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Scary ancient spiders revealed in 3-D models, thanks to new imaging technique

Early relatives of spiders that lived around 300 million years ago are revealed in new three-dimensional models, in research published today in the journal Biology Letters . Scientists at Imperial College London have created detailed 3D computer models of two fossilised specimens of ancient c...

Protein that triggers plant cell division revealed by researchers

From the valves in a human heart to the quills on a porcupine to the petals on a summer lily, the living world is as varied as it is vast. For this to be possible, the cells that make up these living things must be just as varied. Parent cells must be able to divide in ways that create daughter ce...

A combined tooth-venom arsenal revealed as key to Komodo dragon's hunting strategy

A combined tooth-venom arsenal revealed as key to Komodo Dragon's hunting strategy. A new study has shown that the effectiveness of the Komodo Dragon bite is a combination of highly specialized serrated teeth and venom. The authors also dismiss the widely accepted theory that prey die from sept...

The fragility of the world's coral is revealed through a study of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

(Santa Barbara, Calif.) A new study by researchers from UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) sheds light on how threats to the world's endangered coral reef ecosystems can be more effectively managed. In a recent issue of the journal Coral Reefs , ...

Properties of unusual virus revealed in research

A team of researchers from Penn State University and the University of Chicago has uncovered clues that may explain how and why a particular virus, called N4, injects an unusual substance -- an RNA polymerase protein -- into an E. coli bacterial cell. The results, which are published in the cur...

UCSB study finds physical strength, fighting ability revealed in human faces

(Santa Barbara, Calif.) For our ancestors, misjudging the physical strength of a would-be opponent might have resulted in painful and potentially deadly defeat. Now, a study conducted by a team of scientists at the University of California, Santa Barbara has found that a mechanism exists wi...

Pollination habits of endangered Texas rice revealed to help preservation

A type of wild rice that only grows in a small stretch of the San Marcos River is likely so rare because it plays the sexual reproduction game poorly, a study led by the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center at The University of Texas at Austin has revealed. The first study of breeding habits of ...

Complexity of Crohn's disease revealed as 'gene' count tops 30

New research has trebled the number of genetic regions known to be implicated in Crohn's disease, a form of inflammatory bowel disease, to over thirty. The research, published today in the journal Nature Genetics , has identified a number of potential new targets for drug development as well as p...

Electronic structure of DNA revealed for 1st time by Hebrew University and collaborating researchers

Jerusalem, February 28, 2008 Utilizing a technique that combines low temperature measurements and theoretical calculations, Hebrew University of Jerusalem scientists and others have revealed for the first time the electronic structure of single DNA molecules. The knowledge of the electronic p...

Structure of protective protein in the eye lens revealed

The human eye lens consists of a highly concentrated mix of several proteins. Protective proteins prevent these proteins from aggregating and clumping. If this protective function fails, the lens blurs and the patient develops cataracts. Two research groups at the Department of Chemistry of the Te...

Details of bacterial 'injection' system revealed

UPTON, NY New details of the composition and structure of a needlelike protein complex on the surface of certain bacteria may help scientists develop new strategies to thwart infection. The research, conducted in part at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be publ...

Source of major health benefits in olive oil revealed

Scientists have pinned down the constituent of olive oil that gives greatest protection from heart attack and stroke. In a study of the major antioxidants in olive oil, Portuguese researchers showed that one, DHPEA-EDA, protects red blood cells from damage more than any other part of olive oil. ...

Evolutionary origin of bacterial chromosomes revealed

Blacksburg, Va. Researchers have unveiled the evolutionary origin of the different chromosomal architectures found in three species of Agrobacterium. A comprehensive comparison of the Agrobacterium sequence information with the genome sequences of other bacteria suggests a general model for how s...

Mountain caribou's ancient ancestry revealed

The declining mountain caribou populations of Canada's southern Rockies are a more distinct breed than scientists previously believed, according to a new study by University of Calgary researchers that is shedding light on the ancient ancestry of the mountain-dwelling herbivores. In a study pub...

Origin of root offshoots revealed

Ghent, Belgium VIB researchers at Ghent University have discovered the substance that governs the formation of root offshoots in plants, and how it works. Root offshoots are vitally important for plants and for farmers. Plants draw the necessary nutrients from the soil through their roots. Becau...

Details of evolutionary transition from fish to land animals revealed

New research has provided the first detailed look at the internal head skeleton of Tiktaalik roseae , the 375-million-year-old fossil animal that represents an important intermediate step in the evolutionary transition from fish to animals that walked on land. Results of the study, published...

Obesity genes revealed

A study of 228 women has revealed genetic variants responsible for body shape. Based on work in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, research published today in the open access journal BMC Genetics identifies natural variation in the human LAMA5 gene as a key determinant of weight. As the p...

Great white's mighty bite revealed

Using sophisticated computer modelling techniques they have also calculated that the bite force of the great white's extinct relative, the gigantic fossil species Carcharodon megalodon (also known as Big Tooth) is the highest of all time, making it arguably the most formidable carnivore ever to ...

Names of inaugural Kavli Prize winners revealed

May 28, 2008 Oslo SEVEN pioneering scientists who have transformed human knowledge in the fields of nanoscience, neuroscience and astrophysics have become the first recipients of the million-dollar Kavli prizes. The laureates were selected for their groundbreaking research that has significan...

Secrets of cooperation between trees and fungi revealed

Gent, Belgium Trees and fungi have constructed a close relationship with the passing of the ages. Fungi like to grow between the roots of trees and the arrangement is beneficial to both partners. Their delicate balance is now being revealed for the very first time. VIB researchers at Ghent Unive...

Mechanism for regulation of growth and differentiation of adult muscle stem cells is revealed

During muscle regeneration, which is a natural response to injury and disease, environmental cues cause adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to shift from dormancy to actively building new muscle tissue. Although the signaling pathways controlling muscle regeneration are fairly well known, h...

Ripening secrets of the vine revealed

Whether you prefer a Cabernet Sauvignon or a Pinot Noir grape variety, two new research articles published in the online open access journal, BMC Genomics, offer a host of new genetic information on fruit ripening for this economically important fruit crop. The grapevine's gene expression anal...

Genetic roots of bipolar disorder revealed by first genome-wide study of illness

The likelihood of developing bipolar disorder depends in part on the combined, small effects of variations in many different genes in the brain, none of which is powerful enough to cause the disease by itself, a new study shows. However, targeting the enzyme produced by one of these genes could l...

Toxoplasmosis infection trick revealed by scientists

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease, primarily carried by cats. It is transmitted to humans by eating undercooked meat or through contact with cat faeces. It is particularly dangerous for pregnant women, whose foetuses can be infected via the placenta, and those with a weakened immune system, such...

New bird, bat species revealed by extensive DNA barcode studies

To Robert C. von Borstel, cancer is a metaphorical example of the perfect invasion by a founder species. Like the first pregnant finch that landed on a deserted island in the Galapagos Archipelago, the first cancer cell in the human body has to undergo many mutations through many generations to est...

Bedsores and bald hides: Novel roles revealed for a 'scaffolding' protein

A protein long thought to provide only mechanical support for keeping cells and tissues from literally falling apart turns out to have much wider utility. In a pair of reports, the protein K17 has been found to also influence wound healing and maintain the structural integrity of hair follicles, ac...

How satellite tracking revealed the migratory mysteries of endangered Atlantic loggerhead turtles

Their journeys are among the longest in the animal kingdom and they have largely remained a mystery until now. An international team of scientists led by the University of Exeter have uncovered the migratory secrets of endangered loggerhead turtles in West Africa and the results could have huge imp...

Mechanism for memory revealed in neurons of electric fish

Researchers from The University of Texas at Austin studying electric fish have gained new insight into how memory is stored at the level of neurons. Their finding, published in the Feb. 16 issue of Neuron, could help researchers better understand memory formation and neural disorders like epilep...

Image of myosin-actin interaction revealed in cover story of Molecular Cell

Scientists from the Burnham Institute for Medical Research and the University of Vermont have captured the first 3-dimensional (3D) atomic-resolution images of the motor protein myosin V as it "walks" along other proteins, revealing new structural insights that advance the current model of protein ...

Shorter colds, milder flu may follow from newly revealed immune mechanism

Enlisted to help fight viral infections, immune cells called macrophages consume virus-infected cells to stop the spread of the disease in the body. Now researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have uncovered how macrophages keep from succumbing to the infection themselv...

Iron exporter revealed that may explain common human disorder

The first direct evidence that a single protein is critical in the cellular export of iron may help to explain human hemochromatosis, researchers report in the March issue of Cell Metabolism. Hemochromatosis--which affects one in every 200 to 300 people in Western populations --causes tissues of ...

EMBO pioneers pension plan for internationally mobile postdoctoral researchers

...nt delaying planning for financial security later in life until they take up permanent positions. A survey conducted by the EMBO Fellowship office revealed that less than ten per cent of fellows contributed to a pension scheme, while nearly all of them were insured against health risks and accidents. The ...

Carbon nanoparticles toxic to adult fruit flies but benign to young

...fferent fate. Tests showed adults immersed in tiny pits containing two varieties of carbon nanoparticles died within hours. Analyses of the dead flies revealed the carbon nanoparticles stuck to their bodies, covered their breathing holes, and coated their compound eyes. Scientists are unsure whether any of th...

Abnormal brain circuits may prevent movement disorder

...um to the motor cortex that together determine whether a mutation carrier will display clinical manifestations of the disease. Their earlier work revealed that patients and non-patients with the disease gene have the same underlying functional brain abnormality, such as overactivity of motor circuits tha...

Climate change poker: The barriers which are preventing a global agreement

...ate change in one of the most complicated political deals the world has ever seen, the increasingly complex territory of climate negotiations is being revealed in an article published today, 5 August, 2009, in IOP Publishing's Environmental Research Letters . The paper 'Tripping Points: Barriers and Barg...

Stem cell 'daughters' lead to breast cancer

...e from women with BRCA1 mutations has unexpectedly high numbers of luminal progenitor cells," she said. "Further, our gene expression studies have revealed that BRCA1 breast tissue and basal breast tumors are more similar to normal luminal progenitor cells than any other cell type in the breast. This plac...

New hope for fisheries

...ve on rebuilding marine resources. "Fisheries managers currently presiding over depleted fish stocks need to become fast followers of the successes revealed in this paper," says Pamela Mace, a co-author from the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries. "We need to move much more rapidly towards rebuilding indivi...

Stem cell research: From molecular physiology to therapeutic applications

...stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. On the other hand, recent post mortem analysis of patients who received fetal brain cell transplantation revealed that implanted cells are prone to degeneration just like endogenous neurons. Thus it appears that future cell replacement studies will have to focus o...

Nanodiamonds deliver insulin for wound healing

...nsulin was very tightly bound to the nanodiamonds when in an aqueous solution near the normal physiological pH level. Measurements of insulin function revealed that the protein was virtually inactive when bound to the nanodiamonds -- a beneficial property for preventing excess or unnecessary drug release. ...

New windows opened on cell-to-cell interactions

...es placed on a silicon wafer that acts like a mirror, allowing precise optical measurements of the orientation of the molecule. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of rigid, rod-like brushy glycoprotein (sugar-containing compounds) -- 30 billionths of a meter long -- similar to natural cell-surface p...
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