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circuitry in Biological News

Detecting dangerous chemicals with lasers, exploring the brain's circuitry with light and more

WASHINGTON, April 22Nearly 6,000 researchers from around the world will present the latest breakthroughs in electro-optics, lasers and the application of light waves at the 2008 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) May 4-9 at the San...

Nicotine triggers the same brain reward circuitry as opiates

In experiments with mice, researchers have found that nicotine triggers the same neural pathways that give opiates such as heroin their addictively rewarding properties--including associating an environment with the drug's reward. However, unlike opiates, nicotine does not directly activate the bra...

Researchers develop 'brain-reading' methods

...ategorizing a multitude of mental tasks with their unique pattern of neural circuitry and also represent a potential first, early step in developing a means for ...esearchers involved in that work is to provide a complete map of the neural circuitry of the central nervous system. "What our research shows is that if you w...

22nd Congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Sept. 12-16, 2009, Turkey

...rch Over the last years, our understanding of the brain has increased dramatically. Advances in brain imaging, the mapping of the brains biochemical circuitry and breakthroughs in molecular genetics have significantly enhanced the possibilities of the neurosciences. These advances have given physicians and s...

Further gene mutations linked to autism risk

...tified additional autism susceptibility genes, many of which belong to the neuronal cell adhesion molecule family involved in the development of brain circuitry in early childhood." He added that the team discovered many "private" gene mutations, those found only in one or a few individuals or familiesan indic...

Researchers create freestanding nanoparticle films without fillers

... considers the most straightforward applications for his films to be in semiconductor manufacturing to aid in the continued miniaturization of digital circuitry and in the production of flexible television and computer screens. A key component in the transistors in integrated circuits is an insulating layer...

Healing wounds with lasers, vehicles that drive themselves, other cutting-edge optics

...he technology needed to make such displays already exists. It is based on arraying pixels of individual red, green, and blue LEDs on top of electronic circuitry fabricated on flexible plastic substrates. A number of laboratories in the U.S. have already made experimental versions of such flexible displays. ...

University of Florida study provides insight into evolution of first flowers

... different flowering plants to see whether differences exist in the set of circuits that create each species' flower. Researchers examined the genetic circuitry of Arabidopsis thaliana, a small flowering plant commonly used as a model organism in plant genetics research, and the avocado tree Persea americana, ...

Two new studies on circadian rhythms

... Hanover, NHDartmouth Medical School geneticists have made new inroads into understanding the regulatory circuitry of the biological clock that synchronizes the ebb and flow of daily activities, according to two studies published May 15. Research on the relati...

Flow of potassium into cells implicated in schizophrenia

...rogram, who led the research. "We found schizophrenia-like effects in brain circuitry and mental processing in perfectly healthy people who carry the risk-associ...sks, their brains had to work harder to compensate for disordered tuning of circuitry a phenomenon previously implicated in schizophrenia. Showed significan...

Queen's researchers shine light on compact fluorescent bulb problems

...-grade CFLs need to be compact and inexpensive. Until now, the complicated circuitry needed to power these bulbs most efficiently has been too large and too cos...Lam, a PhD candidate working with Dr. Jain, developed a compact, simplified circuitry and controller design that overcomes the power problem while also meeting c...

Research links evolution of fins and limbs with that of gills

...way a limb or fin skeleton does: by making a mirror image duplicate of the structure as the embryo develops. According to the researchers, the genetic circuitry that patterns paired appendages (arms, legs and fins) has a deep evolutionary origin that actually predates the origin of paired appendages themselves...

Lehigh researcher awarded $1.8 million NIH grant

...urger and the other members of his lab work with chickens, which have brain circuitry similar to human brain structures. Chickens also serve as good developmenta...rk with chickens to build a mechanistic understanding of sound localization circuitry in vertebrate systems. Burger first began studying hearing at a bat audi...

Autism Speaks funds $5 million to studies on genetic and environmental risk factors for autism

...s as they become evident in infants and toddlers with autism and will allow us to study the genetic basis for early changes in brain volume and neural circuitry concurrent with the emergence of autistic behavior," explained Dr. Piven Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Carolina Institute for Developmen...

Case Western Reserve researchers develop 'wireless' activation of brain circuits

...chine interface that restores function following nerve or brain impairments," Strowbridge says. "The first attempts to interface computers with brain circuitry are being done now with complex metal electrode stimulation arrays that are not well suited to recreating normal brain activity patterns and also can ...

2 genes influence social behavior, visual-spatial performance in people with Williams syndrome

...aks and valleys drew Korenberg and Bellugi to the disorder. "Williams syndrome presents a unique lens for discovering the how genes form the brain circuitry responsible for human behavior," explains Korenberg. This prompted Korenberg's collaboration with Bellugi, who is interested in the cognitive aspects...

Neural mapping paints a haphazard picture of odor receptors

... CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Feb. 3, 2009 -- Despite the striking aromatic differences between coffee, peppermint, and pine, a new mapping of the nose's neural circuitry suggests a haphazard patchwork where the receptors for such disparate scents are as likely as not to be neighbors. Inexplicably, this seemingly ran...

Evolution and climate change research advances at Rutgers-Camden

...but only feeds from information derived from one. The fish's highly specialized adaptations, from retina to brain, serve as a model for discerning the circuitry of feeding in all vertebrae whose visual traits aren't as clearly segmented. "This fish has much to teach us. It has adapted extraordinarily to a ...

Nano-tetherball biosensor precisely detects glucose

... anchored to gold-coated "nanocubes." The device resembles a tiny cube-shaped tetherball. Each tetherball is a sensor and is anchored to electronic circuitry by a nanotube, which acts as both a tether and ultrathin wire to conduct electrical signals, said Timothy Fisher, a Purdue University professor of mec...

Maintaining the brain's wiring in aging and disease

..., supported by the Alzheimer's Research Trust and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), have discovered that the brain's circuitry survives longer than previously thought in diseases of ageing such as Alzheimer's disease. The findings were published today in the journal Brain . ...

Evolved Machines Selected as a Prime Contractor for DARPA Program to Engineer an Artificial Olfaction System

...hines (http://www.evolvedmachines.com ) develops technology for sensory systems based on highly neural sensory signal processing, reverse-engineering circuitry in the brain to enable a new class of selfwiring devices that perform in the complexities of real-world environments, for both artificial olfaction an...

NIAID funds studies of how SARS and bird flu evade antiviral responses

...mentally validated in an in vivo setting and which will reveal whether influenza and SARS viruses use common strategies to regulate cellular signaling circuitry and evade antiviral defenses. In addition, these large datasets, as well as the modeled interpretations, will be made freely available to the researc...

Duke team explains a longtime visual puzzler in new way

...," Purves said. "You ultimately die or you survive based on the success of what you do in the world, and if you do survive, the improvements in visual circuitry that allowed this success are passed on to the next generation. This is standard evolutionary thinking. Eventually, you end up with a system that can ...

Millisecond brain signals predict response to fast-acting antidepressant

...s who respond to ketamine," explained Cornwell. The lag in ACC activity could be a window into the dysfunctional workings of the glutamate-related circuitry targeted by the medication, the researchers suggest. Ketamine's side effects make it a poor candidate for becoming a practical antidepressant, but the...

Healthy Minds Across America features 48 public forums on mental health research, Sept. 14

...he safety of antidepressant medications, and new therapies such as deep brain stimulation; The biological basis of addiction: The biology and brain circuitry of addiction; New treatment frontiers: Potential treatments for schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder; Improving pharmaceutical treatmen...

Hopkins researchers piece together gene 'network' linked to schizophrenia

...week in the Archives of General Psychiatry, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have uncovered for the first time molecular circuitry associated with schizophrenia that links three previously known, yet unrelated proteins. "This is very exciting because until now the many known g...

Caltech researchers awarded $10M for molecular programming project

...c design and implementation in the laboratory. Eventually, molecular programs could be used to manufacture nanoscale objects, to create biochemical circuitry to probe the inner workings of cells, and as "programmable therapies" placed within living cells to diagnose and directly respond to diseases. "Ou...

Unlocking mystery of why dopamine freezes Parkinson's patients

...ho have lost the neurons that release dopamine, have their foot perpetually stuck on the brake." Understanding the basis for these changes in brain circuitry moves scientists closer to new therapeutic strategies for controlling these brain disorders and other involving dopamine like schizophrenia, Tourette'...

Distinguishing between 2 birds of a feather

...nformation. In the past, they had to rely on simplified objects on a computer screen or random stimuli to garner information on how the brain's visual circuitry works. "Ultimately we are interested in what happens in a natural environment," explains Sharpee, "but some questions require more control over the pr...

Study finds connections between genetics, brain activity and preference

...ted with Daniel Kahneman, PhD, of Princeton University and Peter Shizgal, PhD, Concordia University, Montreal, to show how the brain's reward/aversion circuitry followed the principles of what is called prospect theory when responding to the anticipation and receipt of a financial reward, helping to lay the gr...

Improved estrogen reception may sharpen fuzzy memory

...rch. "This is good news for moving forward to develop clinical interventions and therapeutics because it appears critical damage was not done to brain circuitry during early development. There has also been debate about which of at least two estrogen receptors is key to synaptic health. Clearly estrogen recept...

Sorry, Charlie, you and Nemo aren't the only fish that talk

...ound production in vertebrates can be traced back through evolutionary time to an era long before the first animals ventured onto dry land. The neural circuitry that enables human beings to verbally communicate--not to mention birds to sing, and frogs to "ribbit"--was likely laid down hundreds of millions of y...

From humming fish to Puccini: Vocal communication evolved with ancient species

...to the simplest Celine Dion melody. But the neural circuitry that led to the human love song not to mention bi...ation in vocalizing vertebrates, gives rise to the circuitry of the vocal motor nucleus the system behind the fishes' hums. Comparing the system to the neural circuitry behind vocalizations of amphibians, birds, reptile...

When fish talk, scientists listen

... Laboratory (MBL) visiting investigators show that the sophisticated neural circuitry that midshipman use to vocalize develops in a similar region of the central nervous system as the circuitry that allows a human to laugh or a frog to croak, evidence that the ability ...

UNC, Caltech research finds further evidence for genetic contribution to autism

...ole for other, environmental factors," he said. UNC and Caltech are currently working together to follow up on the finding by looking at the neural circuitry of face processing in parents of autistic individuals, using functional MRI in a National Institutes of Health-funded study. "We hope that this re...

International team identifies 21 new genetic risk factors for Crohn's disease

...H Gastroenterology Unit and the MGH Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, a co-author of the Nature Genetics study. "Mapping the internal circuitry of these systems and identifying the molecular switches that control those circuits should lead to better targeted drugs for Crohn's and other inflamm...

Names of inaugural Kavli Prize winners revealed

...ding of the unusual properties of matter on an ultra-small scale, the basic circuitry of the human brain and the nature of quasars. They are the inaugural rec...ange themselves during development into the complex, densely interconnected circuitry of the adult cerebral cortex. Thomas Jessell, of Columbia University, US...

University of Arizona scientist shares in discovery of microbe filaments' power

...ed these microbes for more than 20 years, says N. gonorrhoeae communicates with a human cell by pulling on it. These pulling forces perturb the normal circuitry of the cell. As a result, the infected cell is fooled into lowering its defenses against the infecting microbe. So said that the team of investigat...

Neurons hard wired to tell left from right

...ar that the left and right halves of the brain process different types of information but almost nothing is known about the differences in the brain's circuitry which achieve this" says Wilson. "One possibility is that totally different types of neuron might be found on the left and right. Alternatively, bot...

NYU scientists set stage for understanding how color vision is processed

... New York University biologists have mapped the medulla circuitry in fruit flies, setting the stage for subsequent research on how color vision is processed. The work, which appeared in the journal Current Biology, w...
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