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Selection in Biological News

SRI announces selection by the National Cancer Institute as a Chemical Biology Consortium center

Menlo Park, Calif.July 22 , 2009SRI International, an independent nonprofit research and development organization, announced today that SRI's Center for Cancer Research was selected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for a leading role in the newly-formed "Chemical Biology Consortium" (CBC), a...

New research shows how gene function drives natural selection in important class of genetic elements

Athens, Ga. Transposons are the Clark Kents of a genome. Apparently mild-mannered and inconsequential but with sudden bursts of activity, these free-floating bits of genetic material have for millions of years been sneaking into the genetic maps of plants and animals, dramatically increasing a ge...

Ecologists say metabolism accounts for why natural selection favors only some species

RIVERSIDE, Calif. Why are some species of plants and animals favored by natural selection? And why does natural selection not favor other species similarly? According to a UC Riverside-led research team, the answer lies in the rate of metabolism of a species how fast a species consumes energy...

Gender biases in leadership selection during competitions within and between groups

What makes a great leader? Traits that we look for typically include a sense of power, great negotiating skills and lots of charisma. However, a recent study suggests that it is not just an outgoing personality and great communication skills that determine who is chosen as leader of a group. Previ...

Mate selection more biologically determined in some human populations

Some human populations may rely on biological factors in addition to social factors when selecting a mate. In a recent study, published September 12 in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics, scientists in China, France, and the United Kingdom report genomic data showing that immunity traits may...

'Armored' fish study helps strengthen Darwin's natural selection theory

Shedding some genetically induced excess baggage may have helped a tiny fish thrive in freshwater and outsize its marine ancestors, according to a UBC study published today in Science Express . Measuring three to 10 centimetres long, stickleback fish originated in the ocean but began populatin...

Gene's 'selective signature' aids detection of natural selection in microbial evolution

Scientists at MIT have come up with a mathematical approach for analyzing a protein simultaneously in a set of ecologically distinct species to identify occurrences of natural selection in an organisms evolution. The new method determines the selective signature of a gene, that is, the pattern...

Normal-looking sperm may have serious damage; scientists urge more care in selection

This release is available in Spanish . Barcelona, Spain: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected into an egg to fertilise it, is increasingly used to help infertile men father children. Although the sperm chosen for the procedure may appear quite normal, ...

Does natural selection drive the evolution of cancer?

The dynamics of evolution are fully in play within the environment of a tumor, just as they are in forests and meadows, oceans and streams. This is the view of researchers in an emerging cross-disciplinary field that brings the thinking of ecologists and evolutionary biologists to bear on cancer bi...

Embryonic selection of sex avoids conceiving blind children

The Assisted Reproduction Unit at the Quirón Hospital in Donostia-San Sebastián has managed, for the first time in the Basque Country, to successfully carry out an embryonic sex selection in a woman who is a carrier of the disease Retinosis Pigmentaria, linked with the X chromosome ?in order to avo...

Natural selection at single gene demonstrated

Biologists seeking elusive proof of natural selection at the single-gene level have a powerful new tool at their disposal. Chris Toomajian, postdoctoral researcher in molecular and computational biology in the USC College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, led a group that sought to replace the stand...

Cornell finds natural selection in humans

The most detailed analysis to date of how humans differ from one another at the DNA level shows strong evidence that natural selection has shaped the recent evolution of our species, according to researchers from Cornell University, Celera Genomics and Celera Diagnostics. In a study published in...

An entropy-based gene selection method for cancer classification using microarray data

Accurate diagnosis of cancer subtypes remains a challenging problem. Building classifiers based on gene expression data is a promising approach; yet the selection of non-redundant but relevant genes is difficult. The selected gene set should be small enough to allow diagnosis even in regular clinic...

Understanding how weeds are resistant to herbicides

...ent it from evolving, but at least slow the rate at which it happens," said Tranel. "If you use the same herbicide year after year, you're exerting selection pressure -- you're selecting for that rare plant or mutation that will survive. When you do that, and you kill all of the siblings that are weaker, th...

Beautiful plumage: Feather color and sex start the species revolution

...is single mutation. Dr Kilner highlighted this intriguing paper because it shows how a single gene can cause colour change in birds, affecting the selection of potential sexual partners. This leads to reproductive isolation and eventually speciation, but, she says, "in ways that are more complex than previ...

UBC researchers find first-ever 'wanderlust gene' in tiny bony fish

... A gene previously associated with physical traits is also dictating behaviour in a tiny fish widely regarded as a living model of Darwin's natural selection theory, according to a University of British Columbia study. Measuring three to 10 centimetres, stickleback fish originated in the ocean but began ...

Organic food not nutritionally better than conventionally-produced food

...uced foodstuffs, but these are unlikely to be of any public health relevance. Our review indicates that there is currently no evidence to support the selection of organically over conventionally produced foods on the basis of nutritional superiority. Research in this area would benefit from greater scientifi...

Nottinghamshire Police First Law Enforcement Agency to Deploy ForensicSoft in United Kingdom

...orensic software and services, is proud to announce the formal approval and selection of its products by the Nottinghamshire Police, of Nottinghamshire, England....eir cyber crime program," said John DiPippo, ForensicSoft's President. This selection by Nottinghamshire Police marks the first law enforcement agency in England...

Freshwater fish at the top of the food chain evolve more slowly

...ousins. As these fishes became top predators in aquatic ecosystems, natural selection put the breaks on evolution, say researchers. A highly sought-after game...mal size and shape for catching fish roughly 20 million years ago natural selection seems to have kept them in an evolutionary holding pattern, the researchers...

After dinosaurs, mammals rise but their genomes get smaller

...genomes. "Larger population sizes make natural selection more efficient," said IU Bloomington evolutionary ...t and sometimes, perhaps, as the result of natural selection against excess DNA. An LTR is far more likely to s...bility is an increase in the efficiency of natural selection that accompanies population growth. "We think ...

Bioterrorism and disaster preparedness explored in special issue of Medical Decision Making

...deling Disaster Responses in Public Health and Medicine: A Position Paper of the Society for Medical Decision Making" The authors examined a large selection of published mathematical and simulation health sector disaster response models to generate a set of best practice guidelines. They made several recom...

Ants more rational than humans

...n the School of Life Sciences in ASU's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. The authors' insights arose from an examination of the process of nest selection in the ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus. These ant colonies live in small cavities, as small as an acorn, and are skillful in finding new places to roos...

Parasitic worms make sex worthwhile

...ed to the parasites, and are just a few meters away." The Current Biology report also supports the "Geographic Mosaic Theory," which says natural selection need not act uniformly on all members of a species, but can be intense in pockets of a population (hot spots) and absent elsewhere (cold spots). "A...

'Science Under Siege'

...ned about scientific literacy. "[This] collection brings a well-chosen selection of logical and well-reasoned pieces before a general audience that would en...f what to do about global warming, the articles contained in this excellent selection should be widely read." In this outstanding compilation, Frazier aims to...

2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center scientists receive Presidential Early Career Award

...chnology Policy within the Executive Office of the President. Nine federal departments and agencies join together annually to nominate the candidates. selection for the award is based on two criteria: innovative research at the frontiers of sciences and technology that is relevant to the mission of the sponsor...

Research shows that 'invisible hand' guides evolution of cooperative turn-taking

...partners incubate eggs or tend to chicks. "It is far from obvious how turn-taking evolved without language or insight in animals shaped by natural selection to pursue their individual self-interests." The researchers say that playing "tit for tat" copying in each time period whatever the other individu...

Male seahorses like big mates

...and showed ambiguous mating preferences. The authors conclude: "The strong male preferences for large females demonstrated here suggest that sexual selection may act strongly on female body size in wild populations of H. abdominalis, consistent with predictions on the importance of female body size for repr...

Scientists 'rebuild' giant moa using ancient DNA

...arance," Mr Rawlence says. A co-author of the study, Dr Jamie Wood from Landcare Research, says it is likely that the drab colouring was driven by selection to avoid predation by the extinct Haast's eagle, the largest and most powerful eagle in the world. The research team also demonstrated that it is p...

Axel Ullrich named winner of 2009 Dr. Paul Janssen Award for Biomedical Research

...Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and chairman of The Dr. Paul Janssen Award selection Committee. "He is one of few basic scientists whose work not only has i...zation's list of essential medicines." "Johnson & Johnson is pleased the selection Committee chose Dr. Ullrich as the recipient of the 2009 Dr. Paul Janssen A...

Desert rhubarb -- a self-irrigating plant

...desert plants simply suffice with the rain water that penetrates the ground in its immediate surroundings. The findings have shown that the natural selection process has resulted in the evolution of this plant's extremely large leaves, which improved its ability to survive in the arid climate of the desert....

Chromosomal problems affect nearly all human embryos

...ages, or severe male fertility problems. In PGS, a single cell is removed from the early embryo for genetic testing, since it is hypothesised that the selection of chromosomally normal embryos for uterine transfer would increase the live birth rate and decrease the spontaneous abortion rate per embryo transfer...

Ecological Society of America announces 2009 award recipients

...y known for his neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography, Hubbell's wide-ranging research career has investigated tropical biodiversity, sexual selection and resource competition through the lens of theoretical ecology. He has written three books and more than 160 scientific papers, and his work has rec...

Natural-born divers and the molecular traces of evolution

..."This work will contribute to our understanding of protein solubility in general", explains Dr.Berenbrink. "It will also allow the analysis of natural selection on protein structure/function in multiple parallel cases in which a high muscle myogobin content evolved, such as in divers but also in burrowing anim...

What makes a great footballer?

...iguous metrics of a player's skill components should be used to help in the selection and identification of new talent. Our studies could help to streamline selection criteria and efficiency by providing a rank ordering of individuals based u...

T-STAR grant funds genetic studies on shrimp and papaya and endangered cycad rescue

...of species-specific microsatellite genetic markers. Says Dr. Gong, "The long term research objective is to establish a medium-scale, effective genetic selection program of P. vannamei on Guam to support the development and expansion of shrimp aquaculture in the Western Pacific region." George Wall, plant pa...

NYC science symposium marks Gruber Prize program 10th anniversary

...ndividuals whose groundbreaking work in those five fields provides new models that inspire and enable fundamental shifts in knowledge and culture. The selection Advisory Boards choose individuals whose contributions in their respective fields advance our knowledge, potentially have a profound impact on our liv...

Researchers to reveal aging's origins on global stage

...ffer the same molecular dysfunction. The time when the balance shifts in favor of the accumulation of dysfunctional molecules is determined by natural selection and leads to the manifestation of age changes that we recognize are characteristic of an old person or animal. It must occur after both reach reprodu...

Domestication of Capsicum annuum chile pepper provides insights into crop origin and evolution

...nt in wild relatives. To answer these questions, Dr. Kim and his team examined DNA sequence variation and patterns at three nuclear loci in a broad selection of semiwild and domesticated individuals. Dr. Kim et al. found a large amount of diversity in individuals from the Yucatan Peninsula, making this a c...

7th annual [BC]2 Basel Computational Biology Conference 'Molecular Evolution' June 18-19, 2009

...re routinely used to analyze the global data from the World Health Organization influenza surveillance network as part of the influenza vaccine strain selection process. Richard E. Lenski, who will be speaking about the "Dynamics of Phenotypic and Genomic Evolution During a 40,000-Generation Experiment with...

An easy way to find a needle in a haystack by removing the haystack

...earchers succeeded with the help of physical and organic chemistry, based on the BrnstedLowry acid-base theory, and formulated conditions for rational selection of matrices that did not generate interfering ions but provided rich mass spectra of particular kinds of metabolites in real samples. With the new...
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