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Understanding how weeds are resistant to herbicides

URBANA - In a little over seven hours, University of Illinois weed scientist Patrick Tranel got more genetic information about waterhemp than in two years time in a lab. The genetic information was obtained using pyrosequencing technology in the Keck Center at the U of I. The genetic sequence will...

Climate change poker: The barriers which are preventing a global agreement

As the world's environment ministers, government officials, diplomats and campaigners prepare to attend the COP15 conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 to unite in the battle against climate change in one of the most complicated political deals the world has ever seen, the increasingly complex...

Global curbs on overfishing are beginning to work

Scientists have joined forces in a groundbreaking assessment of the status of marine fisheries and ecosystems. Australian Beth Fulton, a fishery ecosystem scientist from the CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, was among an international team of 19 co-authors of a report on a two-year study, led...

Early detection and quick response are key to defense against anthrax attack

NEW YORK (July 24, 2009) -- A large attack on a major metropolitan area with airborne anthrax could affect more than a million people, necessitating their treatment with powerful antibiotics. A new study finds that in order for a response to be effective, quick detection and treatment are essentia...

2 reproductive factors are important predictors of death from ovarian cancer

PHILADELPHIA Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that survival among women with ovarian cancer is influenced by age of menarche and total number of lifetime ovulatory cycles. This finding suggests that hormonal activity over the course of a woman's lifet...

Contaminated site remediation: Are nanomaterials the answer?

WASHINGTONA new review article appearing in Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) co-authored by Dr. Todd Kuiken, a research associate for the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN), focuses on the use of nanomaterials for environmental cleanup. It provides an overview of current practice...

Scientists are learning more about big birds from feathers

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Catching adult eagles for research purposes is no easy task, but a Purdue University researcher has found a way around the problem, and, in the process, gathered even more information about the birds without ever laying a hand on one. "Many birds are small, easy to catch ...

Harvard scientists solve mystery about why HIV patients are more susceptible to TB infection

A team of Harvard scientists has taken an important first step toward the development of new treatments to help people with HIV battle Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. In their report, appearing in the July 2009 print issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology ( http://www.jleukbio.or...

Two is not company -- as far as fish are concerned

It might be assumed that aquarium fish don't mind who or what they encounter in their tanks from one minute to the next, if their famously (but incorrectly) short memory is to be believed. Scientists at the Universities of Plymouth and Exeter have carried out research to show this is not the case ...

U of Minnesota-led study finds that hunters are depleting lion and cougar populations

Sport hunters are depleting lion and cougar populations as managers respond to demands to control predators that threaten livestock and humans, according to a study published in the June 17 issue of PLoS ONE . The study was led by Craig Packer, a University of Minnesota professor and renowned aut...

'The Vision Revolution': Eyes are the source of human 'superpowers'

Troy, N.Y. For Mark Changizi, it's all in the eyes. About half of the human brain is used for vision, and sight is the best understood and most thoroughly investigated of the five senses. This is why Changizi, a neurobiology expert and assistant professor in the Department of Cognitive Science...

They are young and need the job: A second chance for dangerous T-cells

The immune system's T-cells react to foreign protein fragments and therefore are crucial to combating viruses and bacteria. Errant cells that attack the body's own material are in most cases driven to cell death. Some of these autoreactive T-cells, however, undergo a kind of reeducation to become ...

Broecker: 'What we need are tougher measures against climate change'

U.S. researcher Wallace S. Broecker (Chicago, 1931), winner of the first edition of the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards in the Climate Change category, published an article in Science back in 1975 with the title "Climate Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?" ...

Newly discovered snow roots are 'evolutionary phenomenon'

It may not be the Yeti, but in a remote region of the Russian mountains a previously unknown and entirely unique form of plant root has been discovered. Lead Scientist Professor Hans Cornelissen and his Russian-Dutch team describe this finding today in Ecology Letters . The root belongs to the...

Harvard scientist says we are what we eat -- and what we cook

CAMBRIDGE, Mass., June 1, 2009 -- "You are what you eat." Can these pithy words explain the evolution of the human species? Yes, says Richard Wrangham of Harvard University, who argues in a new book that the invention of cooking -- even more than agriculture, the eating of meat, or the advent o...

New research helps explain how connexin hemichannels are kept closed

Hemichannels are connexin channels that can dock with each other to create a gap junction across two plasma membranes. In the June 2009 issue of the Journal of General Physiology ( JGP ), Andrew Harris (University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey) discusses new research that provides insigh...

New study: Home energy savings are made in the shade

Trees positioned to shade the west and south sides of a house may decrease summertime electric bills by 5 percent on average, according to a recent study* of California homes by researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)...

Wind, salt and water are leading indicators of land degradation in Abu Dhabi

Desert environments are characterized by poor vegetative cover, strong winds, dry, non-cohesive sandy soils, and hyper-arid conditions. In this context, the land resources of Abu Dhabi Emirate in the United Arab Emirates are subjected to various land degradation stresses, including wind erosion, s...

Rotator cuff tears: Are they all in the family?

ROSEMONT, ILPeople with relatives who have experienced rotator cuff tears are at increased risk of similar tendon tears themselves, according to a study published in the May 2009 issue of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery ( JBJS ). "This strongly suggests genetic predisposition as a possible...

Caltech scientists show why anti-HIV antibodies are ineffective at blocking infection

PASADENA, Calif.--Some 25 years after the AIDS epidemic spawned a worldwide search for an effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), progress in the field seems to have effectively become stalled. The reason? According to new findings from a team of researchers from the Cali...

Students least informed about environmental science are most optimistic

Will problems associated with environmental issues improve in the next two decades? According to an analysis of student performance on PISA 2006--an international assessment of 15-year-olds--students who are the best informed about environmental science and the geosciences are also the most realis...

Major international study challenges notions of how genes are controlled in mammals

This release is available in French . Scientists at the Omics Science Center (OSC) of the RIKEN Yokohama Institute in Japan along with researchers from McGill University and other institutions worldwide are challenging current notions of how genes are controlled in mammals. Three years ...

Tentacles of venom: New study reveals all octopuses are venomous

Once thought to be only the realm of the blue-ringed octopus, researchers have now shown that all octopuses and cuttlefish, and some squid are venomous. The work indicates that they all share a common, ancient venomous ancestor and highlights new avenues for drug discovery. Conducted by scienti...

Selected personal letters of Max Perutz are released in new book

COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. Nobel Prize-winning scientist Max Perutz was a campaigner for humanitarian causes, essayist, and advocate of science. A compilation of his personal letters has just been released by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Selected and edited by his daughter Vivien Perutz...

Men are the weaker sex

Nurses in the maternity ward often say that a difficult labor is a sign of a baby boy. Now, a Tel Aviv University study provides scientific proof that a male baby comes with a bigger package of associated risks than his female counterparts. In a study of 66,000 births, Prof. Marek Glezerman, c...

Eye cells believed to be retinal stem cells are misidentified

Cells isolated from the eye that many scientists believed were retinal stem cells are, in fact, normal adult cells, investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have found. If retinal stem cells could be obtained, they might provide the basis for treatments to restore sight to millions o...

Common fragrance ingredients in shampoos and conditioners are frequent causes of eczema

Considerably more people than previously believed are allergic to the most common fragrance ingredient used in shampoos, conditioners and soap. A thesis presented at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden found that over 5% of those who underwent patch testing were allergic to t...

Psychiatric disorders are common in adults who have had anorexia

The study was initiated in 1985. A total of 51 teenagers with anorexia nervosa were studied, together with an equally large control group of healthy persons. The groups have been investigated and compared several times as the years have passed. "This study is unique in an international perspecti...

Children who are dissatisfied with their appearance often have problems with their peer group

Being satisfied with one's appearance is one of the most important prerequisites for a positive self image. However, in today's appearance culture it is the rule rather than the exception that children and young people are dissatisfied with their appearance. Those children who are teased or subj...

Information warfare in the 21st century: Ideas are sometimes stronger than bombs

Terrorist organizations sometimes have an advantage in the media. A new study by Dr. Yaniv Levyatan of the University of Haifa, published in the journal of Israel's National Security College, describes how our side can regain the advantage in this arena too. "Information warfare" plays a cr...

New tracking tags are providing fish-eye views of ways to manage depressed fisheries

New tracking and observing technologies are giving marine conservationists a fish-eye view of conditions, from overfishing to climate change, that are contributing to declining fish populations, according to a new study. Until recently, scientists provided fishery managers only such limited dat...

Genes identified that are linked to spinal disc degeneration

Lumbar disc degeneration is an uncomfortable condition that affects millions of people, but two University of Alberta researchers have identified some of the genes that are causing problems. Michele Crites-Battie and Tapio Videman, in the Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, have discove...

Plants are political hot potatoes

A group of leading UK scientists and social scientists led by the ESRC Genomics Forum, based at the University of Edinburgh, calls for joined-up thinking on the emerging politics of plants. Green is the new gold. The world is waking up to the potential of plants from food to fuel, industrial f...

Will large amounts of soil carbon be released if grasslands are converted to energy crops?

MADISON, WI, February 16, 2009 -- Grasslands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the United States may be increasingly converted to growing bioenergy grain crops. Questions abound regarding the fate of carbon sequestered in the soil during the CRP program by perennial grasses if the land ...

When fish farms are built along the coast, where does the waste go?

If you are a fish eater, it's likely that the salmon you had for dinner was not caught in the wild, but was instead grown in a mesh cage submerged in the open water of oceans or bays. Fish farming, a relatively inexpensive way to provide cheap protein to a growing world population, now supplies, b...

At WPI, some students are learning it's OK to peek

WORCESTER, Mass. There was a time when peeking at another student's work during class was a problem. Then again, there was a time when only televisions had clickers, not classrooms. Starting in January, not only do students in the undergraduate biology lab sections at Worcester Polytechnic Ins...

Bacteria are models of efficiency

The bacterium Escherichia coli, one of the best-studied single-celled organisms around, is a master of industrial efficiency. This bacterium can be thought of as a factory with just one product: itself. It exists to make copies of itself, and its business plan is to make them at the lowest possi...

Research finds older women who are more physically fit have better cognitive function

New research published in the international journal Neurobiology of Aging by Marc Poulin, PhD, DPhil, finds that being physically fit helps the brain function at the top of its game. An Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research Senior Scholar, Poulin finds that physical activity benefits ...

Male crickets with bigger heads are better fighters, study reveals, echoing ancient Chinese text

Observing and betting on cricket fights has been part of Chinese cultural tradition since at least the Sung Dynasty (A.D. 960-1278). This ancient practice has resulted in quite a detailed list of characteristics that Chinese practitioners think make for champion fighters. "Because money was involv...

Methods for studying DNA repair and protein modification are featured in CSH Protocols

COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Mon., Jan. 5, 2009) - This month's issue of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols ( www.cshprotocols.org/TOCs/toc1_09.dtl ) features two articles detailing experimental methods for the analysis of molecular processes involved in DNA repair and post-translational modification o...
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