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Silence in Biological News

A new gene silencing platform -- silence is golden

NEW BRUNSWICK, N.J. A team of researchers led by Rutgers' Samuel Gunderson has developed a novel gene silencing platform with very significant improvements over existing RNAi approaches. This may enable the development and discovery of a new class of drugs to treat a wide array of diseases. Criti...

'Insulator' helps silence genes in dormant herpes virus

By adulthood, most people have suffered at least one bout of painful cold sores brought on by the Herpes simplex virus 1, also known as HSV-1. After the initial infection, the virus usually remains in the body, hiding out in nearby nerve cells where the victim's immune defenses cannot reach it, cau...

Non-coding RNAs help silence the mammalian transcription

Dr. Shirley Tilghman and colleagues (Princeton University) lend new insight into the mechanism of genomic imprinting, demonstrating a necessary role for a non-coding RNA transcript in the silencing of an imprinted gene cluster in mice. Imprinting, or the differential expression of a gene based up...

Tool developed to silence genes in specific tissues using RNAi

Researchers at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center say they have jumped a significant hurdle in the use of RNA interference (RNAi), believed by many to be the ultimate tool to both decode the function of individual genes in the human genome and to treat disease. Reporting in the...

New drug may reduce heart attack damage

... a range of potentially damaging coordinated molecular responses kick in," Professor Khachigian explained. "We have been able to develop a drug to silence a disease-triggering gene. The drug improves heart function, regardless of whether it's administered at the time of the heart attack, or at the time o...

International research team seeks to unravel flatworm regeneration

...ons, and particulary to protect it against the uncontrolled propagation of mobile genetic elements, transposons. PiRNAs have been shown to selectively silence transposons in the fly and mouse genomes. Due to their analysis the researchers assume that piRNAs have a similar function in the planarian stem cells...

Female human embryos adjust the balance of X chromosomes before implantation

...romosome, males and females also differ in their numbers of genes and gene expression. To equalise this difference in gene expression, females need to silence one X chromosome in every cell a process known as X chromosome inactivation (or XCI). In mice, XCI occurs before embryo implantation when the X c...

Nanotechnology holds promise for STD drug delivery

...le researchers describe a breakthrough in safe and effective administration of potential antiviral drugs small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules that silence genes the first step in development of a new kind of treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The work is reported May 4 as an advance onl...

New therapeutic strategy could target toxic protein in most patients with Huntington's disease

... parent with Huntington's disease have a 50 percent chance of inheriting the disease themselves. Zamore studies how RNA interference can be used to silence genes selectively. In the 1990s, he and other scientists learned they could shut down the production of specific proteins by introducing double-strand...

To fight drug addiction, UB researchers target the brain with nanoparticles

... describes the development of an innovative way to silence DARPP-32, a brain protein, understood to be a cent...us, could help prevent drug addiction. "When you silence this gene, the physical craving for the drug shoul...ules, take them across the blood-brain barrier and silence the gene," said Indrajit Roy, Ph.D., deputy direct...

Researchers capture wave of brain activity linked to anticipation

...s. The scientists examined brain images during the silence between songs, and found it brimming with activity...umented the brain activity that is underway in the silence between songs, he says. "The brain is all about...the researchers found that during the anticipatory silence between the songs excitatory signals passed from t...

BIDMC scientist John Rinn, Ph.D., receives Damon-Runyon Rachleff Innovation Award

...'code' of how lincRNAs establish normal states, we can understand what goes wrong in cancers. We could then engineer these RNA molecules to target and silence cancer genes, thus restoring the genome back to its proper identity." "John Rinn's work pushes the scientific envelope," adds BIDMC Chairman of Pa...

Large DNA stretches, not single genes, shut off as cells mature

... Other scientists had previously found that histone modifications appear to silence individual genes in the DNA that coils around affected histones. But when F...ular modification in which two methyl groups clip onto histones seemed to silence long stretches of DNA containing many genes at once. The findings will publ...

Growth of new brain cells requires 'epigenetic' switch

...ertain genes." The chemical methyl group, when attached to DNA near genes, can turn those genes off. This so-called epigenetic change is thought to silence genes a cell doesn't use. By dissecting mature neurons from normal mouse brains and looking for the presence of methyl groups at certain genes kno...

'Scrawny' gene keeps stem cells healthy

...specific chromosomal protein, histone H2B, used by cells to package DNA into chromosomes. By controlling the proteins that wrap the genes, scrawny can silence genes that would otherwise cause a generalized cell to differentiate into a specific type of cell, such as a skin or intestinal cell. The research...

Study links molecule to muscle maturation, muscle cancer

...also formed significantly smaller tumors when transplanted into an animal model than did typical rhabdomyosarcoma cells. "High levels of the protein silence miR-29, which blocks differentiation, causing muscle cells to remain immature. If we can restore the levels of miR-29 in patients," Guttridge says, "i...

How chromosomes meet in the dark -- Switch that turns on X chromosome matchmaking

...iring at X Inactivation. University of Warwick physicist Dr Mario Nicodemi, has recently published research on just how one X chromosome is able to silence another as part of the XCI process. However for that stage in the process to happen the X chromosomes have to quickly pair off (colocalization) in a w...

Researchers solve piece of large-scale gene silencing mystery

... to yield important molecular details on how cells silence large clusters of genes," said Anthony Carter, Ph.... to inhibit the two-pronged method cells employ to silence genes -- DNA methylation, which adds chemical flag...eotide sequence. In nature, cells use RNAi to silence "junk DNA," noncoding regions of the DNA, and "sel...

New gene-silencing pathway found in plants

...way in explaining a mechanism by which plant cells silence potentially harmful genes. Differential gene...ng this sort of silencing on purpose to be able to silence the genes that you care about," says Pikaard. Und...cing of the transgene or if you could purposefully silence something that you wanted inactivated, that could ...

UGA study reveals ecosystem-level consequences of frog extinctions

... So far the stream has not rebounded. "It's still sad going back," Connelly said, to which Pringle added: "Once the frogs die, it's like an incredible silence descends over the whole area. It's eerie." To date, scientists have not found a way to stop the spread of the fungus in the wild. Broadly applying ...

Mount Sinai researchers discover technology that silences genes

..., which will be published in the September issue of Nature Cell Biology, are available on the magazine's web site as of today. "By being able to silence certain genes, we may be able to suppress genes that can cause diseases such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, inflammation and diseases of the central and periphe...

W.M. Keck Foundation announces 2008 class of Distinguished Young Scholars in Medical Research

...Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Dr. Novina's research focuses on identifying effectors and regulators of mammalian microRNAs, which silence genes and are often dysregulated in cancer. These studies may accelerate the development of microRNA-based therapeutics. Coleen Murphy, Ph.D., Assi...

Class of antibiotics can enhance gene-silencing tool

... Andrew Fire and Craig Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their discovery that short pieces of RNA, when introduced into cells, can silence a stretch of genetic code. Artificially introduced RNA hijacks machinery inside the cell called the RNA-induced silencing complex or RISC. To probe...

UT pathologists believe they have pinpointed Achilles heel of HIV

...lly important, HIV does not want this constant region to provoke the body's defense system. So, HIV uses the same constant cellular attachment site to silence B lymphocytes - the antibody producing cells. The result is that the body is fooled into making abundant antibodies to the changeable regions of HIV b...

Fertility treatment in developing countries; a cycle of IVF for less than $200

...And that, he adds, has been his experience for the past 20 years. "That's why one of the most important aims of this ESHRE Task Force is to battle the silence that exists on the issue of infertility in most developing countries, even among the media and governments. Education in reproductive health is the me...

Genome communication

...mall, interfering RNAs (siRNA) that function in gene silencing in other contexts. The siRNA could thus act as an intermediary molecule, being sent to silence the homologous allele. A third component is the placement of methyl groups on the control sequence (promoter) of the wild-type gene. Gene methylatio...

Plant biologists discover unexpected proteins affecting small RNAs

...invading pathogens like viruses by generating short RNAs that recognize and silence foreign viral RNA. Observing that plants may silence their own RNAs in this manner was unanticipated. Our study shows that the w...

UMass Medical School's Craig Mello elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences

...n Nature demonstrating that a particular form of ribonucleic acidRNA, the cellular material responsible for the transmission of genetic informationcan silence targeted genes. This process, RNAi offers astounding potential for understanding and manipulating the cellular basis of human disease, and is now the ...

U. Mass Medical School and Carnegie announce licensing agreements with Oxford BioMedica

...is seminal patent covers a process by which ribonucleic acid (RNA), the cellular material responsible for the transmission of genetic information, can silence a targeted gene within a living cell. The process, called RNA interference (RNAi), can shut down disease-causing genes or direct researchers to pathwa...

UMMS and CIW grant key RNAi rights to Oxford Biomedica

...is seminal patent covers a process by which ribonucleic acid (RNA), the cellular material responsible for the transmission of genetic information, can silence a targeted gene within a living cell. The process, called RNA interference (RNAi), can shut down disease-causing genes or direct researchers to pathwa...

Lung cancer cells' survival gene seen as drug target

...wn to be effective against lung cancer target EGFR, he adds. In the PNAS study, the authors used a technique called RNA interference to selectively silence the 14-3-3zeta gene. They found that when 14-3-3zeta is turned off, lung cancer cells become less able to form new tumor colonies in a laboratory test...

DNA methylation shown to promote development of colon tumors

...The specificity of the process could prove a major advantage for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches based on DNA methylation. "The enzymes that silence tumor-suppressing genes would be terrific targets for treatment," says senior author Rudolf Jaenisch. "If we can inactivate them and rescue the cancer...

Researchers identify how to switch off cancer cell genes

...omes into previously vacant positions. DNA cytosine methylation'the addition of a group of specific chemicals to a stretch of DNA that can lock or silence a gene'may ultimately lead to silencing by enabling the stable presence of nucleosomes at the start sites of cancer-related genes, the study suggests....

Researchers expand efforts to explore functional landscape of the human genome

...and enzymes that initiate the transcription of a genes DNA sequence into RNA. Methylation refers to a specific chemical modification of DNA, which can silence or reduce the activity of the affected region of DNA. Michael Snyder, Ph.D.; Yale University, New Haven, Conn., $11.5 million (four years); Prod...

CU-Boulder worm study sheds light on human aging, inherited diseases

...e, or RNAi, technology to reduce gene expression with an eye toward learning more about human disease, Rea said. The technique is an effective way to silence specific pieces of DNA -- the genetic material that makes up the basic building blocks of life -- in living organisms, he said. Rea and his team us...

UD leads $5.3-million research project on rice epigenetics

...ance scientific understanding of the rice epigenome--the series of biochemical modifications of the rice DNA that can toggle a gene on or, conversely, silence it. Ultimately, the research may lead to the development of hardier strains of rice, as well as shed light on similar mechanisms at work in corn and o...

UD leads $5.3-million research project on rice epigenetics

...ance scientific understanding of the rice epigenome--the series of biochemical modifications of the rice DNA that can toggle a gene on or, conversely, silence it. Ultimately, the research may lead to the development of hardier strains of rice, as well as shed light on similar mechanisms at work in corn and o...

Researchers developing device to predict proper light exposure for human health

...ng each participants genes before, during, and after the light therapy may help the researchers determine whether or not light exposure can express or silence genes influenced by the circadian system, an emerging area of interest to the circadian and cancer research communities who have begun to focus on the...

Researchers discover inherited mutation for leukemia

... and a distant female relative developed this form of leukemia. The chemical change is called DNA methylation. Healthy cells use this process to silence unneeded genes. But abnormal DNA methylation can turn off genes that control cell growth, and that lead to tumor growth. "Our findings identify ...

Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome

... a Y chromosome but females have two X chromosomes. This means that in an early stage in the development of a woman’s fertilised egg the cells need to silence one of those two X chromosomes. This process is crucial to survival and problems with the process are related to serious genetic diseases. Both X...
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