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Smallpox in Biological News

New study indicates smallpox vaccination effective for decades

New York, December 1, 2008 Although naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated in 1977, there is concern that bioterrorists might obtain smallpox from a laboratory and release it into the population. Under such circumstances, the supply of smallpox vaccine may be insufficient for universal admin...

Most people believe smallpox not an extinct disease

The vast majority of Scottish people interviewed in the streets of Edinburgh are unaware of one of the greatest achievements of medical science the eradication of smallpox from the world over 40 years ago. A poll sponsored by the Society for General Microbiology (SGM), in conjunction with the Edi...

New molecular clock from LLNL and CDC indicates smallpox evolved earlier than believed

Smallpox is older than thought, according to results of a new technique reported in the Sept. 24 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The researchers created a molecular...

Innovative smallpox vaccine research study to be conducted at Case Medical Center

University Hospitals Case Medical Center (UHCMC) and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine are part of a nationwide research study to determine the safety and effectiveness of a new smallpox vaccine geared toward adults ages 18 to 34 who have never been vaccinated against the disease....

Genetic factors are linked to fever following smallpox vaccination

New evidence supports the link between genetic factors and certain adverse events related to smallpox vaccination. The study, published in the July 15th issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online, may have implications for predicting adverse events from other live vaccines....

Mass vaccination unnecessary in the event of a large bioterrorist US smallpox attack

Mass vaccination would not be necessary in the event of a large-scale smallpox bioterrorist attack in the United States, according to a study led by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center that appears online in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases. Instead, the current ...

Defective immune system response to smallpox vaccine detailed in new study

Scientists supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have identified a defect in the immune response of people with the skin condition atopic dermatitis that puts them at risk of developing serious complications ...

Serious adverse reactions to smallpox vaccine appear to be limited

There was a low rate of life-threatening adverse reactions to the smallpox vaccine administered to potential first responders to a bioterrorism incident, possibly attributable to rigorous vaccine safety screening and educational programs, according to a study in the December 7 issue of JAMA. Rout...

Researchers develop new testing methods for potential monkeypox or smallpox outbreak

Researchers at the Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute (VGTI) at Oregon Health & Science University have developed new diagnostic methods to better detect future monkeypox or smallpox outbreaks. The research also sheds new light on the 2003 monkeypox outbreak in the Midwest -- monkeypox is close...

LIAI scientists make major finding on potential smallpox treatment

Research could lead to treatment that would help stop a smallpox outbreak Researchers at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology (LIAI) have made a major advancement toward protecting society against a smallpox outbreak by identifying an antibody in humans that quickly fights the sma...

Stopping smallpox in its tracks: A new anti-viral approach

Natural or deliberate exposure to smallpox poses a great health threat, especially since routine smallpox vaccinations have been discontinued and no clinically approved treatment currently exists. In the February 1 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Ellis Reinherz and colleagues from H...

First genetically-engineered malaria vaccine to enter human trials

...is approach to vaccine development using a weakened form of the whole organism that causes a particular disease has proven successful in eradicating smallpox and controlling diseases such as flu and polio. Professor Cowman said the research team, which includes Dr Matthew O'Neill and Dr Alex Maier from th...

Study characterizes eczema patients most at risk for dangerous viral infections

...entify people at risk for serious complications of smallpox vaccinations, and point to defects in the skin bar...ma herpeticum. Vaccinia virus, which is used in smallpox vaccinations, can also cause a serious and life-th... susceptible to this infection when they receive a smallpox vaccination. This situation could limit the abilit...

A card-swipe for medical tests

...d be taken into the field, where a sample card or stick "could be dipped in groundwater, dried off and read in our device to look for E. coli, plague, smallpox or other suspects on the homeland security list," he says. Granger says cards with GMR sensors also could be used for environmental monitoring of ...

Potatoes may hold key to Alzheimer's treatment

...ay to make Alzheimer's vaccinations safer would be to use a closely-related, but not human, protein as the vaccine, much like cowpox virus is used for smallpox immunizations. In the August 15 Journal of Biological Chemistry, Robert Friedland and colleagues used this concept on an amyloid-like protein fo...

LIAI researchers discover new cellular mechanism that will significantly advance vaccine development

... vaccine expert and director of the LIAI Center for Infectious Disease, also was a key contributor on the study. Dr. Crotty said the team studied the smallpox vaccine, considered the "gold standard" of vaccines, and found some startling answers. "We expected one thing based on textbook knowledge and that ...

A step forward in virology

...vaccinia virus belongs to a family of particularly dangerous viruses, namely the pox viruses. The most infamous member, Variola, the casitive agent of smallpox constituted a global pandemic disease in the Middle Ages, causing the deaths of millions of people, especially among the indigenous population of Nort...

Poxvirus potency uncovered in new atomic map

...e organism such as smallpox, cowpox and monkeypox. smallpox in particular has played a tragic role in human hi...on and 500 million deaths in the 20th Century. smallpox was declared officially eradicated in 1979, but ot...ses remain a health threat. The damage that the smallpox virus has done to mankind is horrific and enormous...

Biological warfare: What do you need to know?

... how theyre transmitted and affect us. Included in the discussion will be a breakdown of bacterial biological agents such as anthrax, viruses such as smallpox and toxins such as botulinum. Guerrero received his undergraduate degree in biology from Iowa University and his graduate degree in human resourc...

Tips from the Journals of the American Society for Microbiology

... and Chemotherapy, 51. 8: 2765-2773). New smallpox Vaccine Candidates Demonstrate Superior Immune Res...ration of an immune-enhancing protein into two new smallpox vaccine candidates elicited superior immune respon...Following the declaration of global eradication of smallpox in 1979, vaccinations for the general public were ...

Smallpox outbreak: How long would it take for vaccines to protect people? Would it work?

... In the event of a smallpox outbreak in the United States, how long would it t...is question. General routine vaccinations for smallpox were stopped in the United States in 1971, and the world was declared free of smallpox in 1980. But because of the recent concern about b...

Herpes infection may be symbiotic, help beat back some bacteria

... our bodies have established a symbiotic relationship with." Scientists previously used vaccination to eliminate the deadly and highly contagious smallpox virus. Vaccines are currently in use or in clinical trials for several disease-causing strains of herpes. Human herpes viruses include oral and g...

Tiny Tampa Bay fish key to evolution of immune system

...neutralize what we're trying to do to it," Ostrov said. "For example, if we're trying to create a vaccine against a specific pathogen such as anthrax, smallpox or bird flu, we have to take into account the defensive measures those and other organisms might have." Organisms such as plants, fungi and primiti...

Encoded metallic nanowires reveal bioweapons

...lleagues selected harmless model substances to stand in for anthrax spores, smallpox virus, and protein toxins such as ricin and botulinum toxin. If a simultane...is desired, the anthrax antibody would be attached to stripe pattern 1, the smallpox antibodies to stripe pattern 2, and the toxin antibodies to stripe pattern ...

A new tool against brain disease

... Epstein-Barr virus, which is a persistent infection, but much lower on T cells of persons immunized with vaccinia virus, a live virus vaccine against smallpox that is effectively cleared by the immune system. According to Walker, those findings indicate that activation of the PD-1 pathway occurs during the i...

How HIV 'exhausts' killer T cells

... Epstein-Barr virus, which is a persistent infection, but much lower on T cells of persons immunized with vaccinia virus, a live virus vaccine against smallpox that is effectively cleared by the immune system. According to Walker, those findings indicate that activation of the PD-1 pathway occurs during the i...

UCLA paper examines how one disease may prevent another

... The knowledge that one disease may prevent the onset of another is not new. For example, the discovery that cowpox vaccines can prevent smallpox dates back to 1798. Dr. E. Richard Stiehm, a professor of pediatrics at the Mattel Children's Hospital at UCLA, researched examples throughout medic...

Protein finding could lead to treatment for inflammatory diseases

...a topical treatment that would inhibit painful inflammatory responses. The molluscum contagiosum virus that produces MC160 is a distant relative of smallpox and causes a benign, short-lived skin infection in children and sexually active young adults. It is a common disease, with antibodies detected in up t...

Mice studies illustrate potential of chimp/human antibodies to protect against smallpox

...the serious complications that can occur following smallpox vaccination--and possibly may even protect against... program officially eradicated naturally occurring smallpox disease in 1980. However, concerns of a bioterror ... virus have prompted researchers to search for new smallpox vaccines and treatments. The currently license...

The bioweapon is in the post

... might think it would be difficult for a terrorist to obtain genes from the smallpox virus, or a similarly vicious pathogen. Well, it's not. Armed with a fake e...re base pairs long, an attempt to order all the genes necessary to launch a smallpox attack would probably arouse suspicion. "That would stand out from a techno...

New vaccine platform may fight infections with causes from influenza to bioterrorism

...h and Louisiana State University, suggests that the immune system can be primed to ward off other infections as well, such as those caused by the flu, smallpox or exposure to anthrax, even in patients who have the highest risk for infection. Reporting in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Jay K. Kolls, ...

UF scientist finds unexpected link between cat and human AIDS viruses

...nst HIV." Some compounds made from separate virus strains have been successfully used in vaccines against viruses from the same subfamily, such as smallpox in humans, which is made from cowpox virus, and human measles vaccines for canine distemper in puppies. "Therefore, protective vaccines based on cr...

Field of beams - Novel system uses polarized light pulses to reveal crop health

...." The idea for the project came about when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention approached Rohani to assist in the modeling of potential smallpox introduction. "I noticed that when we assumed different distributions of the infectious period in the models, we observed very different epidemic curv...

Inhaling large amounts of salt can cause hypertension

...." The idea for the project came about when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention approached Rohani to assist in the modeling of potential smallpox introduction. "I noticed that when we assumed different distributions of the infectious period in the models, we observed very different epidemic curv...

Understanding biases in epidemic models important when making public health predictions

...." The idea for the project came about when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention approached Rohani to assist in the modeling of potential smallpox introduction. "I noticed that when we assumed different distributions of the infectious period in the models, we observed very different epidemic curv...

Cancer drug slows poxvirus in mice

...rwise lethal dose of vaccinia virus, a relative of smallpox virus, report scientists supported by the National...ht be useful in preventing adverse side effects of smallpox vaccine. The classic smallpox vaccine is made from live, weakened vaccinia virus...

Secret of smallpox's success may lead to bioterror cure

...not only be able to create a vaccine that can cure smallpox infections in their early stages, but he may also ...une systems. The ability to stay hidden allows the smallpox virus, in particular, time to grow and multiply to...and eliminates the virus, also leaving immunity to smallpox and other pox viruses in its wake. "And there h...

First North American Encapsulated Islet Transplant without Long-term Immune Suppression into a Patient with Type 1 Diabetes

... another deadly viral disease, acting over a sustained period in bygone historic times. Some scientists have suggested this disease could have been smallpox or even bubonic plague but bubonic plague is a bacterial disease rather than a virus and is not blocked by the CCR5-delta32 mutation. Professor Dun...

Biologists discover why 10% of Europeans are safe from HIV

... another deadly viral disease, acting over a sustained period in bygone historic times. Some scientists have suggested this disease could have been smallpox or even bubonic plague but bubonic plague is a bacterial disease rather than a virus and is not blocked by the CCR5-delta32 mutation. Professor Dun...
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