists demonstrate extent of ancient ice age

...a. The team showed that although the Early Palaeozoic Icehouse was of similar extent and duration to the modern ice age, the workings of the carbon cycle appeared markedly different to that of the present day. Unlike the modern oceans, the oceans of the Early Palaeozoic were often oxygen-starved 'dead z...
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