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Silencing in Biological News

A new gene silencing platform -- silence is golden

NEW BRUNSWICK, N.J. A team of researchers led by Rutgers' Samuel Gunderson has developed a novel gene silencing platform with very significant improvements over existing RNAi approaches. This may enable the development and discovery of a new class of drugs to treat a wide array of diseases. Criti...

In lung cancer, silencing one crucial gene disrupts normal functioning of genome

PHILADELPHIA While examining patterns of DNA modification in lung cancer, a team of international researchers has discovered what they say is a surprising new mechanism. They say that "silencing" of a single gene in lung cancer led to a general impairment in genome-wide changes in cells, contribu...

Researchers solve piece of large-scale gene silencing mystery

A team led by Craig Pikaard, Ph.D., WUSTL professor of biology in Arts & Sciences, has made a breakthrough in understanding the phenomenon of nucleolar dominance, the silencing of an entire parental set of ribosomal RNA genes in a hybrid plant or animal. Since the machinery involved in nucleo...

Newly identified mechanism for silencing genes points to possible anti-cancer strategies

Genes provide the instructions used by the individual cells to produce the many different proteins that make up the body. Scientists are only beginning to appreciate, however, the extraordinary degree of control exercised over every step of the production process. Only about 10 percent of human ...

miRNA-mediated silencing of mRNAs

Dr. Elisa Izaurrralde and colleagues (EMBL; Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology-Tuebingen) provide new mechanistic insight into gene silencing by miRNAs Their paper will be featured on the cover of the July 15th issue of G&D, and also will be made available online in advance on 7/3...

Pathway toward gene silencing described in plants

Biologists at Washington University in St. Louis have made an important breakthrough in understanding a pathway plant cells take to silence unwanted or extra genes using short bits of RNA. Basically, they have made it possible to see where, and how, the events in the pathway unfold within the cell,...

New mechanism for essential genome-wide gene silencing identified

Most of the time in most cells of the body, the great majority of genes are silenced, locked away within the compacted but orderly material that makes up chromosomes. Estimates are that only about 10 percent of the roughly 25,000 genes in the human genome are activated, or "on," at any given time i...

Gene silencing technique offers new strategy for treating, curing disease

A new technique aimed at directly controlling the expression of genes by turning them on or off at the DNA level could lead to drugs for the treatment or cure of many diseases, say researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center. "Virtually every disease starts at the level of malfunctioning gene e...

Protecting cells from their neighbors

...le mutations in a period marked by considerable activity in the milieu. The silencing is governed by a repression mechanism previously described in earlier work ...the cells that abut germ cells are protected by a mechanism that blocks the silencing signal emitted by the latter. Casanova explains the context of the study, "...

Pushmi-pullyu of B-cell development discovered

...ng in a different direction. "The complexes help control both the unspooling of DNA to make genes accessible and the demethylation of DNA that removes silencing markers." Although DNA in every cell contains the genes necessary to become B cells, two factors help keep them silent. One is the fact that the two...

American Chemical Society's weekly PressPac -- May 27, 2009

...ger liver inflammation, by almost 50 percent. The results suggest that gene silencing may be "an efficient and more specific approach for therapy of liver fibros...is," the report states. ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE "TGF-#1 Gene silencing for Treating Liver Fibrosis" DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE: http://pubs.ac...

MicroRNAs grease the cell's circadian clockwork

...ctivity must therefore be fine-tuned and synchronised with precision to ensure cohesion between diverse metabolic processes. MicroRNAs induce gene silencing Ueli Schibler, from the Molecular Biology Department of the University of Geneva, focuses on the mechanisms controlling the tiny oscillators in live...

New therapeutic strategy could target toxic protein in most patients with Huntington's disease

... By adding an siRNA against one of two other common SNPs, Zamore says gene silencing could be effective in 75 percent of patients with Huntington's disease in t... and his colleagues changed one more nucleotide base on the siRNA. Now, the silencing RNA was different from the healthy mRNA by two nucleotides, making it less ...

Small RNAs can play critical roles in male infertility/contraception

...nactivation and also in sperm formation. "The sex chromosome silencing in meiotic male germ cells is a well-known phenomenon, which has been terme...ir data confirm that these X chromosome-derived microRNAs indeed escape the silencing effects and mange to be expressed. "This finding opens a new...

To fight drug addiction, UB researchers target the brain with nanoparticles

...in the brain that facilitates addictive behaviors. silencing of the DARPP-32 gene with certain kinds of ribonuc...nanotechnology to therapeutic concepts directed at silencing a gene in the brain, using RNA techniques," said S...ments." The nanorods delivered 40 percent of the silencing RNA molecules across the blood-brain barrier model...

200,000 rice mutants available worldwide for scientific investigation

...as sequenced in 2002 and researchers have come a long way since. Advances in technologies such as high-throughput sequencing and RNA interference gene silencing methods should help to accelerate the process of identifying the functions of the remaining genes in the rice genome." He added: "The availability of ...

Malaria immunity trigger found for multiple mosquito species

...-the parasite that causes malaria in humans. By silencing the gene, caspar, the researchers were able to blo...the Rel 2 is activated. The researchers found that silencing of the caspar gene through the manipulation of gen...ment of Plasmodium falciparum in the gut tissue. silencing the gene known as cactus, which is part of another...

200,000 rice mutants available worldwide for scientific investigation

...as sequenced in 2002 and researchers have come a long way since. Advances in technologies such as high-throughput sequencing and RNA interference gene silencing methods should help to accelerate the process of identifying the functions of the remaining genes in the rice genome." He added: "The availability of ...

RNA research strategy for Europe takes shape

...ze in 2006, revolutionised the way scientists think about how genetic information is controlled in cells, and has opened the possibility of using gene silencing as a therapy where rogue genes cause disease. "Research into RNA has great promise for both basic science and biotechnology and medicine," said the...

NYU Langone Medical Center researchers find micro RNA plays a key role in melanoma metastasis

...shed online this week and in the February 10, 2009 print edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ( PNAS ), suggest that miRNA silencing to counteract or attack this mechanism may be an effective therapeutic strategy for metastatic melanoma, according to Eva Hernando, Ph.D., assistant p...

CSHL scientists discover how 'companion' cells to sperm protect them from genetic damage

..., Portugal. "It allows its own transposons to get activated and suffers DNA damage to essentially just enforce epigenetic reprogramming and transposon silencing in the next generation." Other organisms, such as insects and lower living forms such as ciliates, also carry sperm cells adjacent to larger compan...

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features stem cell differentiation, plant RNAi methods

...on of genes in plants. The most effective means of accomplishing this gene silencing is through the use of viral vectors, with the Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV) providing the most robust results. "Virus-Induced Gene silencing as a Tool for Delivery of dsRNA into Plants" outlines a simple procedure fo...

Discovery could lead to a new animal model for hepatitis C

...r establish occludin's role as a required entry factor, the group showed that human liver cells naturally express high levels of occludin, and that by silencing its expression, they could give these once highly susceptible liver cells the ability to completely block infection. "You know, you sort of have to...

JCI online early table of contents: Jan. 19, 2009

...opment, mice lacking the Fak gene in breast tissue were protected in a model of breast cancer caused by excessive activation of Ras and PI3K. Further, silencing the FAK gene arrested the growth of human breast cancer cells with excessive activation of either Ras or PI3K signaling pathways. The authors therefor...

Grape-seed extract kills laboratory leukemia cells, proving value of natural compounds

...e cell cycle. They checked this finding by using an agent that inhibited JNK, and found that the extract was ineffective. Using a genetic approach silencing the JNK gene also disarmed grape seed extract's lethal attack in leukemia cells. "This is a natural compound that appears to have relatively impor...

New research shows how gene function drives natural selection in important class of genetic elements

...assess the pattern of selection on these elementsa pattern that could derive from the effect of the elements on the host genome, or the effect of host silencing mechanisms on the elements," Baucom said. "Our expectation was that if the elements are adapting to the host genome, we should see evidence of positiv...

Stowers Institute's Workman Lab discovers novel histone demethylase protein complex

...earcher and lead author on the paper. "Surprisingly, we found that dKDM4a associates with Heterochromatin Protein 1a (HP1a), a classic transcriptional silencing factor. The binding of HP1a stimulates the histone demethylation activity of dKDM4A. In fruit fly larvae without HP1a, we found a significantly increa...

Plants display 'molecular amnesia'

...rst time the reversal of what is called epigenetic silencing in plants. The findings are important to devel...onal Science Foundation at UC Berkeley, epigenetic silencing was triggered in maize. Once triggered, the maize ...y thought, with the ability to remember epigenetic silencing varying depending on position. "This may rela...

Cell movements totally modular, Stanford study shows

...r simple modules to generate efficient movements." Vitorino also made some curious, though not immediately useful, observations about the impact of silencing genes for individual cells: "Some inactivations made them spiky, some made them long, some made them so they wouldn't stick together, some made them d...

CSHL scientists discover a new way in which epigenetic information is inherited

...terial in developing fruit fly oocytes, or egg cells, also includes piRNAs. And these maternally deposited piRNAs prove to be essential for mounting a silencing response against transposons. Inheritance via small RNAs Hannon likens this protection to that afforded by the adaptive immune system which p...

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Nov. 19, 2008

... confirming that the transplanted cells were functional and effective, the researchers say. MTS ARTICLE #4 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE "Caspase-3 Gene silencing for Inhibiting Apoptosis in Insulinoma Cells and Human Islets" DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE CONTACT: Ram I. Mahato, Ph.D. University of Tenne...

New gene-silencing pathway found in plants

...ere's a lot of interest in harnessing this sort of silencing on purpose to be able to silence the genes that yo...anding the cellular machinery responsible for gene silencing has major implications for gene therapy, where RNA...ed and it's probably the same sort of RNA-directed silencing mechanism." he explains. " If you could prevent th...

Corn researchers discover novel gene shut-off mechanisms

...dopsis thaliana, a small flowering plant of the mustard family that is easy to grow in the lab, have provided a lot of what scientists know about gene silencing in plants. An important key to the process is short sequences of ribonucleic acids known as "small RNAs" which act like biochemical switches that s...

Newly-discovered mechanism can explain the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

...he present study shows for the first time how this silencing of several genes on a chromosome is accomplished. ... give rise to any protein, instead it mediates the silencing of eight to ten genes in a much larger area on the...how a long RNA molecule can establish and maintain silencing of multiple genes in a large domain on the chromos...

Racial disparities in cardiovascular health linked to birth weight, slavery

...er her child will later develop cardiovascular disease as an adult. Nutrients and hormones present in the womb shape a fetus's development, in part by silencing certain genes in the body. These influences can persist into later life to impact adult health. Researchers from Northwestern University argue that su...

RNA molecules, delivery system improve vaccine responses, effectiveness

...fective against the disease," Roy says. The team worked with what are called "silencing RNA," which shut down specific proteins in the body. "By silencing certain proteins in the cells that process your vaccine, we can direct the immune response one way or the other," says Roy, who holds the General Dyna...

Mount Sinai researchers discover technology that silences genes

... Mount Sinai researchers have developed a new gene silencing technology that could be used to target genes that can lead to the development of certain diseases. This technology could pave the way for preventing ...

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols highlights gene silencing, cancer cell biology methods

... COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. Combining the specificity of small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing with the versatility of lentiviral vectors gives researchers a powerful tool for the investigation of gene function both in vivo and in vitro. This m...

Michael J. Fox Foundation Funds $1.1 Million for Cutting-edge Approaches to Parkinson's Disease

... Gene silencing techniques and induced pluripotent stem cell technology are among the cutti...ich, MD, PhD, of Columbia University is working to determine whether a gene silencing technique using microRNAs short, noncoding molecules of RNA can be effect...

Class of antibiotics can enhance gene-silencing tool

...lly introduced RNA hijacks machinery inside the cell called the RNA-induced silencing complex or RISC. To probe how RISC works, Jin and his co-workers inserte...etely silences the inserted gene. That way, if a potential drug tweaked the silencing process, the researchers could see it quickly. They found that enoxacin ...
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