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Yeast in Biological News

Rhythmic genomics -- the yeast metronome and the walk of life

New genome sequence information from the humble baker's yeast has revealed surprising variation in a set of genes that can be thought of as nature's oldest clock. In a paper published in Genome Research scientists show how ribosomal RNA genes that are essential to all Earth's organisms provide i...

Gene-environment interaction in yeast gene expression

The nature vs. nurture debate is familiar to most people, and modern conclusions usually predict a balance between the two. A new paper published this week in the open-access journal PLoS Biology shows that there is a similar balance between the genes we inherit—nature—and the environment—nurture—...

University of Toronto scientists map entire yeast genome

TORONTO, ON. University of Toronto scientists have devised a tool to help understand and predict the state of a cell by successfully mapping all 70,000 nucleosomes in yeast. Nucleosomes wrap DNA before it is transformed into proteins and are critical indicators and regulators of a cells state. ...

UCI and CODA Genomics collaborate to re-engineer yeast for biofuel production

Irvine, Calif., Sept. 4, 2007 Scientists from UC Irvine and CODA Genomics are partnering on new research aimed at turning a common strain of yeast used in the production of beer, wine and bread into an efficient producer of ethanol. Researchers at UCIs Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatic...

Jungle yeast

A new species of yeast has been discovered deep in the Amazon jungle. In a paper published on-line in FEMS Yeast Research , IFR scientists and colleagues from Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador describe the novel characteristics of Candida carvajalis sp. nov . Yeasts have long been the...

New study reveals the protein that makes phosphate chains in yeast

It can be found in all life forms, and serves a multitude of purposes, from energy storage to stress response to bone calcification. This molecular jack-of-all trades is polyphosphate, a long chain of phosphate molecules. Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelber...

Caltech engineers build mini drug-producing biofactories in yeast

PASADENA, Calif.-- Researchers at the California Institute of Technology have developed a novel way to churn out large quantities of drugs, including antiplaque toothpaste additives, antibiotics, nicotine, and even morphine, using mini biofactories--in yeast. A paper describing the research, no...

Primitive yeast yields secrets of human cholesterol and drug metabolism

By first probing the way primitive yeast make cholesterol, a team of scientists has discovered a long-sought protein whose human counterpart controls cholesterol production and potentially drug metabolism. The collaborative study by investigators at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Va...

Engineered yeast speeds ethanol production

Scientists from Whitehead Institute and MIT have engineered yeast that can improve the speed and efficiency of ethanol production, a key component to making biofuels a significant part of the U.S. energy supply. Currently used as a fuel additive to improve gasoline combustibility, ethanol is ofte...

GlycoFi and Dartmouth report full humanization of yeast glycosylation pathway in Science

For the first time, scientists have engineered yeast cells capable of producing a broad repertoire of recombinant therapeutic proteins with fully human sugar structures (glycosylation). These sugar structures ensure a glycoprotein's biological activity and half-life and to date, have necessitated t...

After the yeast is gone bacteria continue to develop flavor of sparkling wine

Researchers at the University of Barcelona, Spain, show for the first time that bacteria, in addition to yeast, are involved in the secondary fermentation of the sparkling wine known as Cava. They report their findings today at the 105th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. "...

Navigating an integrated yeast network

Scientists have for the first time mapped multiple complex biological interactions in a yeast cell in a simple graphical form, enhancing our understanding of how the networks of interaction by which components of a cell influence one another. New research published in the Open Access journal Journa...

Carnegie donates landmark clones to biology

...on the underlying mechanism of the pore activity by using mutant proteins that cannot shut the pores off with their C-terminus to see how they work in yeast and immature eggs of the frog Xenopus in the presence of ammonium. The researchers were totally surprised that the mechanism in which three subu...

Antibody targeting of glioblastoma shows promise in preclinical tests, say Lombardi researchers

...oretically bind. We found just the right one." They collaborated with ESBAtech in Switzerland who created a small single-chain antibody fragment in yeast that would itself bind to the sweet spot, blocking ALK's interaction with PTN. In the present study, the researchers successfully tested the antibody ...

Scientists discover gene mutation responsible for hereditary neuroendocrine tumor

...s to extract energy from nutrients. Studies in yeast "Defects in mitochondria, the power sources of...we decided to use a much simpler model system, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to study mitoch... humans and determining whether what we learned in yeast was also relevant to humans. Following this strate...

Reviews of microbial gene language published in special issue of Trends in Microbiology

... been used to assess the function of genes in Candida albicans , a type of yeast that can lead to disease in humans. The characterization of genes in C. al...fited from the transfer of Gene Ontology terms from the extensively studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . S. cerevisiae is another workhorse of the mol...

Singapore nanotechnology combats fatal brain infections

...cture that forms nanoparticles with membranepenetrating components on their surface," Dr. Yang added. "These nanoparticles can easily enter bacteria, yeast or fungal cells and destabilize them to cause cell death. For example, the nanoparticles cause damage to bacteria cell walls and prevent further bacte...

Tryptophan deficiency may underlie quinine side effects

... at the University of Nottingham took advantage of yeast genetics, examining the effects of quinine on a collection of 6000 yeast mutants, each one lacking exactly one of the yeast's 6000 genes. While quite different from humans, yeast is comparable on a cellular level and...

How mitochondria get their membranes bent

...embrane structure. In the current issue of the the Journal of Cell Biology Rabl, Soubannier et al. report on their quest of slow-growing baker`s yeast mutants harboring deformed mitochondria. Thereby, they discovered the protein Fcj1 ("Formation of criasta junction protein 1"), which is embedded in t...

Discovery of the cell's water gate may lead to new cancer drugs

...und the gate that regulates the flow of water into yeast cells. The discovery, which will be published in t... determined the three-dimensional structure of the yeast aquaporin. The results will be published in the jo...e unsolved mysteries of biology. The aquaporins in yeast have long "tails", known as amino-terminal extensi...

Is this the beginning of the end of plant breeding?

...four cells each containing only half of the parental amount of DNA. Meiosis occurs in all species that reproduce sexually, from microorganisms such as yeast to plants, animals and human beings. This new paper blurs the line between the two different types of cell division by showing a plant where three spe...

Saved by junk DNA

...nducted a complex experiment aimed at mimicking biological evolution, using yeast cells as Darwinian guinea pigs. Their results show that when a repeat is present near a gene, it is possible to select yeast mutants that show vastly increased activity of this gene. However, when the...

Yeast missing sex genes undergo unexpected sexual reproduction

... DURHAM, N.C. An emerging form of the pathogenic yeast Candida is able to complete a full sexual cycle ...earchers. "Sex contributes to the Candida yeast species' evolutionary success," said Joseph Heitma...ion of drug resistance in this emerging pathogenic yeast species. " ...

Using high-precision laser tweezers to juggle cells

... gives researchers information that would not be possible to obtain with traditional methods. In its first stage, the new method has been tested on yeast cells. One of the cells' proteins was tagged with a green fluorescent protein (GFP), enabling researchers to trace the movements of the protein within...

American Chemical Society's weekly PressPac -- May 6, 2009

... of these substances. The scientists then spliced these genes into Brewer's yeast used to make beer and wine so that the yeast cells churned out methyl halides instead of alcohol. In laboratory studies,...

Using combinatorial libraries to engineer genetic circuits advances synthetic biology

...c timers was to assemble and test one in yeast, which could accurately time yeast sedimentation -- a process that can be applied to biotechnology and some po...al beer, wine and bioethanol fermentation, as it allows for easy removal of yeast sediments after all the sugars have been converted to ethanol," the paper n...

ASBMB Annual Meeting to feature talks on the biochemistry of aging

...es in fly lifespan simply cannot be expected to work in mammals. Kennedy and his group examined this issue by carefully analyzing age-related genes in yeast and the C. elegans worm, two organisms that diverged over a billion years ago. They found a statistically significant connection in the genes and path...

2009 ASPB Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship award announcement

...na As a sophomore from Macalester College in St. Paul, MN, I started my adventure in plant biology in the summer of 2008, when I was first exposed to yeast hybrid systems. The project titled above is going to use a reverse 2-hybrid system to screen for mutated SAUR19 proteins that no longer interact with ...

SIRT1 takes down tumors

...ion. The study will be published online April 13 ( www.jcb.org ) and will appear in the April 20 print issue of the Journal of Cell Biology . The yeast and nematode equivalents of SIRT1 are fountains of youth that stretch lifespan. Whether SIRT1 slows aging in mammals isn't certain, but it's beneficia...

CSHL researchers explain process by which cells 'hide' potentially dangerous DNA segments

...heterochromatin when Chp1's binding to H3K9me the methylated chromatin is impaired. Whether this mechanism of heterochromatin assembly discovered in yeast also occurs in mammalian cells is unclear at this point, according to Schalch, as a mammalian equivalent to Chp1 has not been found. "But we've now id...

Redefining what it means to be a prion

...upled the number of identifiable prion proteins in yeast and have further clarified the role prions play in...ch as yeast. Believing the number of prions in yeast is higher than the four identified, researchers in...evised a high-throughput method to scan the entire yeast genome, detect probable prion-coding sequences, an...

DNA repair mechanisms relocate in response to stress

... Biology . The journal's editors chose an image of yeast cells with fluorescent DNA repair enzymes for the ...d Keith Wilkinson, genetically modified strains of yeast so that two different DNA repair enzymes would be ...re able to follow the enzymes around the cell when yeast was exposed to hydrogen peroxide, causing oxidativ...

Genetic sleuth solves glaucoma mystery

...ord, England. Walter and his team investigated a yeast gene that is extremely similar to WDR36 but much e...introduced the suspected WDR36 variations into the yeast gene and tested its ability to function, and disco...king alone. The gene variations only affected the yeast when there were simultaneous changes to another ge...

Synthetic biology can help extend anti-malaria drug effectiveness

...d their first success. By transplanting genes from yeast and from the sweet wormwood tree into E. coli bact...ogy techniques to genetically engineer a strain of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that was capable of pro...ly of anti-malarial drugs," said Keasling when the yeast breakthrough was first announced. The engineeri...

Genome sequencing of fungus with biotechnological applications

...sugar that forms part of the tree is mainly found in this polymer. However, unlike what happens with grapes the sugar of which is easily useable with yeast to produce alcohol , obtaining glucose (and alcohol) from a tree is not so easy. There are two ways to degrade wood, pointed out Mr Pisabarro: ther...

Self-digestion as a means of survival

...proteins and cellular organs. The process - known as autophagy - takes place in special organelles called autophagosomes. It is a strategy that simple yeast cells have developed as a means of survival when times get tough, and in the course of evolution, it has become a kind of self-cleaning process. In ma...

Vanderbilt scientists invent world's smallest periscopes

...er of important cell properties. For his senior thesis, for example, Wright explored how the technique can be used to measure the volume of individual yeast cells with unprecedented accuracy. In addition, Wikswo and Markov plan to create mirrored microchannels to measure how cells are deformed under stress...

Commercial yeasts upgraded with an enzyme for biofuel production

...Germany, has discovered a new enzyme which teaches yeast cells to ferment xylose into ethanol. Xylose is an...cess. In industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly used for et...have succeeded in genetically modifying industrial yeast strains, thus producing ethanol from xylose in a s...

New models question old assumptions about how many molecules it takes to control cell division

... Blacksburg, Va. -- A single cell whether a yeast cell or one of your cells is exquisitely sensitiv... to accurately calculate the effects of noise in a yeast cell revealed flaws in two accepted notions about ...re the molecular fluctuations expected in a single yeast cell? Physicists estimate molecular fluctuation us...

Calculating gene and protein connections in a Parkinson's disease model

...Yeger-Lotem entered the data from screens of 5,500 yeast strains ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). These strains are based on a yeast model that creates large amounts of the protein al...," says Fraenkel. "We have wonderful data from the yeast model, but despite this richness of data, so littl...
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