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Researchers observe single protein dimers wavering between two symmetrically opposed structures

LA JOLLA, CA, June 19, 2009Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute, the University of California, San Diego, and Ohio State University have used a very sensitive fluorescence technique to find that a bacterial protein thought to exist in one "natural" three-dimensional structure (shape), can...

Native Americans descended from a single ancestral group, DNA study confirms

For two decades, researchers have been using a growing volume of genetic data to debate whether ancestors of Native Americans emigrated to the New World in one wave or successive waves, or from one ancestral Asian population or a number of different populations. Now, after painstakingly compari...

Distinguishing single cells with nothing but light

Researchers at the University of Rochester have developed a novel optical technique that permits rapid analysis of single human immune cells using only light. Availability of such a technique means that immunologists and other cellular researchers may soon be able to observe the responses of in...

Scientists discover why teeth form in a single row

A system of opposing genetic forces determines why mammals develop a single row of teeth, while sharks sport several, according to a study published today in the journal Science . When completely understood, the genetic program described in the study may help guide efforts to re-grow missing teet...

Large DNA stretches, not single genes, shut off as cells mature

Experiments at Johns Hopkins have found that the gradual maturing of embryonic cells into cells as varied as brain, liver and immune system cells is apparently due to the shut off of several genes at once rather than in individual smatterings as previous studies have implied. Working with mous...

Einstein researchers develop technique to count messages made by single genes

November 16, 2008 In a study in the advance online edition of Nature Structural and Molecular Biology , researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine describe a technique for looking more precisely at a fundamental step of a cell's life a gene, DNA, being read into a message, mRNA. The ...

Reprogrammable cell type depends on a single gene to keep its identity

Scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have discovered that a certain differentiated cell type is so ready to change its identity that it requires the constant expression of a gene called Prox1 to dissuade it. The researchers showed that Prox1 acts as a two-way switch whose inacti...

Salk researchers successfully reprogram keratinocytes attached to a single hair

LA JOLLA, CA The first reports of the successful reprogramming of adult human cells back into so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which by all appearances looked and acted liked embryonic stem cells created a media stir. But the process was woefully inefficient: Only one out of 10,000...

A single mechanism for hypertension, insulin resistance and immune suppression

Many of the 75 million Americans with essential hypertension also develop diabetes and other complications in addition to their high blood pressure, and researchers have discovered a common molecular mechanism in a strain of rat that explains why such metabolic disorders arise together in mammals....

Study shows single insecticide application can kill 3 cockroach generations

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - One dose of an insecticide can kill three generations of cockroaches as they feed off of each other and transfer the poison, according to Purdue University entomologists who tested the effectiveness of a specific gel bait. It is the first time that scientists have shown t...

Researchers observe spontaneous 'ratcheting' of single ribosome molecules

Researchers report this week that they are the first to observe the dynamic, ratchet-like movements of single ribosomal molecules in the act of building proteins from genetic blueprints. Their study, published in the journal Molecular Cell, reveals a key mechanism in the interplay of molecules...

Ebola virus disarmed by excising a single gene

MADISON - The deadly Ebola virus, an emerging public health concern in Africa and a potential biological weapon, ranks among the most feared of exotic pathogens. Due to its virulent nature, and because no vaccines or treatments are available, scientists studying the agent have had to work under...

Baumann lab identifies elusive telomere RNA subunit in single cell model

The Stowers Institutes Baumann Lab has identified the long-sought telomerase RNA gene in a single-cell research model. Their findings have been posted to the Web site of the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology and will appear in a future print edition. Chromosomes shorten with every ...

Gene study supports single main migration across Bering Strait

Did a relatively small number of people from Siberia who trekked across a Bering Strait land bridge some 12,000 years ago give rise to the native peoples of North and South America? Or did the ancestors of todays native peoples come from other parts of Asia or Polynesia, arriving multiple time...

New technique captures chemical reactions in a single living cell at unprecedented resolution

Berkeley -- Bioengineers at the University of California, Berkeley, have discovered a technique that for the first time enables the detection of biomolecules' dynamic reactions in a single living cell. By taking advantage of the signature frequency by which organic and inorganic molecules absor...

Scripps research study reveals structural dynamics of single prion molecules

The new findings, which are being published the week of February 12 in an online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offer significant insights into normal folding mechanisms as well as those that lead to abnormal amyloid fibril conversion. The new insights may lead to t...

Scientists discover new virus caused deaths of transplant recipients from single donor

Scientists in the Greene Infectious Disease Laboratory of the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and colleagues in the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory in Melbourne, Australia and 454 Life Sciences have discovered a new virus that was responsible for the deaths of...

New nanotechnology able to examine single molecules, aiding in determining gene expression

A new nanotechnology that can examine single molecules in order to determine gene expression, paving the way for scientists to more accurately examine single cancer cells, has been developed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers at UCLA's California Nanosystems Institute (CNSI), New York Uni...

'Best of both worlds' -- Targeting a single gene could inhibit bone decay and stimulate bone growth

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Medicine have found by targeting the function of a single gene that it is possible to inhibit bone decay while simultaneously stimulating bone formation. This concept may lead to drug treatments for osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Seni...

Autoimmune disease triggered if T cells miss a single protein early on

Scientists have discovered that autoimmunity can be triggered in the thymus, where the immune system's T cells develop, if T cells fail to recognize just one of the body's thousands of proteins as "self." The research confirms an emerging view that autoimmunity can start in this cradle of the immu...

A single sugar found responsible for an antibody's ability to treat inflammation

For years, researchers have struggled to understand how IVIG worked. It's ability to treat autoimmune diseases seemed to bean apparent contradiction. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a complex mixture of IgG antibodies made from human plasma that contains the pooled antibodies from thousand...

Recombination protein dynamics observed with single monomer resolution

Using a sensitive, single-molecule measurement technique, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have observed the life cycle of RecA, a protein that plays a major role in repairing damaged DNA. The protein forms a filament, which grows and shrinks primarily by one monomer ...

'Micro-boxes' of water used to study single molecules

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated the use of water droplets as minuscule "boxes" for small numbers of biomolecules. The unusually simple containment method may enable easier experiments on single molecule dynamics and perhaps lead to the deve...

Manipulating single cell receptor alters animal behavior

Researchers at the University at Buffalo and the University of Pennsylvania were the first to demonstrate that two intracellular events, both stimulated by the same cell receptor, can provoke different behaviors in mammals. The broad implication of the findings may alter the way behavioral neuros...

Natural selection at single gene demonstrated

Biologists seeking elusive proof of natural selection at the single-gene level have a powerful new tool at their disposal. Chris Toomajian, postdoctoral researcher in molecular and computational biology in the USC College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, led a group that sought to replace the stand...

No single gene for ageing

According to professor Thomas Kirkwood of the University of Newcastle, there is no single gene for ageing. Throughout time, Humans have used energy to get food, produce offspring and survive danger - not to repair and maintain cells. So the maintenance system in the body slowly breaks down. This ...

Ancient DNA confirms single origin of Malagasy primates

Yale biologists have managed to extract and analyze DNA from giant, extinct lemurs, according to a Yale study published in a recent issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Radiocarbon dating of the bones and teeth from which the DNA was obtained reveal that each of the indiv...

Successful Test Of Single Molecule Switch Opens The Door To Biomolecular Electronics

A team of scientists led by biophysicist Stuart Lindsay from the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University has created the first reproducible single molecule negative differential resistor ?and in the process has developed a groundbreaking experimental technique that provides a “roadmap?for d...

Basis for DNA ejection from single phage particles

Studying phage, a primitive class of virus that infects bacteria by injecting its genomic DNA into host cells, researchers have gained insight into the driving force behind this poorly understood injection process, which has been proposed in the past to occur through the release of pressure accumul...

Opposing fat metabolism pathways triggered by a single gene

Regulating metabolism of fat is an important challenge for any animal, from nematodes to humans. Central players in the regulatory network are the nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), which are transcription factors that turn on or off a set of target genes when bound by specific lipid molecules. In t...

Carnegie donates landmark clones to biology

... in the atmosphere where they developedperiods in which the toxic ammonium accumulated on the early Earth. This mechanism has been retained although a single mutation can make the transporters work independently. So why did this simpler mutation not succeed? The researchers believe that there must still be ...

AGU journal highlights -- Aug. 6, 2009

...fied by closely spaced submerged ridges, or sills, Xing and Davies create an idealized cross-sectional model of a fjord. They examine a version with a single isolated sill as well as one with two sills separated by 1.5 kilometers (0.93 miles), a separation typical in fjords. The model shows that, in the cas...

Moving to the US increases cancer risk for Hispanics

...revention , a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Studies to date have classified all Hispanics under the same umbrella, as a single ethnic group, hiding the differences between each population group. "They are really heterogeneous from cultural and socioeconomic perspectives an...

New DNA and RNA aptamers offer unique therapeutic advantages

... New Rochelle, NY, August 5, 2009A novel class of drugs composed of single strands of DNA or RNA, called aptamers, can bind protein targets with a high strength and specificity and are currently in clinical development as tre...

Beautiful plumage: Feather color and sex start the species revolution

...ognize and select potential mates. A mutation of a single DNA base can lead to a striking colour change, as ...t the genetic basis is not always as clear as this single mutation. Dr Kilner highlighted this intriguing paper because it shows how a single gene can cause colour change in birds, affecting t...

Lead-based consumer paint remains a global public health threat

...d and how it compares to U.S. standards. His team also analyzed the consumer cost of leaded and unleaded paint. Each paint sample was applied in a single layer to a wood block, left to dry and then removed and analyzed in UC laboratories for lead content. Researchers determined that 73 percent of the pa...

Holding breath for several minutes elevates marker for brain damage

... harvest seaweed, shellfish and other growth from the sea bottom, diving dozens of times per day. Some divers routinely dive to depths of 90 feet on a single breath while others dive in the 15-30 foot range. More recently, breath-hold diving has become a competitive sport. Competitive events include how ...

Protecting cells from their neighbors

... Almost all organisms evolve from a single cell, a fertilised egg. In the first hours after fertilisation, the fate of its future development is determined. It is dictated by the separation of ...

Aware, Inc. Reports Second Quarter 2009 Financial Results

... hardware and software products could have quality problems; we depend on a single source contract manufacturer for the manufacture of our DSL hardware products; and we are dependent on single source suppliers for components in our DSL hardware products. Biometric fa...

New hope for fisheries

...need to be applied very carefully to a new area," says coauthor Beth Fulton of the CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship in Australia, since "there are no single silver bullet solutions. Management efforts must be customized to the place and the people." According to the authors' analysis, Alaska and New Ze...
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