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Stems in Biological News

HIV infection stems from few viruses

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. A new study reveals the genetic identity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the version responsible for sexual transmission, in unprecedented detail. The finding provides important clues in the ongoing search for an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine, said researchers at the Unive...

Climbing to new heights in the forest canopy

...is possible to observe the superficial differences among the vines in their climbing methods, it is more difficult to observe structural traits of the stems that play an integral role in the plants' climbing ability. Because climbing plants rely on their other supportive structures as they reach toward the...

American Chemical Society's Weekly Presspac -- June 17, 2009

...ment substitute coal briquettes and improved stoves for cooking and heating to help reduce the country's high air pollution levels. The recommendation stems from one of the first scientific studies showing that this approach is effective in improving air quality, including a 98 percent reduction in air pol...

UF makes gene therapy advance in severe genetic disorder

...this therapy was discovered about 30 years ago, most children born with this disease did not survive past infancy. Glycogen storage disease type 1A stems from a faulty enzyme that doesn't convert stored sugar, or glycogen, to glucose, the type of sugar the body uses for energy. This prevents the body fr...

Story tips From the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory -- May 2009

...on what scientists have for years observed about genetic variation among trees in natural populations. In 2013, scientists will extract cores from the stems to evaluate differences in ethanol production. Information gained from this study may lead to the identification of genetic traits that produce high-y...

Flow of potassium into cells implicated in schizophrenia

...e risk-associated version of this potassium channel gene, even though they don't show any psychotic behavior." Evidence suggests that schizophrenia stems from complex interactions between multiple genes and environmental factors. Several candidate genes have recently been statistically linked to the ill...

Better water use could reduce future food crises

...ation are estimated to suffer from severe water scarcity. The new analysis which additionally accounts for green water, that is water in the soil that stems directly from rainfall, suggests that the actual number is under one billion. It also shows that wise water management can lift billions out of water ...

Decreasing deer damage

...ility of NTFPs by "browsing" twigs and rubbing the stems of shrubs, trees, and plants. When deer browse, ...ess available. Male white-tailed deer also rub the stems of trees and shrubs during autumn to remove velvet...an be considerable. Heavily browsed tips or rubbed stems are not marketable, and thus are a direct loss to ...

Climate change threatens Lake Baikal's unique biota

... World Heritage Site by UNESCO because a high proportion of its rich fauna and flora are found nowhere else. Perhaps the most alarming imminent threat stems from the dependence of the lake's food web on large, endemic diatoms, which are uniquely vulnerable to expected reductions in the length of time the l...

Going bananas for sustainable research -- scientists create fuel from African crop waste

...r and wine. Around 2 million tons are grown each year but the fruit is only a small percentage of what the plant produces. The rest skins, leaves and stems is left to rot as waste. Now scientists at The University of Nottingham are looking at ways to use that waste to produce fuel, developing simple m...

The secret to chimp strength

...r muscles. Our fine motor control prevents great feats of strength, but allows us to perform delicate and uniquely human tasks. Walker's hypothesis stems partly from a finding by primatologist Ann MacLarnon. MacLarnon showed that, relative to body mass, chimps have much less grey matter in their spinal ...

'Seeing' stem cells helps in fight against peripheral arterial disease

... the body and make more blood vessels or new blood vessels," he noted. "Using an animal model, we found that our research opens the door to delivering stems cells exactly where they are needed, allowing them to 'recruit' new blood vessels," added Wacker. Bone marrow stem cells, which have the ability t...

New tool for genome-wide association studies

...loped on the principle that a picture is worth a thousand words," says the study's senior author, Dr. Brian Stevenson at the LICR Lausanne Branch. "It stems from a very successful collaboration between the LICR Computational Genomics Group, the SIB Vital-IT group and researchers who generate association da...

A revolutionary new model for Alzheimer's disease

...-held belief that AD is caused by brain cell damage inflicted by the amyloid plaques may be wrong; instead, it is beginning to appear that the disease stems from an imbalance between the normal making and breaking of connections in the brain, with netrin-1 supporting the connections and the amyloid breakin...

CSHL scientists clarify editing error underlying genetic neurodegenerative disease

... to the editing of frames in a film, where unnecessary frames are left out of the final version. An 'atypical' splice site The new discovery stems from a program of research by Professor Adrian Krainer, Ph.D., and members of his lab at CSHL, to understand how cells process the information encoded...

To climate-change worries, add 1 more: Extended mercury threat

...cause trees effectively scavenge the poison from the atmosphere. Leaves and stems collect rainwater, and with it mercury; trees drop mercury-laden leaves on ...assessed mercury levels in rain that struck the canopy and then flowed down stems and trunks; in rain that fell directly from the canopy to the forest floor,...

Motor nerve targeting to limb muscles is controlled by ephrin proteins

...hly precise and intricate nerve network whose major purpose is to analyze and respond to external stimuli through coordinated movement. Such precision stems from the accuracy of nerve connections formed between neurons and muscles. "To understand how this occurs," explains Dr. Kania, "we study a simple sys...

Single adult stem cell can self renew, repair tissue damage in live mammal

...le tissue, but this is the first demonstration of self-renewal of a single cell." The ability to isolate and then transplant skeletal adult muscle stems cells could have a wide impact in treating not only a variety of muscle wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy but also severe muscle injuries or...

Replacing corn with perennial grasses improves carbon footprint of biofuels

...n dioxide from the atmosphere into the organic carbon that makes up leaves, stems and other plant parts. As plants decay, this carbon goes into the soil. Org...ernels, but significantly more liquid fuel energy can be harvested from the stems and leaves of plants. The technology for producing this "cellulosic" ethano...

Penn scientists discover cells reorganize shape to fit the situation

...ture of a tissue inside a living organ rescues cytoskeletal abnormalities that otherwise arise in an artificial two-dimensional construct. The study stems from an international collaboration between the microfluidics experts in Piel's group and the biology experts in Tran's. Co-first authors Terenna and ...

Biophysical Society selects 2009 Distinguished Service, Emily M. Gray and Society Fellow recipients

...in general, and biophysics in particular, and the successful and creative leadership he has demonstrated in these activities. His longstanding support stems from his deep knowledge in the sciences basic to medicine and health, anchored in his own research career and the important contributions he has made ...

Landmark study unlocks stem cell, DNA secrets to speed therapies

...obal Reorganization of Replication Domains During Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation" -- is focused solely on results observed in the mouse embryonic stems cells; data on the human cells will be detailed in a future report. "We know that all the information (DNA) required to take on the identity of an...

Scent on demand: Hebrew University scientists enhance the scent of flowers

... of $200 million into the economy annually. Israel is third only to the Netherlands and Kenya in supplying the EU with flowers. Each year, 1.5 billion stems are exported - twice as many as 10 years ago. ...

Stem cells may solve mystery of early pregnancy breast cancer protection

...ately 2,500 mammary cells were stem cells in the "virgin" mice while 1 in 5,000 were stem cells in the mice that had given birth. Why having fewer stems cells protects against breast cancer remains unproven, said Li. "Stem cells are long-living cells. One theory is that they can thus accumulate mor...

Biologists identify genes controlling rhythmic plant growth

... that plants grow at a slow and steady rate throughout the day and night, Darwin and others found that they grow in regular nightly spurts, with plant stems elongating fastest in the hours just before dawn. See video of soybean sprout growth at: http://www.biology.ucsd.edu/scicomm/video/bigbeansprout.mov ...

Project aims to reduce complications, multiple surgeries with biodegradable implantable devices

...ve as deputy director along with UC professor Mark Schulz, codirector of the UC Nanoworld and Smart Materials and Devices Laboratories. The project stems from a five-year Engineering Research Center (ERC) grant NCAT received from the National Science Foundation (NSF) in collaboration with Pitt and UC. T...

MSU technology that converts plant fibers to biofuel commercialized

...ears before the new biofuel varieties were available commercially. Breaking down cellulose and hemicellulose (the fiber that makes plant leaves and stems rigid) into simple sugars that can be fermented into ethanol has been a key challenge for biofuel producers. Enzymes must be added to chopped plant ma...

Researchers devise means to create blood by identifying earliest stem cells

...duction of blood could not, to the researchers' knowledge, be studied in humans because scientists had no way to identify these human progenitor blood stems cells to follow their development. The scientists suspected they existed in humans, however, because they have been found in mice and zebra fish. T...

Biochemists manipulate fruit flavor enzymes

...rategies. It also has important implications for manipulating food flavor," said Raman, the senior author. "For example, the aroma of virgin olive oil stems from the volatiles synthesized by olives. By modifying the activity of enzymes that generate these substances, it may be possible to alter the flavor ...

UGA gets $2.5 million in grants to study plants to make biofuels

...cher, and Laura Marek, USDA researcher, received $1.2 million to study the genomics of sunflower. "Certain wild species of sunflower produce woody stems and high biomass yields, often reaching heights of 18 to 21 feet," Knapp said. "Our grant focuses on understanding genetic mechanisms underlying wood...

Rare Antarctic fossils reveal extinction of tundra before full polar climate arrived

... from an existing bryophyte (Drepanocladus longifolius). This type of morphologic stability is nearly unheard of in the fossil record. Between the stems and leaves of the mosses, the researchers found exceptionally well preserved ostracods, tiny crustaceans whose soft parts are not typically found in t...

Microbe diet key to carbon dioxide release

...ars to help control soil fertility and the normal release of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When plants drop their leaves, stems and twigs, this organic matter slowly becomes part of the soil as a result of decomposition, which is facilitated by bacteria and other microbes. This...

AGU journal highlights -- July 23, 2008

...Active fire suppression since the early twentieth century has caused a widespread increase in fire-intolerant trees, smaller trees, and the density of stems growing on trees within western U.S. forests. These factors have created thicker forests and are thought to account for much of North America's carbon...

UC San Diego launches Institute of Engineering in Medicine to accelerate health care tech

...rgraduate and graduate levels. Workshops and a "Distinguished Lecture Series" will also explore topics related to regenerative medicine, nanomedicine, stems cells, medical devices and instrumentation, inflammation, and a wide range of other areas. ...

Fresh from the grapevine to the table

...rapes are subject to serious water loss and decay while making the long trip from the vine to dinner tables around the world. Mold and browning of the stems are the two main factors that reduce grape quality during shipping and storage in retail produce sections. Pads placed over the fruit packed in box...

Life on the edge: To disperse, or become extinct?

...ould focus not only on conserving land where species are now, but also where they may be found in the future," says Dr. Eckert. This observation stems from his recent study published in the scientific journal New Phytologist which shows for the first time that natural selection gives a boost to t...

NOAA study shows eastern tropical pacific ocean dolphin populations improving

...cal Pacific dolphins are recovering and the degree to which the fishery and other factors affect the conservation of these stocks. Today's report stems from a series of research cruises conducted since 1986. It presents new estimates of abundance for 10 dolphin stocks for each survey year between 1986...

Biodesign's Rittmann offers promising perspectives on society's energy challenge

...he world's food supply. For Rittmann, the most obvious renewable-energy solution one that passes the tests of scalability, environment, and food stems from the very factor that makes life on Earth possible: the sun. "The good news is that we have plenty of energy from the sun. Every day, the sun ...

Scripps Research Institute awarded patent for remarkable chemical technology

...ls, self-healing materials, microelectronics and responsive nanomaterials, and surface-sensitive adhesives, to name a few. The patented technology stems from the discovery that, under proper conditions, copper can quickly and reliably catalyze members of two large chemical groups, azides and alkynes. T...

US Patent Office rejects company's claim for bean commonly grown by Latin American farmers

...trust by CIAT and research centers worldwide. The CIAT genebank is one of 11 maintained worldwide by the CGIAR, where crop materials such as seeds, stems and tubers are held in trust with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The genebanks house a total of about 600,000 plant varie...
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