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Structures in Biological News

Researchers develop flow sensors based on hair structures of blind cavefish

A blind fish that has evolved a unique technique for sensing motion may inspire a new generation of sensors that perform better than current active sonar. Although members of the fish species Astyanax fasciatus cannot see, they sense their environment and the movement of water around them w...

Study of protein structures reveals key events in evolutionary history

A new study of proteins, the molecular machines that drive all life, also sheds light on the history of living organisms. The study, in the journal Structure , reveals that after eons of gradual evolution, proteins suddenly experienced a "big bang" of innovation. The active regions of many pro...

Mini subs to probe odd structures in BC lake

Hamilton, ON. June 16, 2008 Single person submersibles have been called in to help scientists retrieve samples from a lake in northern British Columbia that may hold vital clues to the history of life on Earth and on other planets. Greg Slater, an environmental geochemist in the Faculty of Sci...

First high-res 3D structures of mammalian HSP90 protein solved

Dr. Dan Gewirth, Hauptman-Woodward senior research scientist, has just solved the structure of the first mammalian GRP94 protein implicated in immune diseases such as sepsis, AIDS and certain cancers. His work is being published today in a cover article in a top scientific journal - Molecular Cel...

A step toward tissue-engineered heart structures for children

Infants and children receiving artificial heart-valve replacements face several repeat operations as they grow, since the since the replacements become too small and must be traded for bigger ones. Researchers at Childrens Hospital Boston have now developed a solution: living, growing valves creat...

Researchers observe single protein dimers wavering between two symmetrically opposed structures

LA JOLLA, CA, June 19, 2009Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute, the University of California, San Diego, and Ohio State University have used a very sensitive fluorescence technique to find that a bacterial protein thought to exist in one "natural" three-dimensional structure (shape), can...

Researchers gain genome-wide insights into patterns of the world's human population structures

Through sophisticated statistical analyses and advanced computer simulations, researchers are learning more about the genomic patterns of human population structure around the world. Revealing such patterns provides insights into the history of human evolution, the predominant evolutionary forc...

Using nanotubes to detect and repair cracks in aircraft wings, other structures

Troy, N.Y. Adding even a small amount of carbon nanotubes can go a long way toward enhancing the strength, integrity, and safety of plastic materials widely used in engineering applications, according to a new study. Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a simple new t...

Decoding protein structures helps illuminate cause of diabetes

Any photographer can vouch for the difficulty of capturing a clear picture of a moving target. When it comes to molecules, however, sometimes the motion is exactly what scientists want to see - for example, to understand the pathological protein mis-folding and assembly that seem to underlie a ...

Chemotherapy temporarily affects the structures of the human brain

Researchers have linked chemotherapy with short-term structural changes in cognitive areas of the brain, according to a new study. Published in the January 1, 2007 issue of CANCER ( http://www.interscience.wiley.com/cancer-newsroom ), a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the stud...

New understanding of parasite cell structures may provide treatments for serious tropical diseases

Don't even think about trying to pronounce it. Although it is found in many organisms including humans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol has remained a mouthful for laymen and a puzzle for scientists. And yet GPIs, as science thankfully calls these cellular lipids, are important in numerous biological ...

SuperLigands - a database of ligand structures derived from the Protein Data Bank

Scientists have isolated the first human embryonic stem cell lines specifically tailored to match the nuclear DNA of patients, both males and females of various ages, suffering from disease or spinal cord injury. The research is being released by the journal Science, which is published by AAAS, ...

Better insight into brain anatomical structures

Magnetic resonance imaging is a very effective method for revealing anatomical details of soft tissues. Contrast agents can help to make these images even clearer and allow physiological processes to be followed in real time. Conventional gadolinium complexes currently used as MRI contrast agent c...

Navigating in the ocean of molecules

...cal space. It generates maps of chemically-related structures and links them to biological activity, that is, to...istic scaffolds. Scaffold Hunter then orders these structures in a kind of family tree based on their similariti...g the branches from complex to increasingly simple structures which may be similar in their effect." Thus, the r...

Carnegie donates landmark clones to biology

...vel regulatory mechanism that controls nutrient uptakeneighboring pore-like structures at a plant cell's surface physically interact to control the uptake. "Since...is called the C-terminus and it regulates the interactions of the pore-like structures at the membrane surface in plants. In this study they focused on the underl...

Climbing to new heights in the forest canopy

...erve structural traits of the stems that play an integral role in the plants' climbing ability. Because climbing plants rely on their other supportive structures as they reach toward the sky, they do not need to invest their energy into building huge tree trunks to support heavy branches. Not only are they able...

Hybrid vehicle rebates produce scant environmental benefits, high cost

... 2006. Results are believed to extend to the U.S. market, given the similarities between auto industries, in terms of vehicle buying patterns, pricing structures and car models. ...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

... first evidence that chromatin does not exist uniquely in solenoid or zigzag forms but rather exhibits a "heteromorphic" structure where both types of structures are in balance with each other. Arya's collaborators have developed an innovative experimental approach called Electron microscopy assisted nucleosome...

New computer simulation helps explain folding in important cellular protein

...s, Ga. Most parts of living organisms come packaged with ribbons. The ribbons are proteinschains of amino acids that must fold into three-dimensional structures to work properly. But when for any reason the ribbons fold incorrectly, bad things can happen, and in humans misfolded-protein disorders include Alzhe...

Jet-propelled imaging for an ultrafast light source

...f the complicated molecules from which our bodies are made. All living things are made of proteins and nucleic acids, but relatively few of the atomic structures of the thousands, perhaps millions, of varieties of proteins are known. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will soon begin operation at the SL...

Scientists track impact of DNA damage in the developing brain

... Switching off a key DNA repair system in the developing nervous system is linked to smaller brain size as well as problems in brain structures vital to movement, memory and emotion, according to new research led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists. The work, published in th...

Airway cells use 'tasting' mechanism to detect and clear harmful substances

...ound that when the receptors detect bitter compounds, the cilia beat faster, suggesting that the sensing and the motion capabilities of these cellular structures are linked. "On the tongue, bitter substances trigger taste cells to stimulate neurons, which then evoke a response -- the perception of a bitter t...

What scientists know about jewel beetle shimmer

...stal called a 'cholesteric' liquid crystal whose free surface has cone-like structures and that has a helical arrangement of molecules. Research suggests the cel... cholesteric liquid crystal. When these cones solidify, they preserve their structures and produce colors as light hits them from different angles. The beetle'...

Silicon with afterburners: Process developed at Rice could be boon to electronics manufacturer

...o integrated circuits by making the circuits ever smaller, doping gets problematic. "When silicon gets really small, down to the nanoscale, you get structures that essentially have very little volume," Tour said. "You have to put dopant atoms in silicon for it to work as a semiconductor, but now, devices are...

Researchers design first model motor nerve system that's insulated and organized like the human body

...linated and unmyelinated nerves to reveal how nerves malfunction as well as for spinal cord injury studies. "Being able to study these fully developed structures means we can really start looking at these things in a way that just wasn't possible before," commented Hickman. ...

University of Miami receives stimulus funds for study of hurricane impacts on structures, ecosystems

...e the United States. A better understanding of how structures withstand -- or fail to withstand a hurricane cou.... The facility will allow scientists to study how structures and their surrounding environment are affected dur... directed at the development of stronger and safer structures and communities is critical for the present and fu...

Facile synthesis of nanoparticles with multiple functions advanced in Singapore

..., alloy, semiconductor and semiconductor-metal hybrid nanoparticles through our simple and flexible approach to engineer advanced materials with novel structures and multiple functionalities" said Jackie Y. Ying, Ph.D., IBN Executive Director and principal investigator of this research. ...

Researchers gain insight into mechanism underlying Huntington's

...ington's disease and myotonic dystrophy, respectively tend to form hairpin structures via strand slippage in the newly synthesized or "nicked" DNA strand during DNA synthesis associated with DNA replication and/or repair. These hairpin structures are highly thermo-stable and do not "melt" under normal physiologic conditi...

Telomeres resemble DNA fragile sites

...eins. "Telomeric DNA has a repetitive sequence that can form unusual DNA structures when the DNA is unwound during DNA replication," says de Lange. "Our data suggest that TRF1 brings in two proteins that can take out these structures in the telomeric DNA. In other words, TRF1 and its helpers remove the bumps...

Spontaneous assembly

... sufficient to generate the observed complex, ordered patterns. This simple stochastic self-assembly mechanism, which can create and maintain periodic structures in biological membranes without direct cytoskeletal involvement or active transport, may prove to be widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cel...

2000-year-old statue of an athlete sheds light on corrosion and other modern challenges

...minerals from their surroundings and form shells and bone. Apoxyomenos was encrusted with such deposits. "As studies of long-term biofouled manmade structures are limited, the finding of an ancient sculpture immersed for two millennia in the sea provided a unique opportunity to probe the long-term impact of ...

Scientists track chemical changes in cells as they endure extreme conditions

...ch as spikes in levels of free radicals and organic acids. Specifically, the infrared microscope tracks the instantaneous response of hydrogen bond structures in cellular water as their immediate surroundings change. The spectral measurements indicate changes in hydrogen bonds, which in turn indicate changes...

'Normal' cells far from cancer give nanosignals of trouble

...ll's nanoarchitecture includes the fundamental "building blocks" of the cell, which drive the molecular processes that allow a cell to function. These structures are most likely to be altered with the onset of cancer formation, says Backman, who is a member of the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of ...

University of Leicester researchers discover new fluorescent silicon nanoparticles

...and treatment of cancer. Professor of Nanoscience in the Department of Physics and Astonomy, Chris Binns said: "Nanotechnology, that is, the use of structures whose dimensions are on the nanometre scale, to build new materials and devices, appears to hold the key to future developments in a wide range of tec...

Can a new implant coating technique create a new six million dollar man?

...current commercial coatings. Giving your joints an electrochemical bath Today's surgeons can reconstruct joints in the human body using metal structures implanted to take the place of the natural joint. In order to better integrate the new addition to the adjacent bone, implants are often coated with s...

Structural biology scores with protein snapshot

...total of nine membrane spans). The group's ability to determine the NMR structure of DAGK suggests that similar methods can now be used to study the structures of other membrane proteins. "We're taking the methods that we used for diacylglycerol kinase and applying them to high value targets such as G prote...

Gene predicts how brain responds to fatigue, human study shows

...ting" extra brain structures. In addition to brain structures normally activated by the cognitive task, these pa... in other frontal, temporal, and subcortical brain structures after a sleepless night. In contrast, after a s...ong PER3 group, showed reduced activity in brain structures normally activated by the task. These participants...

UC Davis researchers visualize formation of a new synapse

...ow described what the team was able to visualize: "Axons of one neuron grow toward the dendrites of neighboring neurons. As they do so, finger-like structures called filopodia extend and retract rapidly from the tip of the axons and eventually make a stable contact with the dendrite. We can then see neurolig...

CU-Boulder study shows Maya intensively cultivated manioc 1,400 years ago

...gers laid out the agricultural fields and the town structures with the same orientation as the nearby river, sho... be testing ceramic vessels recovered from various structures at Ceren for traces of manioc. To date, 12 structures have been excavated, and others detected by ground...

Technology guide: Principles -- applications -- trends

...dedicated to selforganizing systems and nanosystems, a still fledgling area of research. Here, simple building blocks organize themselves into complex structures with new properties, in much the same way as happens in nature. Just like tourists navigating their way through a foreign city with guidebooks in t...
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