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Retrovirus in Biological News

Nanotubes could help study retrovirus transmission between human cells

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. Recent findings by medical researchers indicate that naturally occurring nanotubes may serve as tunnels that protect retroviruses and bacteria in transit from diseased to healthy cells a fact that may explain why vaccines fare poorly against some invaders. To better study ...

Ancient retrovirus sheds light on modern pandemic

Human resistance to a retrovirus that infected chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates 4 million years ago ironically may be at least partially responsible for the susceptibility of humans to HIV infection today. These findings, reported by a team of researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Researc...

New human retrovirus originated in mice

Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers and their colleagues have discovered a new retrovirus in humans that is closely related to a cancer-causing virus found in mice. Their findings describe the first documented cases of human infection with a retrovirus that is native to rodents. The resea...

Two Hutchinson Center researchers named HHMI Early Career Scientists

...that are critical for proper cell division. For example, to explore why humans are susceptible to HIV, Malik and his colleagues resurrected an extinct retrovirus that infected chimps and gorillas, but not humans, 4 million years ago. Malik's research suggests that we may be vulnerable to HIV infection because o...

Evolutionary biologist will study HIV with grant from AIDS research foundation

...ltrates cells, the virus hijacks its host's genetic machinery to produce proteins and ultimately replicate itself. It has been recently found that the retrovirus hijacks about 1,000 human genes. "The big challenge now is to find which of these 1,000 genes and the proteins they encode are critical for HIV inf...

Gene therapy demonstrates benefit in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

... females under the age of 75 with a diagnosis of advanced rheumatoid arthritis. After tissue was removed from the subjects' knuckle joints, a harmless retrovirus was inserted into the tissue cells, in order to serve as a "vector" to transport the gene into the patients' joints. After being placed in culture to ...

Body's anti-HIV drug explained

...directions for drug development. APOBEC-3G is present in every human cell. It is capable of stopping HIV at the first step of replication, when the retrovirus transcribes its RNA into viral DNA. The study's authors, led by Xiaojiang Chen of the University of Southern California, were able to show the atom...

Yamanaka eliminates viral vector in stem cell reprogramming

..."But, as Shinya has shown, each step forward reveals a new set of challenges." Dr. Yamanka's team began this series of experiments by replacing the retrovirus with an adenoviral vector. While transfections with the genes on separate vectors didn't work, they did work when the genes were arranged in a specifi...

UT pathologists believe they have pinpointed Achilles heel of HIV

...ucing the abzymes after decades of the infection. The immune system in some people can cope with HIV after all." Carl Hanson, Ph.D., who heads the retrovirus Diagnostic Section of the Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory of the California Department of Public Health, has shown that the abzymes neutraliz...

UC Davis stem researchers demonstrate safety of gene therapy using adult stem cells

... and can give rise to bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. Genes were inserted into the hematopoietic stem cells using one of two viral vectors either a retrovirus or a lentivirus before they were transplanted into the mice, along with genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells. Of the mice used in the long-...

Ireland Cancer Center researchers advance stem cell gene therapy

...e. In the Phase I trial for patients with advanced malignancies, researchers collected peripheral blood stem cells from patients and exposed them to a retrovirus containing the G156A-MGMT gene. In addition to this promising research, Ireland Cancer Center scientists presented 24 oral and poster presentation...

New class of drug offers hope to treatment-resistant AIDS patients

... medicines, a discovery by a University of Georgia researcher may offer a new treatment option by targeting a previously elusive enzyme in the complex retrovirus responsible for the devastating disease. Approximately 40 million people worldwide have the infectious viral disease known as HIV-AIDS. Although t...

Can engineered immune cells stop AIDS?

...to insert DNA that will counteract the infection. The "Cadillac" of this gene delivery system is an HIV-based "lentiviral vector," a type of retrovirus that uses the backbone of a virus to infect both dividing and nondividing cells. Wang says lentiviral vectors are very efficient delivery vehicles for...

Researchers discover that sheep need retroviruses for reproduction

...ndogenous retroviruses related to Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus or enJSRVs, are critical during the early phase of...tion. For instance, the exogenous Jaagsiekte Sheep retrovirus or JSRV causes lung tumors in sheep and led to the...ls have shown that a protein of a human endogenous retrovirus might have a role in development of the human plac...

Scientists resuscitate a 5 million-year-old retrovirus

...nstructed the DNA sequence of a 5-million-year-old retrovirus and shown that it is able to produce infectious pa...tudy, which is the first to generate an infectious retrovirus from a mobile element in the human genome, is considered a breakthrough for the field of retrovirus research. The findings are reported in Genome Re...

Scientists discover new regulating mechanism in cells

...n RHA is knocked out, the spleen necrosis virus, a retrovirus Boris-Lawrie and her collaborators were studying a...s knocked out the RHA protein and learned that the retrovirus stopped making several vital proteins. "That suggests that the retrovirus needs RHA to make these essential proteins," says ...

'Virus chip' detects new virus in prostate tumors

...ere encephalitis, and hepatitis and leukemia. Because the virus was probably originally acquired from another species, it is known as a xenotropic retrovirus ?in this case, a xenotropic murine-like retrovirus, or XMRV. This is not the first virus of this family to be discovered, but it appears to be the fir...

Diabetes researchers pioneer islet cell xenotransplantation in primate studies

...egimen, and achieved sustained insulin independence (median survival >140 days with one animal now at 300 days) without evidence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) dissemination. "This represents a major step forward and proves neonatal porcine islets can correct diabetes long-term in primates," said Drs. ...

Performing monkeys in Asia carry viruses that could jump species to humans

...alf of the macaques tested positive for simian foamy virus (SFV), a primate retrovirus that so far has not been shown to cause disease in humans, but that has bee...interaction settings in Asia. Two of the monkeys tested positive for simian retrovirus (SRV), which, though it has been shown to infect humans in a laboratory set...

Results of world's first gene therapy trial for arthritis show approach safe, feasible

...key concern, the authors report no clinical side effects up to five years after the procedure and no evidence that the vector, a replication-defective retrovirus called Maloney Murine Leukemia Virus, has since become capable of replication in their patients. "At the outset, our primary objective was proving ...

Primate virus jumps species barrier to humans for first time in Asia

... Scientists have identified the first reported case in Asia of primate-to-human transmission of simian foamy virus (SFV), a retrovirus found in macaques and other primates that so far has not been shown to cause disease in humans. The transmission of the virus from a monkey to a human...

Chimp genome reveals a retroviral invasion

...ay spread, but viral DNA will die with the host. A retrovirus is called endogenous when it invades the germline ... of a subset of apes and monkeys revealed that the retrovirus had integrated into the germline of African great ...rilla and chimp than macaque and baboon. When a retrovirus reproduces, identical copies of LTR sequences are ...

Retrovirus struck ancestors of chimpanzees and gorillas millions of years ago, but did not affect ancestral humans

... The ancestors of chimpanzees and gorillas were infected with a deadly retrovirus about three to four million years ago, but there is no evidence it infected...nome. Evidence suggests that the 'retroelement' originated from an external retrovirus that actively infected ape species in the past. "The reason retroviruses...

Science study holds implications for gene therapy and stem cell biology

...ious study by Dr. Baum and team revealed that the insertion of several such retrovirus vectors into a single blood-forming stem cell can lead to leukemia in mice,...hers found to be marked and activated by the random insertion of a disabled retrovirus appear to have exactly this property: They can increase the multiplication ...

Study reveals candidate targets for anti-retroviral therapeutics

... half of the genes identified in this study have at least one clear relative or homolog in the human genome, thus providing a rich source of candidate retrovirus host genes. Sandmeyer and colleagues hope that this study, along with related studies of retrovirus-like elements in yeast, will ultimately lead to th...

Novel Enzyme Shows Potential As An Anti-HIV Target

... At just 9.8 kilobases, the HIV genome pales in comparison to the 3.2 gigabases of its human and nonhuman primate targets. The compact retrovirus encodes just 14 proteins, which play different roles in promoting viral infection and virulence. As a retrovirus, HIV uses the host’s cellular machine...
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