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Trait in Biological News

Mary had a lot of lambs: Researchers identify way to accelerate sheep breeding

...validated the gene's relationship with aseasonal breeding by observing that trait in the flock. The finding, published in the August issue of the Journal...genome to more accurately determine which gene or genes directly affect the trait of aseasonal reproduction. The allele is particularly useful for managem...

Understanding how weeds are resistant to herbicides

... a resistant plant with a sensitive plant. We look at its progeny to see if the resistance is inherited to understand the genetics if it's a dominant trait or a recessive trait. "Pyrosequencing is more like just throwing out a fishing net -- we know we're going to get continued resistance to other herb...

Restoring a natural root signal helps to fight a major corn pest

... helps to protect the plants against underground infestation." The EβC trait is present in other, mainly European, corn varieties as well as in the maize ancestor species. The trait could be reintroduced into deficient plants by conventional breeding. On th...

High construction cost for cycads

...leaves sustained at 80% of the initial maximum. Marler indicates this sluggish pace of decline is 65-80 times slower than other species for which this trait has been determined. The financial risk analogy illuminates a critical environmental issue because Guam's Cycas population is being threatened b...

Ecological Society of America announces 2009 award recipients

...ercer Award is given for an outstanding recently-published ecological research paper by a young scientist. The authors show that changes in a physical trait of a plant can affect overall plant community structure, which in turn drives the evolution of the trait. The paper uses a combination of theory, expe...

Plant microbe shares features with drug-resistant pathogen

...ria resistant to a wide range of antibiotics in both strains. "This suggests that antibiotic resistance is part of the species' core genome, and not a trait acquired in the hospital," van der Lelie said. Multi-drug antibiotic-resistance is one key feature that allows some bacteria to cause deadly infection...

Bolivian rainforest study suggests feeding behavior in monkeys and humans have ancient, shared roots

...s that spider monkeys and humans have evolved this trait independently then this trait may have been shared by our common ancestor. Spide...s due to convergent evolution or is it a remaining trait from a common ancestor? "I am also pleased that...

Hunt for 'climate-ready' crops accelerates as organizations search seed collections worldwide

...has to go further and also conduct molecular analysis and then the breeding work. This work can take up to ten years from the point of discovering the trait to having a new variety actually growing in a farmer's field. We're seeking to speed up that process by supporting breeders in the developing world." ...

100 reasons to change the way we think about genetics

...iraffe ancestors, Lamarck surmised, reached with their necks to munch leaves high in trees. The reaching caused their necks to become slightly longera trait that was passed on to descendants. Generation after generation inherited slightly longer necks, and the result is what we see in giraffes today. Wi...

Vitamin D expert receives Linus Pauling Prize for Health Research

...in D deficiency with serious implications for cancer and other diseases. "I well remember Linus Pauling standing up to criticism and skepticism, a trait of Holick as well," said Nevin Scrimshaw, president of the International Nutrition Foundation, in nominating him for this award. "Today, Holick is rec...

Flow of potassium into cells implicated in schizophrenia

...ed tuning of circuitry a phenomenon previously implicated in schizophrenia. Showed significantly decreased volume in the hippocampus a heritable trait in anatomical MRI scans. In addition, Isoform 3.1: Showed levels 1,000 times lower in the heart than the other main form of KCNH2 and d...

New and improved tomato analyzer

...allowing the researcher to select the option that best suits the project's needs. A main objective of the study was to investigate the quantitative trait loci (QTL), which are parts of the genetic code that control fruit shape. The QTL as determined by morphometric analysis and boundary analysis were th...

Redefining what it means to be a prion

...we could answer that question." The Lindquist lab's work further alters the way researchers view prions, from biological anomalies to mediators of trait inheritance and adaptations to fluctuating environments. work shifts the way researchers view prions, from being a biological anomaly to a key Pr...

Ali Shilatifard and colleagues aim to clarify the definition of 'epigenetics'

...tic memory are of great importance to human development and disease, but they are poorly understood. The proposed definition reads: "an epigenetic trait is a stably inherited phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence." Shilatifard and colleagues have also...

'Delicious' new grape debuts

...ted selection with larger berries. The researchers noted that black berry color of 'Delicious' likely originated from 'Southland' and the self-fertile trait came from 'Carlos', 'Southland', and/or 'Welder'. The original seedling was planted in 1993. The berries of 'Delicious' are oval shaped and reddish...

Malaria immunity trigger found for multiple mosquito species

...l and egg laying fitness of the modified mosquitoes. "This came as a pleasant surprise since it essentially means that we one day could spread this trait in natural mosquito populations using genetic modification. Furthermore, by activating Rel 2, the genetically modified mosquitoes will attack the mala...

New potential therapeutic target discovered for genetic disorder -- Barth syndrome

...diolipin deficiency in Drosophila disrupts the final stage of spermatogenesis causing male sterility. Using this fly model, the study showed that this trait of cardiolipin deficiency can be genetically suppressed by inactivating calcium-independent phospholipase A2, which prevents the degradation of cardio...

Why didn't Darwin discover Mendel's laws?

...tist Gregor Mendel (1822 - 1884) studied clear-cut, inherited traits in pea plants, which he grew in the monastery gardens in Brno. Mendel showed that trait inheritance follow simple laws, which were later named after him. Mendel's work was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century, and laid the fo...

Gene to reduce wheat yield losses

.... Dr Uauy will use the latest genomic techniques to find genes in wheat that directly affect yield and nutritional content. Yield is a complex trait influenced by many environmental and genetic factors. It was thought that the genetic component determining yield was made up of many different genes ...

Mixed population provides insights into human genetic makeup

...proach works because although Shriver looked at genes implicated in disease, those same genes in a healthy person may also influence the same physical trait -- length, width, shape, size -- but within the range normal for healthy individuals. Facial traits vary among humans, but do tend to group by populat...

Scientists to sequence DNA of British wheat varieties

...at breeders have few genetic tools to help them in selecting key agricultural traits for breeding and do not always know the genes responsible for the trait they need. Scientists, in collaboration with the University of Bristol and the John Innes Centre, will analyse the genome of five varieties of wheat ...

Biologists solve mystery of black wolves

...an the dog's genome and find associations between a particular marker and a trait like foreshortened limbs or a specific coat color, or even behavioral trait...lor throughout the entire wolf population and document that coat color is a trait inherited with just one gene involved, with two forms one causing white an...

Researchers iron out new role for serotonin

...and colleagues to identify novel traits linked with the low functioning SERT. From this in silico approach, Blakely and colleagues identified multiple trait differences affected by the SERT GK/ER variation, including traits associated with alcohol consumption and brain dopamine signaling. Additionally, t...

Rethinking the genetic theory of inheritance

...rents. Traditionally, 'heritability' is estimated by comparing monozygotic (genetically identical) twins to dizygotic (genetically different) twins. A trait or disease is called heritable if monozygotic twins are more similar to each other than dizygotic twins. In molecular terms, heritability has traditio...

As super-predators, humans reshape their prey at super-natural speeds

...n predation is accelerating the rate of observable trait changes by 300 percent above the pace observed wit... entitled "Human Predators Outpace Other Agents of trait Change in the Wild." Not only fast, the change...t," said Darimont. "It's an ideal recipe for rapid trait change." The study is the first to calculate th...

A BBVA Foundation project comes up with a system enabling detection of cetacean hearing loss

...calize for the purpose of social communication or echolocation, depending on the need at hand. The absence of vocal chords is accompanied by another trait unique among the mammals: that of not using an external auditory conduct for the purposes of hearing. Instead, they pick up sound waves through their ...

UC Riverside rice geneticist receives high honor from US Department of Agriculture

...nd Sri Lanka. The characterization of the Sub1 trait in labs at UC Riverside and UC Davis has enabled r...in South and Southeast Asia, adding a much desired trait in these varieties: recovery after prolonged subme...d to the realization that the submergence tolerant trait includes a cluster of related genes." For Baile...

CSHL scientists discover a new way in which epigenetic information is inherited

...y epigenetic information and in fact passes on the trait of fertility from mother to offspring in fruit fli...d alone, but also the next generation. Because the trait fertility is controlled or encoded in the RNA, "you're passing on a trait that's essentially not only controlling an event t...

Fountain of Youth to be found in the anthill?

... to perform either reproductive or helper tasks. A worker can become a reproductive functional queen, if the original queen dies or is removed. Such a trait is not found in "higher" order ants because these species have become structurally specialized. Carpenter ants, Camponotus floridanus, allow Liebig, R...

MIT creates tiny backpacks for cells

...with B and T cells, two types of immune cells that can home to various tissues in the body, including tumors, infection sites, and lymphoid tissues a trait that could be exploited to achieve targeted drug or vaccine delivery. "The idea is that we use cells as vectors to carry materials to tumors, infec...

Bee smart, bee healthy

...olonies are probably much better equipped to thrive under difficult conditions." The team expected that immunity is likely to be a really important trait in social species (like bumblebees, honeybees and ants) that have high-contact rates with closely related individuals leading to a greater chance of i...

Fried purple tomatoes

...mote health through diet by reducing the impact of chronic disease," says Professor Cathie Martin. "And certainly the first example of a GMO with a trait that really offers a potential benefit for all consumers. The next step will be to take the preclinical data forward to human studies with volunteers ...

Scientists propose the creation of a new type of seed bank

... we have been selecting them only for the attributes that we want. Wild species, by contrast, contain a high degree of genetic variation in almost any trait that we might examine." Agricultural species are often selected to have a predictable flowering time, a predictable seed size and a predictable de...

Traits produced by melanin may signal the bearer's capacity to combat free radicals

...ificantly increase the size of a black stripe present in the feathers of the breast of great tits (a common garden bird). This stripe is a conspicuous trait playing a significant role during combats for territory, food or mates. Furthermore, the reduction of glutathione levels also induced a mobilizati...

Lessons from the Iditarod

...et is converted to energy in the liver, and used as fuel in the initial stages of exercise. Preliminary data suggests that this process is a desirable trait intended to efficiently support exercise in the racers. It is worth noting that humans would need 72 Big Macs to fuel the power they need to make a da...

Research pushes back history of crop development 10,000 years

...ge of domestication syndrome trait genes which may become much more important because linked genes will not be broken up by gene flow and this makes trait selection and retention easier. Interestingly, as more crop genomes become mapped, the close linkage of two or more domestication syndrome genes has b...

Individuals vary their immune response according to age, sex and the costs

...ponses as non-breeders had the capacity to reduce responses when times became tough. These results underlie the fact that immunity is a highly plastic trait that can be modulated in a sex- and context-dependent manner. Given the need for individual flexibility in the immune system, this suggests that an im...

Molecular evolution is echoed in bat ears

...d echoes, then these results appear to support the idea that echolocation has evolved more than once in bats. This apparent independent evolution of a trait in distant relatives is known as convergence, a term that is more commonly used to describe the physical features of species that live in similar habi...

Scientists discover major genetic cause of colorectal cancer

... Medicine and colleagues have discovered a genetic trait that is present in 10 to 20 percent of patients wi...tal cancer. The findings strongly suggest that the trait is a major contributor to colorectal cancer risk a...ectal cancer to date. If a person inherits this trait -- which is dominant and clusters in families -- t...

Genes may make some people more prone to anxiety

...theory, up to half the population could be anxious. "This single gene variation is potentially only one of many factors influencing such a complex trait as anxiety," he says. "Still, to identify the first candidates for genes associated with an anxiety-prone personality is a step in the right direction...
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