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Single virus used to convert adult cells to embryonic stem cell-like cells

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (Dec. 15, 2008) Whitehead Institute researchers have greatly simplified the creation of so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, cutting the number of viruses used in the reprogramming process from four to one. Scientists hope that these embryonic stem-cell-like cells coul...

OU researchers isolate microorganisms that convert hydrocarbons to natural gas

When a group of University of Oklahoma researchers began studying the environmental fate of spilt petroleum, a problem that has plagued the energy industry for decades, they did not expect to eventually isolate a community of microorganisms capable of converting hydrocarbons into natural gas. ...

Brain-computer link lets paralyzed patients convert thoughts into actions

A multi-institutional team of researchers has found that people with long-standing, severe paralysis can generate signals in the area of the brain responsible for voluntary movement and these signals can be detected, recorded, routed out of the brain to a computer and converted into actions -- enab...

Microbes convert 'Styrofoam? into biodegradable plastic

Bacteria could help transform a key component of disposable cups, plates and utensils into a useful eco-friendly plastic, significantly reducing the environmental impact of this ubiquitous, but difficult-to-recycle waste stream, according to a study scheduled to appear in the April 1 issue of the A...

Marine microbes creating green waves in industry

...ant enzymes which will reduce waste and increase productivity in the manufacture of drugs and agrochemicals. The enzymes they seek have the ability to convert compounds that would have previously been waste products in the manufacturing process, into the desired product, therefore increasing the efficiency o...

Wastewater produces electricity and desalinates water

...ppe Professor of Environmental Engineering, Penn State The team modified a microbial fuel cell -- a device that uses naturally occurring bacteria to convert wastewater into clean water producing electricity -- so it could desalinate salty water. "Our main intent was to show that using bacteria we can pr...

'Green' energy from algae

...ms of process technology, our approach is completely different, as we are working with closed photobioreactors", underlines the scientist. "Our plants convert solar energy into biomass, the efficiency being five times higher than that in open ponds." The plates in usual photo-bioreactors are arranged verti-c...

Agricultural research key to food security

... concern, despite being a key goal of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Extreme weather events due to climate change and the recent trend to convert croplands to biofuels both threaten to put even more people at risk. The solution, says el-Beltagy a member of TWAS, the Academy of Sciences for ...

Comprehensive look at rare leukemia finds relatively few genetic changes launch disease

...ted number of biological processes may need to be altered in hematopoietic stem cells, multi-potential progenitors or committed myeloid progenitors to convert them from a normal cell to AML," the authors noted, referring to several types of immature and maturing cells that give rise to this cancer. James Dow...

Scientists discover gene mutation responsible for hereditary neuroendocrine tumor

...ne, called hSDH5, is required for activation of an enzyme complex that plays a critical role in the chemical reactions that take place within cells to convert biochemical energy into usable energy. This study will be published in the journal Science , to be released online in Science Express on July 23, 2...

NOAA bans commercial harvesting of krill

...rohibited harvest species." This new group may not be caught or taken by any fishery or gear type within the EEZ. Krill are important because they convert microscopic phytoplankton into a food source for numerous other species and are a principal food source for many species of fish, seabirds and marine ...

Methane-eating microbes can use iron and manganese oxides to 'breathe'

...s of microbes -- consortia -- that use sulfates to convert methane for energy exist in marine sediments. Rece...e forms of nitrogen in fresh water environments to convert methane. "People had speculated that iron and m...nts to determine if there were microbes that could convert methane to carbon dioxide without using any sulfur...

Reading the brain without poking it

...July 1 in the journal Neurosurgical Focus . The findings represent "a modest step" toward use of the new microelectrodes in systems that convert the thoughts of amputees and paralyzed people into signals that control lifelike prosthetic limbs, computers or other devices to assist people with di...

Policy transparency key to saving world's fisheries

...agement policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent process to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and less than 1% also implement mec...high-income countries overlapped significantly was their limited ability to convert scientific recommendations into policy. The mechanism for this pattern, how...

Phthalic symbol

...bon for the microbes. Successive divisions of microbial cells quickly leads to the evolution of a strain that can quickly metabolize the phthalate and convert it into the raw materials for microbial growth and reproduction. The researchers then tested this phthalate-digesting microbe by immobilizing cells...

Scientists sequence genome of the N2-fixing, soil-living bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii

...uction of other proteins, in particular those that may be damaged by the presence of oxygen. A. vinelandii lives in soil and has the ability to convert nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia via bacterial enzymes called nitrogenases. Nitrogen fixation is essential for life since different nitrogen-...

They are young and need the job: A second chance for dangerous T-cells

...ation. "We now intend to study at the molecular level what makes a T-cell accessible for reeducation," said Klein, "because then it may be possible to convert even normal adult T-cells, which can be obtained easily and in great numbers from blood. Possibly, they could then be used as regulatory T-cells in th...

Flexible solar strips light up campus bus shelter

...ten bulb or what a small night light would use. The lights are bright enough for easy reading. The solar cells capture sunlight during the day and convert it to electricity to recharge batteries located in each lighting unit. The batteries can hold enough charge to light the shelter for the better part ...

Researchers engineer metabolic pathway in mice to prevent diet-induced obesity

...udy. "We know plants and bacteria digest fats differently from humans, from mammals. Plant seeds usually store a lot of fat. When they germinate, they convert the fat to sugar to grow. The reason they can digest fat this way is because they have a set of enzymes that's uniquely present in plants and bacteria...

UF makes gene therapy advance in severe genetic disorder

...rs ago, most children born with this disease did not survive past infancy. Glycogen storage disease type 1A stems from a faulty enzyme that doesn't convert stored sugar, or glycogen, to glucose, the type of sugar the body uses for energy. This prevents the body from getting the energy it needs and causes ...

Plant Min protein sits tight and rescues E. coli

...indication of some conservation of function. Nonetheless it is unexpected and exciting to find that plant MinD can collaborate with bacterial MinC to convert E. coli from an oscillating to a Bacillus-type mechanism of Min action, and this finding opens new avenues for exploring Min function in both bacter...

Investigating the development of mechanosensitivity

..., which are sensitive to touch and pain, are located in the dorsal root ganglia between the intervertebral discs. The neurons receive the stimulus and convert it into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain. Signal transduction has been investigated very thoroughly, which has led to the develop...

Plastic that grows on trees, part two

.... To achieve this, scientists have to learn how to convert plant biomass into a building block for plastics a...st abundant polymer that researchers are trying to convert to biofuels and plastics," said chemist Z. Conrad ...chemical and a solvent known as an ionic liquid to convert the simple sugars into HMF. The chemical, a me...

Scientists work to plug microorganisms into the energy grid

...in carbon footprint compared to petroleum-based fuels. "It is a bridge feedstock. Once second generation feedstocks come online we will be able to convert production over to them quickly and achieve even greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions," says Schirmer. Beside ethanol and biodiesel, rese...

Biomass as a source of raw materials

...Technical University of Munich has now developed a new catalytic process to convert components of bio-oil directly into alkanes and methanol. As reported in th...ighly interesting as a source of basic raw materials if it were possible to convert it to alkanes. Alkanes, which are also commonly called paraffins, are satur...

Pliable proteins keep photosynthesis on the light path

...the involved biochemical pathways and tissues. From this, we can learn a lot about the most basic mechanisms of photosynthesis." The reactions that convert light to chemical energy happen in a millionth of a millionth of a second, which makes experimental observation extremely challenging. A premier ultr...

IPM reduces cockroaches and allergens in schools

...sing IPM had much lower concentrations of cockroach allergens and zero cockroaches caught in pre-set traps. "North Carolina schools are mandated to convert to IPM by 2011, so these findings give credibility that IPM has superior and longer-lasting results than pesticide use alone," said Dr. Godfrey Nalyan...

Stanford scientists turn adult skin cells into muscle and vice versa

...in cells into mouse muscle cells and vice versa. This research shows that by understanding the regulation of cell specialization it may be possible to convert one cell type into another, eventually bypassing stem cells. "Regenerative medicine provides hope of novel and powerful treatments for many diseas...

DOE funds bio-inspired solar fuel center at Arizona State

...nciples of photosynthesis, the process by which plants capture sunlight and convert it to useful energy. All 46 centers and are being established by the U.S. D... center is to design and construct a synthetic system that uses sunlight to convert water cheaply and efficiently into hydrogen fuel and oxygen. Society requir...

DOE to establish Energy Frontier Research Center at PNNL

...questration, and nuclear energy. At PNNL's Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Bullock and colleagues will study molecules called catalysts that convert electrical energy into chemical bonds and back again. Of interest are catalysts that pack energy into bonds involving hydrogen, oxygen or nitrogen. Th...

Center to investigate plant cells for better biomass fuels

... State University and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. "The biggest solar collectors on Earth are plants, which use sunlight to convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into complex structural materials like cellulose and lignin," said Cosgrove. "These make up wood, paper, cotton and many ot...

Regional partnership to develop algal biofuels gets backing of San Diego leaders

... to Biofuels Digest. The industry publication said $100-million of that amount went to Sapphire Energy, a San Diego biotech company that is working to convert algae to an environmentally friendly biofuel for use in automobiles and airliners. In the Imperial Valley, where SD-CAB scientists will grow large ...

Laughing hyenas, wailing levees, the sound of cheese and blaring bagpipes

.../search.may09/asa665.html 5) MUSIC WORDS In the world of wine tasting, people often use evocative words, such as "fruity" or "chalky," to convert a taste sensation into everyday language. Can one do the same thing for a piece of music? What are the words most used in describing an aural experien...

Sequencing the cow's genetic code -- a new agricultural era dawns

...olved in the processes of immunity, lactation, digestion and metabolism. These changes could help explain the amazing ability of cattle to efficiently convert low-quality forage into energy-dense meat and milk, processes long exploited by man. ...

New method developed by UC San Diego bioengineers gives regenerative medicine a boost

...ogrammable DNA chips made with a proprietary Ink-jet printing method by Agilent Technology. Zhang and his group have a patent pending on the method to convert DNA coming out from the programmable chips into padlock probes. In the meantime, Zhang and his team plan to further their research in this area. ...

Ancient ecosystem thrives millions of years below Antarctic glacier

... because the water is three or four times saltier than the ocean. The scientists made a breakthrough discovery when they learned that the bacteria convert key elements on Earth into food, Priscu said. The bacteria cycle sulfur compounds to access iron in the bedrock. The ecosystem-- because it has bee...

New nucleotide could revolutionize epigenetics

...rvard reveals the discovery of genes that produce enzymes that specifically convert 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. These enzymes may work in a ...not focused on epigenetics in the past. "This finding of an enzyme that can convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine establishes this new epigenetic...

Cold and brown fat raise the prospect of a new method of treating obesity

...ublished their results in The New England Journal of Medicine this week. Studies carried out by Enerbck and others show that adults use brown fat to convert energy to heat - a discovery that may provide new possibilities in treating overweight and obesity. It has previously been believed that the brown ...

Einstein researchers devise a fast and sensitive way to detect ricin

... amount of adenine released by cells. "Our lab's expertise is in enzymes," says Dr. Schramm. "One day I realized we could use a specific enzyme to convert the adenine released by ricin into ATP─a molecule whose presence can be easily detected by an already-available assay based on the light-emittin...

Redefining what it means to be a prion

...is (BSE). Unlike other proteins, the misfolded PrP protein is transmissible. When the misfolded PrP protein is introduced to healthy cells, it can convert normally-folded PrP proteins to its misfolded shape and cause a clumping cascade characteristic of prions. Over the years, researchers have identif...
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