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Pitt team finds molecule that regulates heart size by using zebrafish screening model

PITTSBURGH, July 5 Using zebrafish, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have identified and described an enzyme inhibitor that allows them to increase the number of cardiac progenitor cells and therefore influence the size of the developing heart. The findings are described in the advance...

Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells

Scientists have identified a protein in the brain that plays a key role in the function of mitochondria the part of the cell that supplies energy, supports cellular activity, and potentially wards off threats from disease. The discovery, which was reported today in the Journal of Cell Biology ,...

Heart protein regulates blood vessel maintenance

BOSTON (May 11, 2009) In a study led by Akiko Hata, PhD, of Tufts University School of Medicine, researchers have shown that a protein expressed in the heart, FHL2, inhibits the genes necessary for the quiescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs), which line blood vessels. Vascular smooth ...

System that regulates blood pressure is amiss in some healthy, young blacks

AUGUSTA, Ga. When stress increases blood pressure, a natural mechanism designed to bring it down by excreting more salt in the urine doesn't work well in about one-third of healthy, black adolescents, researchers report. They hope the finding, which is being presented May 8 at the American Soc...

DREAM: 1 gene regulates pain, learning and memory

This release is available in German . In 2002, a group of scientists at the University of Toronto was able to identify a gene which they dubbed DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator). The gene's function was highly interesting: it obviously served as a key regulator ...

Protein that regulates hormones critical to women's health found in pituitary

MADISON University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers have solved the mystery surrounding a "rogue protein" that plays a role in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones in the brain. The scientists found abundant amounts of the puzzling protein whose main location and function were unkno...

Montana State University researchers find gene that regulates mold's resistance to drugs

BOZEMAN, Mont. -- Montana State University scientists concerned about lethal mold infections have found a gene that regulates the mold's resistance to drugs. The gene, called srbA, allows molds to thrive during infections even when inflammation reduces its oxygen supply, said Robert Cramer, se...

Atomic-resolution views suggest function of enzyme that regulates light-detecting signals in eye

An atomic-resolution view of an enzyme found only in the eye has given researchers at the University of Washington (UW) clues about how this enzyme, essential to vision, is activated. The enzyme, phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), is central to the way light entering the retina is converted into a cascad...

New master switch found in the brain that regulates appetite and reproduction

LA JOLLA, CA Body weight and fertility have long known to be related to each other women who are too thin, for example, can have trouble becoming pregnant. Now, a master switch has been found in the brain of mice that controls both, and researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies sa...

Discovery of a mechanism that regulates cell movement

A study performed by researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), in collaboration with researchers at the Instituto de Biologa Molecular of the CSIC, reveal a mechanism that controls the movement of cells in a tissue by regulating cell adhesion. This same mechanism ma...

Researchers discover a gene that regulates and blocks ovulation

Montreal, July 17, 2008 A group of Canadian and European researchers have unlocked the mystery of a gene with the potential to both regulate and block ovulation. The new study a collaboration between the Universit de Montral in Canada and the Institut de gnetique et biologie molculaire et cellul...

Nitric oxide regulates plants as well as people

Nitric oxide has emerged as an important signaling molecule in plants - as in mammals including people. In studies of a tropical medicinal herb as a model plant, researchers have found that nitric oxide targets a number of proteins and enzymes in plants. In collaborative work with the research ...

Scientists uncover a novel mechanism that regulates carbon dioxide fixation in plants

A team of Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) funded scientists at the University of Essex has discovered a new mechanism that slows the process of carbon dioxide fixation in plants. The research, published today (4 March 2008) in the Proceedings of the National Acad...

Researchers first to map gene that regulates adult stem cell growth

A new discovery in stem cell research may mean big things for cancer patients in the future. Gary Van Zant, Ph.D., and a research team at the University of Kentucky published their findings today in Nature Genetics, an international scientific journal. The researchers genetically mapped a stem c...

Fruit fly study identifies gene mutation that regulates sensitivity to alcohol

Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) have discovered a gene mutation in fruit flies that alters sensitivity to alcohol. The findings, reported in the October 6 issue of the journal Cell, may have implications for human studies seeking to understand innate differences in...

Novel pathway regulates timing of brain cell development

Brain formation involves the carefully timed production of different types of nerve cells by neural stem cells: neurons are produced first, then astrocytes. Making too much of one kind of cell and too little of another at a given time could lead to brain malformations. In the October 6 issue of Cel...

Newly identified biomarker detects and regulates spread of brain tumors

Researchers at Emory University's Winship Cancer Institute have identified a novel biomarker for brain tumors and have uncovered a potential role the marker may play when the tumor spreads or comes back after treatment. The study, ÒAttractin is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with ...

Bacterial 'switch gene' regulates how oceans emit sulfur into atmosphere

Scientists have discovered a bacterial "switch gene" in two groups of microscopic plankton common in the oceans. The gene helps determine whether certain marine plankton convert a sulfur compound to one that rises into the atmosphere, where it can affect the earth's temperature, or remain in the se...

Research identifies protein in mice that regulates bone formation

Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density and which makes people more susceptible to bone fractures and deformities, afflicts some 10 million Americans over the age of 50. Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have discovered that eliminating a...

MicroRNA gene that regulates lifespan found by Yale scientists

Genes that control the timing of organ formation during development also control timing of aging and death, and provide evidence of a biological timing mechanism for aging, Yale researchers report in the journal Science. "Although there is a large variation in lifespan from species to species, t...

Temperature regulates circadian clock in zebrafish

The biological clock controls the circadian rhythms of a wide range of physiological and behavioral processes, from fluctuating hormone levels to sleep-wake cycles and feeding patterns. While it's well known that circadian clock elements sense and respond to light cycles, much less is known about h...

Scientists identify molecule that regulates well-known tumor suppressor

Scientists have discovered that a molecule called DJ-1 is likely to be involved in the generation of human tumors through negative regulation of the well-known tumor suppressor, PTEN. The research, published in the March issue of Cancer Cell, has important implications for determining the prognosis...

Multi-purpose protein regulates new protein synthesis and immune cell development

A signaling protein called IRE1, which helps stressed-out cells make new proteins, may be more versatile and important than scientists believed. A new study by researchers from the University of Michigan Medical School and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute reveals the surprising finding that this...

Protein Packages Found To Activate Genes; May Be What Regulates Development And Disease

It's all in the packaging. How nature wraps and tags genes determines if and when they become active, according to researchers from Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.). They did the largest, most detailed study to date of the protein structure that surrounds the human gen...

Yale Scientists Find MicroRNA Regulates Ras Cancer Gene

Research in the laboratory of Assistant Professor Frank J. Slack at Yale University has identified a new way that a familiar gene is regulated in lung cancer, presenting new possibilities for diagnosis and treatment. The work is reported in March issues of the journals Cell and Developmental Cell. ...

FDA sees nanotech challenges in every product category it regulates

WASHINGTON, DC—According to Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies Director David Rejeski, “Today, FDA took a step forward in fulfilling its responsibilities for nanotechnology oversight. If nanotechnology regulation was a baseball game, FDA has scored the first run in the first inning. But the agen...

Carnegie donates landmark clones to biology

...ork, the scientists looked at the end of the protein Arabidopsis ammonium transporter (AMT1;1). This protein portion is called the C-terminus and it regulates the interactions of the pore-like structures at the membrane surface in plants. In this study they focused on the underlying mechanism of the pore act...

UC San Diego engineer provides insights to decades-old DNA squabble

...ormal gene regulation, we have to ask the question why are these genes misfiring? In the end, it boils down to the protein machinery that makes up and regulates chromatin," he explained. "You could have mutations in the oncogenic or tumor suppressor genes that lead to cancer or you could have abnormalities in ...

Fox Chase researchers uncover one force behind the MYC oncogene in many cancers

...le in adult cells. One of the targets of DLX5 is the MYC gene itself, causing the cells to produce many copies of the MYC oncoprotein. Normally MYC regulates many functions within the cell, including cell division. With an overabundance of MYC, the cell may reproduce out of control, accumulating in each gen...

A genetic basis for schizophrenia

...opment. They also are similar to neurons in their high mobility, response to signals and cellular origin. The Morris laboratory determined that Disc1 regulates two stem cell maintenance factors that have many functions in CNC cells, including the maintenance of precursor pools, timing of migration onset and t...

Hormone clue to root growth

...e as the root grows in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Now a paper appearing in Current Biology describes for first time how this hormone also regulates the number of cells in the root in order to control root growth. Gibberellin normally acts by signaling the removal of proteins which repress growt...

Finding the constant in bacterial communication

... in the density of the bacteria in a given environment," said Anand Pai, graduate student in bioengineering at Duke's Pratt School of Engineering. "It regulates a wide variety of biological functions such as bioluminescence, virulence, nutrient foraging and cellular suicide." The researchers found that the ...

Discovery of the cell's water gate may lead to new cancer drugs

...out from the cell may play a crucial role in several types of cancer. Scientists at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, have now found the gate that regulates the flow of water into yeast cells. The discovery, which will be published in the journal PLoS Biology , raises hopes of developing a drug that inhib...

Trans fats hinder multiple steps in blood flow regulation pathways

...tial fatty acid linoleic acid into arachidonic acid, which is needed for the production of prostacyclin (a blood-flow enhancer) and thromboxane (which regulates the formation of blood clots needed for wound healing). While some in the food oil industry believed this problem could be overcome simply by adding m...

New piece found in the puzzle of epigenetics

...lled integrator complex which is necessary for snRNA formation. In other words, the modification of the enzyme RNA polymerase II at defined positions regulates whether this enzyme can produce certain kinds of RNA molecules or not. In their latest research, the scientists led by Dirk Eick showed that the enz...

Gene evolution process discovered

...llowing the instructions encoded in genes. It also reveals that while REST regulates a core set of genes in all vertebrates, it has also evolved to work with a ...man genome to look at REST in such detail and compare the specific genes it regulates in different species. We've found that it works by binding to specific gen...

The downside of microtubule stability

...e step, not for transportation. Dynamin 2 also clings to microtubules of the mitotic spindle, and the team next wants to determine whether the protein regulates microtuble dynamics during the cell cycle. ...

Simple drug treatment may prevent nicotine-induced SIDS: Study

...e to respond to oxygen deprivation, therefore reversing the lethality of hypoxia. "Our initial goal was really to understand how the nervous system regulates oxygen sensitivity of cells in the adrenal gland at a basic research level," says Colin Nurse, academic advisor on the study and a professor in the de...

Enzyme involved in inflammatory bowel disease discovered at Penn State College of Medicine

...of IBD and in humans with active IBD. Bond explained, "The defect in the human meprin gene most associated with ulcerative colitis is in a region that regulates production of the meprin protein." The researchers concluded that a particular defect in the MEP1A gene is an indicator of vulnerability to IBD, p...

Stem cell protein offers a new cancer target

...e student Srinivas Viswanathan, in collaboration with Richard Gregory, PhD, also of the Stem Cell Program at Children's, showed that the protein LIN28 regulates an important group of tumor-suppressing microRNAs known as let-7. Increasing LIN28 production in a cell prevented let-7 from maturing, making the cell...
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