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Surface in Biological News

Sugar on bacteria surface serves as base for a web of resistance

COLUMBUS, Ohio The bacteria responsible for chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients use one of the sugars on the germs' surface to start building a structure that helps the microbes resist efforts to kill them, new research shows. Scientists have determined that the bacterial cell-surfa...

Geology and biology meet in the history of US southwestern desert surface waters

Boulder, CO, USA The history of surface waters in the arid deserts of the U.S. southwestern Great Basin and lower Colorado River region has fascinated scientists for over two centuries. A new publication by the Geological Society of America covers a wide diversity of closed basins, ancient lake b...

New horizons in modelling surface processes

Medical, environmental and chemical conundrums including the mystery of how ice forms in the sky and goes on to create clouds will be unravelled at a conference hosted by UCL (University College London) to mark the opening of UCLs Materials Simulation Laboratory on Monday 31 March 2008. The four...

Study of sugars on cell surface identifies key factor in flu infection

Scientists have identified a key factor that determines the ability of influenza viruses to infect cells of the human upper respiratory tracta necessary step for sustaining spread between people. The research, described in the January 6 online edition of Nature Biotechnology and funded by the Nati...

Premature births may be linked to seasonal levels of pesticides and nitrates in surface water

The growing premature birth rate in the United States appears to be strongly associated with increased use of pesticides and nitrates, according to work conducted by Paul Winchester, M.D., professor of clinical pediatrics at the Indiana University School of Medicine. He reports his findings May 7 a...

Lands surface change on Alaska tundra creating longer, warmer summers in Arctic

A gradual lengthening of the snow-free season in Alaska's tundra, and a corresponding northward progression of the growth of shrubs and trees, may be creating a cycle of warmer and longer summers in the Alaskan Arctic according to a new study to be published in the Sept. 22, 2005, issue of Science ...

Human Eggs Can Develop From Ovarian Surface Cells In Vitro

Research has shown for the first time that human eggs may develop directly from cultured ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells derived from adult human ovaries. Oocytes derived from the culture of OSE cells developed in vitro into mature eggs suitable for fertilization and development into an embr...

Highest ever winter water temperatures recorded

...ly samples are taken by boat to measure nutrients, phytoplankton, and zooplankton (biomass and species composition). Satellite images indicate the surface water temperature over the continental shelf current is around 13 degrees, a degree or two warmer than at this time in recent years. The EAC has been ...

Carbon nanoparticles toxic to adult fruit flies but benign to young

... others, the nanoparticles clogged their breathing holes, or spiracles, which may have suffocated them. In other adults, the nanoparticles covered the surface of their compound eyes, which may have blinded them. The nanoparticles "glom onto the flies," Rand noted while watching a video of flies in the tes...

Carnegie donates landmark clones to biology

... controls nutrient uptakeneighboring pore-like structures at a plant cell's surface physically interact to control the uptake. "Since plants, animals, bacteria...d it regulates the interactions of the pore-like structures at the membrane surface in plants. In this study they focused on the underlying mechanism of the po...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

...concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide in the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean, from 50 degrees Nort...which has been thought to be a period during which surface conditions did not allow significant hydrological ...s in the implementation of the LCC, different land surface models, and different ways of representing the lan...

University of Hawaii at Manoa researchers reveal ocean acidification at Station ALOHA

...ince the beginning of the industrial age, CO 2 -driven acidification of the surface oceans has already caused a 0.1 unit lowering of pH, and models suggest tha... Church and Dan Sadler, found that over the two decades of observation, the surface ocean grew more acidic at exactly the rate expected from chemical equilibra...

Urban water ecology at the ESA annual meeting

...derwater through gill-like structures, so excess nitrogen and phosphorous could be toxic to them. Mosquito larvae, however, breathe air at the water's surface through a specialized siphon. Chaves says that this combination of an increase in food and a potential decline in predators could be the key to these ...

August 2009 Geology and GSA Today media highlights

...hat Hebes Chasma, a 310-km-long canyon that has no surface outlet, was formed by collapse and draining of bri...re winds and increased primary productivity in the surface ocean off the west coast of Africa is likely to ac... the outline of the crater is still visible at the surface by a semicircular ring of water-filled sinkhole la...

Extraterrestrial platinum was 'stirred' into the Earth

... it, leaving the mantle and crust with none," Dr Barnes said. "Following that, a steady rain of meteorites created the so-called Late Veneer a thin surface layer of meteorite debris rich in platinum." With time through large-scale convection processes, which now cause plate tectonics, this material was ...

UCSF researchers identify new drug target for Kaposi's sarcoma

...ctivated, according to the paper. The HIV protease was successfully targeted for drug development in the 1980s, by blocking the active site on the surface of the dimer, but the herpes virus protease dimer has consistently eluded efforts to disrupt it at its active site, the researchers said. The UCSF ...

Douglas-fir, geoducks make strange bedfellows in studying climate change

...we associate rings from one species with known sea surface temperatures, we can account for almost 50 percent... to go back and create more accurate models of sea surface temperatures and at time scales more than twice th...os of OSU's Hatfield Marine Science Center. Sea surface temperatures are an important factor in analyzing ...

Nanodiamonds deliver insulin for wound healing

...be loaded onto the nanodiamonds, which have a high surface area. The nanodiamond-insulin clusters, by releasi... advantages for biomedical applications. The large surface area allows a large amount of therapeutic to be lo...ties in uniform sizes. By harnessing the unique surface properties of the nanodiamonds, Ho and his colleag...

Researchers develop 'brain-reading' methods

...ttern of activity across a half million points in the brain. Interestingly, the patterns of neural networks involved in each of the eight tasks on the surface appear very similar. The reason, Hanson explains, is that various mental functions tend to draw on many of the same processes. For example, memorizing...

Smaller than expected, but severe, dead zone in Gulf of Mexico

...miles. However the dead zone, which is usually limited to water just above the sea floor, was severe where it did occur, extending closer to the water surface then in most years. Earlier this summer, NOAA-sponsored forecast models developed by R. Eugene Turner, Ph. D. of Louisiana State University and Do...

Nanophysics: Serving up Buckyballs on a silver platter

...Renee Diehl, and colleagues have determined the geometry of C60 on a silver surface using a technique called low-energy electron diffraction. They find that...n structure and the silver surface. The measurements push the limits of surface science because the molecules and the re-arrangement of the underlying silv...

URI researcher sheds light on 'man-eating' squid; finds them timid, nonthreatening

...ith them for the first time," Seibel said. Scuba diving at night in the surface waters of the Gulf of California in 2007, Seibel scanned the depths with hi...logy, feeding behavior and swimming abilities. Humboldt squid feed in surface waters at night, then retreat to great depths during daylight hours. "They ...

DOE-funded research projects win 46 R&D 100 Awards for 2009

...ging application to study how a material's construction, purity, phase, and surface treatment affect a material's strength under extreme stress. This technolog...rovide a thousand-fold increase in the energy flux that is available to the surface of the processed part - cutting processing times to fractions of a second. ...

URI researcher sheds light on 'man-eating' squid; finds them timid, non-threatening

...ith them for the first time," Seibel said. Scuba diving at night in the surface waters of the Gulf of California in 2007, Seibel scanned the depths with hi...logy, feeding behavior and swimming abilities. Humboldt squid feed in surface waters at night, then retreat to great depths during daylight hours. "They ...

What scientists know about jewel beetle shimmer

...ure rather than its biology." When light hits a surface that's difficult to see through, the surface either scatters, absorbs or reflects the light to ...l called a 'cholesteric' liquid crystal whose free surface has cone-like structures and that has a helical ar...

Silicon with afterburners: Process developed at Rice could be boon to electronics manufacturer

...0,000 nanometers wide -- and smaller ones on the way. The paper suggests that monolayer molecular grafting -- basically, attaching molecules to the surface of the silicon rather than mixing them in -- essentially serves the same function as doping, but works better at the nanometer scale. "We call it sili...

New windows opened on cell-to-cell interactions

...ke proteins at cell surfaces that are really important for such things as cellular interactions within the immune system," Parthasarathy said. "At the surface of every cell is a forest of molecules to induce interactions. These proteins need to rise from the forest. What allows them to stick up or lie down? ...

Scientists link immune system's natural killer cells to infant liver disease

...nding to an infection in the liver and bile ducts. surface tissues inside the bile ducts are damaged, which i..., Nkg2d, to make contact with and attack bile duct surface cells by attaching to the Nk2d protein, which resi...ed, NK cells break down the membranes of bile duct surface cells, leading to tissue damage. When researche...

Life on Earth came from other planets

...cuum of an interstellar environment; the UV rays, cosmic rays, gamma rays, and ionizing radiation they would encounter; and the crash landing onto the surface of a planet. Obviously, they would not have evolved these capabilities if their entire ancestral and genetic history had been confined to Earth and th...

Skin-like tissue developed from human embryonic stem cells

...m two distinct specialized cell populations. The first population forms the surface layer (ectodermal, the precursor to epithelial tissue), while the second is found beneath the surface layer (mesenchymal). Following the isolation and characterization of t...

C. difficile spores spread superbug

...als for their success at controlling infection. The alcohol-based disinfectants tested had no success in preventing transmission. Instead, a 20-minute surface disinfection using a sporicidal agent was necessary to reduce environmental spore contamination enough to eliminate transmission. Further results deta...

University of Miami receives stimulus funds for study of hurricane impacts on structures, ecosystems

...lding daily will allow scientists to directly observe and quantify critical storm factors, such as sea spray and momentum transfers across the ocean's surface in extreme wind conditions. SUSTAIN will be used to develop and implement advanced sensor technology, including remote and optical imaging systems th...

The right messenger for a healthy immune response

... of vital importance in enabling the immune system to display fragments of pathogens, so-called antigens. Immune cells present these antigens on their surface and in this way communicate with one another: antigens are the "wanted posters" of the virus or the bacterium which has to be destroyed. The resea...

'Invisibility cloak' could protect against earthquakes

...lude body waves which travel through the earth and surface waves which travel across it. The new technology controls the path of surface waves which are the most damaging and responsible ...gs of plastic which could be fitted to the Earth's surface to divert...

Early initiation of Arctic sea-ice formation

...ly over-wintered within the sea ice and then bloomed there in the spring when there was enough sunlight. They would have been released into stratified surface waters as the ice melted, rapidly sinking to the sea bottom as aggregates, leaving other diatom species to dominate summer production. And, indeed, th...

Reviews of microbial gene language published in special issue of Trends in Microbiology

...sor at the Institute for Genome Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and a senior scientist on the PAMGO project, commented: "The surface has barely been scratched in the attempt to unravel the complex relationships between human health and the microbes that inhabit us. Here at the Inst...

Surviving mass extinction by leading a double life

...mical evidence shows that this species actively grows within the open-ocean surface waters, thus occupying both planktonic and benthic domains. Such ecological... oceans returned to normal, the survivors were able to recolonise the ocean surface once more. The research, carried out in collaboration with the Universit...

LSUHSC's Bazan awarded ARRA grant to preserve vision

...57%). Common causes of occupational eye injury include blunt trauma, chemical burns, corneal abrasions (a scratch on the cornea, the clear dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye), and biological contamination (infections). ...

Flexible neck in cell-receptor DC-SIGN targets more pathogens

...ation 209), the researchers used a device called a surface force apparatus. The surface force apparatus measures the molecular forces betw...eceptor rearrange slightly, to adapt to the target surface and maximize the bond. This 5 nanometer conformati...

New advance in revolutionary 'bullet fingerprinting' technique

...curring between the metal and the fingerprint sweat deposit. Using advanced surface imaging techniques, such as an Atomic Force Microscope, nanoscale observati... and humidity, with the resultant image becoming a permanent feature on the surface of the metal." "Currently, fingerprint recovery from bullets is very low...
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